Some morphometric traits of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) in Umm Hufayn brackish lagoon, eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea coast (Published)
Eighty Liza aurata fish were collected from the artisanal catch of Umm Hufayn lagoon, eastern Libya, during January/ February 2018 for use in the present study. Values of key morphological parameters (descriptive, morphometric, and meristic) of the fish were established, correlated with each other, and related to fish length (as an indicator of growth and age) by power and linear regressions. The mean length of the fish was 21.331cm corresponding to weight of 89.011g. The established meristic form was: D1, IV; D2, I+ 6-9 (8); A, III, 7-12 (9); P, 12-18 (15); V, I + 4-7 (5); LL, 34-54 (42), numbers between parentheses are modes of counts. Power and linear length-weight relationship were Y=0.006X3.111, R2=0.891and Y=15.89X-250.1, R2=0.824, fish growth is almost isometric; Fulton and Clark condition factors were 0.8498± 0.01486 and 0.6651± 0.01145. These factors did not correlate significantly with fish length, i.e. they did not change significantly during fish growth.
Irregular Migration by Sea: Contemporary Incidents in the Mare Nostrum – The Transition from State-Based Action to Humanitarian-Drive Regional Controls (Published)
Irregular sea migration has proven to be a popular means of escaping violence and armed conflict. Events after the Arab Spring in 2011 caused a lot of irregular sea migration over the Mediterranean to Europe. This created serious problems and concerns. The purpose of this research is to examine the rights of irregular sea migration in international law, constraints of states in accepting these irregular migrations and propose a solution to the problem. The paper identifies that the right to life is a fundamental legal provision that irregular sea migrants have. Therefore, it is imperative for all state and non-state actors to honor this. This can best be done by viewing the sea in a regional rather than national context. This way, states can unite and share the challenges of dealing with common issues within a regional context.