Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plants and the Biological Effects of Selected Plants on Staphylococcus Aureus (Published)
Several natural products especially secondary metabolites have formed the basis of medicines, although it’s been often difficult to justify the presence of these compounds in the biochemistry of plant; this as posited by Cragg et al., in their presentation on Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs, Ciba Foundation Symposium draws a challenge to scientists. It has been suggested that these compounds may have been synthesized by the plants as part of the defense system of the plant; a good example is that plants are known to produce phytoalexins as a response to attack by bacteria and fungi. Cragg and Newmann in Biodiversity: A continuing source or novel drug leads, support this though stating that the compound produced provides an invaluable resource that has been used to find new drug molecules This paper is set to identify the antimicrobial activity of these medicinal plants and their biological effects. The sampled out plant extracts include Thymus vulgaris, Berberis vulgaris and Calluna vulgaris with which inhibition or activation by different chemical catalysts is performed to establish their effects in the tested natural extracts. Experimental design is used where the reagents are determined and chemical reactions performed in the procedures as outlined in the methodology section. The results of the microbial activity based on the level of concentration is then recorded for every crude extracts and the effects of each with different antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. This study reflects that berberine showed excellent synergistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus at relatively low concentration and thus can be used against staphylococcus infections
HEMATOLOGICAL GROWTH AND BLOOD METABOLITE RESPONSES IN THE MONOCULTURE OF JUVENILE CLARIAS GARIEPINUS TO INCREASING STOCKING DENSITY (Published)
A ten (10) week feeding trial was undertaken to assess the growth performance, nutrient utilization and blood metabolites of eight week old Juvenile Clarias griepinus of average weight range 250gm — 300gm stocked under 5 different treatments (10 (Trt I), 15 (Trt 2), 20 (Trt 3), 25 (Trt 4) and 30 (Trt 5) Juvenile Clarias gariepinus/25O litre bowl (under laboratory conditions) with increasing stocking densities. The increasing stocking density caused a decrease in value of the final fish body crude protein (Trt 1 (75.18%) > Iii 2 (73.91%) > Trt 3 (72.71%) > Trt 4 (71.21%) > Trt 5 (70.19%). A similar trend was followed in the specific growth rate (SGR) pattern decreasing from 0.20 (Trt 1) to 0.015 (Trt 5), mean weight gain (MWG) from 6.94 (Trt I) to 3.03 (Tn 5), protein efficiency ration (PER) from 0.29 (Trt I) to 0.04 (Trt 5), productive protein value (PPV) from 0.24 (Trt I) to 0.04 (Tit 5) and Net protein utilization (NPU) from 32.25 (Trt 1) to 19.28 (Trt 5). However the food conversion ratio (FCR) kept increasing from treatment (Trt 1)—88.46 to 662.31 in (Trt 5) with increasing stocking density. FCR correlation coefficient is positive (r 1.2964). Other growth and nutrient utilization parameters had negative correlations respectively. The following haematological and blood parameters (MCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCHC, MCH, and Total WBC) also showed significant (P <0.05) pattern of variations with stocking density. For parked cell volume (PCV) significant (P <0.05) drop were noticed from Trt 3 (26.98) to Trt 5 (2.00). Haemoglobin count (Hb) dropped from 6.97 in Trt 4 to 6.18 in Trt 5., confirming reduced activity, stressful conditions noticed at higher stocking densities along poor growth noticed in juvenile fishes in Treatment 5. The gradual and steady significant (P < 0.05) increase in WBC count of 29.26 in Itt 1 (10- fish) to 37.23 in Trt. 5 (30 fish) with increasing stocking density is also a reaction of the fish to stress. However, the Red Blood Cell Count followed a narrow range between Trt 1 2.53 — Trt 5 — 2.99, with no significance (P> 0.05) difference. All diets fed the 5 treatments were isonitrogenous at 40% crude protein.