Tag Archives: Method

Teaching English as a Foreign Language: The Case of Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper aims to describe English language teaching as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia. It highlights the nature of the curriculum, teaching procedures and materials. The paper critically reviews the teaching methods, qualifications in addition to concepts related to culture and society.

Keywords: English, Learning, Method, Saudi Arabia, Teaching

Second Language Learning and Teaching: Literature Review (Published)

English nowadays is becoming a second language in many countries over the world. This paper tries to provide a description of the concept English language teaching and learning. The paper reviews different methodologies of teaching English in the education system.   

Keywords: English, Learning, Method, Teaching

Comparism of Cut-Off Scores Using Two Setting Methods (Published)

The objective of the study is to identify if there is significant difference between using the Angoff method and the norm-referenced methodin the setting of cut off scores in school setting.  The study made use of 80 (JSS 3) Basic 9 students from Nembe Local Government Area of Bayelsa state. The sample was drawn through simple random sampling method. The design of the study was comparative analysis. A forty-item multiple choice objective test on mathematics which were tested for goodness of fit using the Big step software was used. The internal consistency which was determined by Cronbach alpha was 0.64 while two research questions directed the conduct of the work. Percentages, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to analyses the data collected. The comparative analysis made between the setting of cut off score using the Angoff and norm- referenced method has significant difference. Recommendations are made to supplementing the Angoff method with additional data from alternative methods to improve the appropriateness when setting performance standards in school settings. The Angoff method should be use as it is considered to be defensible, easy to apply, easy to explain to the policy makers who may ultimately set the passing score and it has been found to be extremely replicable across panels.

Keywords: Comparism, Method, Scores, Settings


This paper investigated the structure of indices of control systems for single – delay autonomous linear systems on the interval [0, 4h] and on [0, ∞) for special coefficient matrix cases, as well as provided a note on Euclidean controllability and application instances of the determination of their controllability dispositions.

The development of the associated control index matrices exploited the continuity of these matrices for positive time periods, change of variables technique, the method of steps and backward continuation recursions to obtain these matrices on successive intervals of length equal to the delay h.

The indices were derived using the stage – wise algorithmic format, starting from the right – most interval of length h. The structure could be gleaned and deciphered from the emerged sign convention and recognizable exponential integral ordering.


Keywords: Controllability, Index, Matrices, Method, Recursive, Steps.