Antibacterial Effect of Gongronema Latifolium Leaf Extracts On Selected Gram Positive and Negative Clinical Bacterial Isolates (Published)
This work was aimed at assaying the in-vitro effect of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Gongronema latifolium on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Six (6) milimetre sterile discs were impregnated with the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at different concentrations ranging from 6.25mg/mL to 100mg/mL. The test organisms were spread evenly on Mueller Hinton agar plate and the discs were aseptically placed on them. The sensitivity plates were incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. All the test organisms showed sensitivity to both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Gongronema latifolium. The zones of inhibition were concentration dependent, ranging from 2.0mm to 10.8mm for aqueous extract and 2.0mm to 8.3mm for the ethanolic extract. Comparison of the zones of inhibition produced by the two extracts showed that there is no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae had Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.25mg/mL, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa had MIC of 25mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The MIC was 3.125mg/mL, 6.25mg/mL, 6.25mg/mL and 25mg/mL for S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, respectively for the ethanolic extract. Gongronema latifolium extracts were also bactericidal in action. S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa all had Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 6.25mg/mL, while K. pneumoniae had MBC of 25mg/mL for the aqueous extract, while for the ethanolic extract, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa had MBC of 12.5mg/mL, 12.5mg/mL, 6.25mg/mL and 3.125mg/mL respectively. The data obtained from the study indicated that both the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Gongronema latifolium possess antibacterial properties. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industries should consider its usage for the production of novel antibiotics.
In tropical Africa, leafy vegetables traditionally cooked and eaten as a relish together with starchy staple foods have undocumented long tradition in different culture. To identify and transfer this valuable heritage to the new generation, an ethnobotanical study was carried out to investigate and document the consumption and utilization level of indigenous leafy vegetables in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Information on the availability and the consumption of the leafy vegetables obtained from respondents from across the 16 Local Government Areas of the state through semi-structured questionnaire were documented. Assessment of the Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that women (56.25%) were more than men (43.75%). The respondents were more illiterate (66.67%) than literate (33.33%). A total of 25 plant species belonging to 13 families were identified as being used as leafy vegetables for food and medicine, with variation in the level of their utilization in the study area. The succulent leaves and stems were the parts mostly used as food and medicine. The mostly consumed of these vegetables were Corchorus olitorius – consumed by 85.42% of the respondents, Amaranthus cruentus (83.33%) Talinum triangulare (81.25%) and Ocimum basilicum (78.54%). However, the least consumed vegetable was Myrianthus arboreus (8.33%) which was also found to be the most underutilized. Ekiti state is blessed with great diversity of leafy vegetables which are consumed differently for nutritional and medicinal purposes. However, proper orientation on the need to increase the consumption level and cultivation of some of these leafy vegetables by the people of the state is necessary.