An Ideological Perspective on Competing Languages and Identities: The Case of Arabic and English in Saudi Arabia (Published)
The spread of English is being promoted as an important driver of social and economic development (Pennycook, 2009, p.116). However, this view can be “misguided”, as English can also be problematic, a source of inequality, and a “formidable obstacle to education” (Tollefson, 2000, p. 9). In this sense, the spread of English is seen as a form of the “linguistic imperialism” in which English enjoys an ideologically higher status over other languages, thus encouraging new forms of capitalism and endorsing the practice of homogeneity (Phillipson, 1999, p.274). In the same vein, it is argued that “language ideology represents statements of identity” (Cummins, 2000, p.xi). With regard to the context of Saudi Arabia, it is argued that if English can be a threat to the Arabic language, then it can also be a threat to the Arabic and Muslims identity (Elyas, 2008a, b), which may not be the true reflection of the Islamic view on learning other languages (Elays and Picard, 2010). Therefore, this article aims to evaluate the linguistic situation in Saudi Arabia in response to the spread of English and the tension this might have created with the Arabic Language to compete with English over gaining access to power and politics in different domains.
Role of Media and ICT in Empowering Kenyan Rural Communities with Information on Development (Published)
Information is the key to democracy. Information technology measures social integration, participation and performance valuables in any development. Emerging digital techniques, new network alternatives including intelligent networks, high bandwidth communication technology and state-of-the-art software for network functions and services, are the new technology trends evident in the development of electronic communication systems. Yet most of world’s population remains untouched by this revolution. The paper discusses the need to focus on Kenyan rural communities to empower them to access information, knowledge and poverty alleviation among them by deploying the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Analyses the factors preventing rural communities from reaping the benefits of ICT s, Kenyan initiatives to overcome the factors, ways and means of poverty alleviation and sustainable development; identifies the bottlenecks and solutions, and lessons learned. The paper will analyze the integration of media and technology in pushing development agenda. Perhaps the inclination of ICT and media as an information resource will bring enormous and diversification in developmental models.
The Role of the Media in Promoting “Elderly Women’s Right to Life” in Tanzania: An Evaluation of “Haki za Binadamu” Program at Radio SAUT (Published)
The focus of this study was to explore the roles played by media, particularly community radios in promoting the rights to life of elderly women in Tanzania. Specifically, the study evaluated the “haki za binadamu program” aired by radio SAUT FM in Nyamagana, Mwanza region. The evaluation concentrated on two areas: One, it evaluated the accessibility and listenership of the program and two it evaluated the success of the program in promoting the rights of elderly women in the district. This is a qualitative research which used purposive and snowball sampling techniques to select the respondents. A total of 27 respondents were involved in the study, they included; three police officers from the gender desk in Nyamagana police station, five local leaders, six journalists who are specialized in human rights reporting, and 13 respondents from families of elderly women who were reported to have been killed due to witchcraft accusations. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect the data for this study. Thematic analysis was used to analysis the data gotten from the field. The findings suggest that the accessibility and listenership of haki za binadamu program in Nyamagana district was very poor. It was also found that haki za binadamu program has not played any noticeable contributions in promoting the rights to life to the elderly women in Nyamagana district.
Investigating the Literary Components of Print Media: A Case of Punch and Guardian Newspapers (Published)
The paper investigates the literary components of print media with specific reference to Punch and Guardian Newspapers as case studies. It uses syntax and semantics components of the English language as units of inquiry. The paper starts by describing the history of the newspaper in Nigeria and conceptualizes the syntax and semantics components in media. Also, the review of the documentary evidence as secondary resources from journal articles, paper reports and books were utilised in gathering the information used in analysing the situation. The syntax of any language is governed by rules that are fairly stable and which, unlike the phonology, cuts across both horizontally and vertically among the users while semantics is the study of meaning. The paper unravels the appropriate usage of syntax and semantics of English language to pass across messages to reader by removing the ambiguity, and minimizing errors when it comes to newspaper editorials.
Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance of Business Education Students in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the influence of social media on communication skill acquisition and academic performance of business education students. The study had two specific purposes, three research questions and two hypotheses. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 461 respondents. A structured questionnaire tagged Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance Questionnaire (ISMCSAPQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts with a Cronbach reliability coefficient of 0.87. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data to answer the research questions while linear regression statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that social media use significantly positively influence communication skills and academic performance of business education students in colleges of education. It was concluded that social media when used effectively for academic purposes is capable of improving communication skills and academic performance of Business Education students in colleges of education. The study is potentially of great significance to teachers and students, enabling them to recognize, accept and deploy social media as implements of teaching, learning and skill acquisition. It was recommended among others that students should be encouraged to use social media to acquire necessary information while government provide conducive learning environment such as e-library for academic excellence.
Organizational Effectiveness in Media Industry: A Study of Public and Private Media Organizations in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra). (Published)
The study examined “organizational effectiveness in media industry: A study of public and private media organizations in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra)”. Data were collected with valid/reliable “Organizational Effectiveness Model Inventory”, through multi-stage sampling using 2×4 factorial designs. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and descriptive statistics were used. Results at p<.05 found no significant differences for organization type and overall organization effectiveness. Contrarily, between-subjects tests were significant for organization type and “goal attainment” and “strategic constituency” organizational effectiveness, but not significant for organization type and the “system resources” and “internal process” organizational effectiveness. Private media organizations accounted between 13% – 17% and 14% – 18% organizational effectiveness for “goal attainment” and “strategic constituency” dimensions respectively than public media organizations. Findings’ major implication is that ownership of media industry does not influence archived organizational effectiveness. Improvement is recommended on the “system resources” and “internal process” organizational effectiveness.
Interactive Multimedia Development In Teaching Drama for Students Class Xi In State Senior High School 4 Medan (Published)
This study aims to: (1) describe the results of interactive multimedia development in drama lessons for class XI State Senior High School 4 Medan, (2) Describe the feasibility result of interactive multimedia development in drama lessons, (3) Describe the effectiveness of interactive multimedia development in drama learning. Interactive multimedia is developed in the form of interactive learning CDs. This research method is research and development. Research and Developmemt (R & D) with DDD-E model (Decide, Design, Develop, Evaluate). The results of the study indicate that: (1) validation of material experts with an average of 93% on very good criteria; (2) validation of media design experts with an average of 90% in very good categories; (3) teacher response with an average of 96% on very good criteria, (4) individual trials with an average of 77% with good criteria, (5) small group trials with an average of 87% with very good criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 95% with very good criteria. The final activity of the development of learning media is continued by looking at the effectiveness of students in drama lessons. The study was conducted on the students class XI State Senior High School 4 Medan. Result of learning test of drama lessons on content material and linguistic text before using learning media equal to 67,9, while result of learning test after using learning media is 77,37. The difference is 9.44 from before to after. The result of drama learning test on drama staging before using learning media equal to 64,28, while result of learning test after using learning media is 82,65, the difference obtained is 18,37 from before to after. The interactive multimedia implication in drama learning is that learning media will provide convenience for teachers to provide learning materials, as well as provide convenience for students in receiving and applying the subject matter provided.
This paper examines the contributions of media and security as source of information. However, it may be print media or electronic media for the sustainable development of education in Nigeria. However, it emphasized the roles of the security on the protection of the life and properties of students in schools and outside schools in the country such as (kidnapping ,vandals of the school properties, and students unrest and other anti- social behaviour among the students in schools) .
Today’s adolescents are growing up at the center of an exploding digital media culture and are primary targets for digital food marketing. A combination of factors has made them particularly valuable to interactive marketers, including their role as ‘‘early adopters’’ of new media practices and their steadily rising spending power. A trend has been observed towards increasing investment in food marketing on new media such as the Internet, social media and video games. The aim is to engage youth in emotional, entertaining experiences and to encourage them to share these experiences with their environments. There is unequivocal evidence that marketing of unhealthy food influences youth health. Therefore, there is a need: 1) to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace, 2) to design new smart technologies to support credible nutrition communication and e-health. A formative exploratory study in Lebanon, based on social marketing approach, showed that food marketing and nutrition communication influence the knowledge, food preferences and dietary patterns of youth. Comprehensive nutrition communication on multiple media increases the power of persuasive messages that encourage healthy lifestyles. Research on digital food marketing impact on health remains underdeveloped and should be of concern to policy makers.
Community Radios the Missing Link in Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (Zim Asset) (Published)
This paper looks at how the media and in particular radio broadcasts can impact positively on this new economic blue-print. The bias towards radio is because the distribution of newspapers in Zimbabwe is concentrated on major urban centres that are along the major highways thus alienating those in rural and farming communities who are a key component in selected two of the four clusters in ZimAsset.
This paper examines the contributions of media and security as source of information. However, it may be print media or electronic media for the sustainable development of education in Nigeria. However, it emphasized the roles of the security on the protection of the life and properties of students in schools and outside schools in the country such as (kidnapping, vandals of the school properties and students unrest and other anti- social behaviour among the students in schools).
Reliability Statistics for Factors Affecting Brand Advertising Effectiveness: A Case of Lac Hong University (Published)
Branding and advertising are different facets of a comprehensive marketing strategy. Lac Hong University (LHU) uses branding to create a look, feel and message for themselves that will be remembered by students. Advertising is used to convey that brand directly to students through various media, such as purchasing radio or television broadcast time, newspaper or magazine space, or online advertisements… The purpose of this study is to identify the reliability statistics for factors affecting brand advertising effectiveness of the Lac Hong University. The study results showed that there were 400 students of LHU who interviewed and answered about 17 questions. Data collected from June 2016 to March 2017 for students of LHU. This study had been analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha testing and the result of Cronbach’s Alpha used for the next research. Students’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale (Conventions: 1: Completely disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Normal; 4: Agree; 5: completely agree). Hard copy and online questionnaire distributed among 4.000 students of LHU. Besides, the result of Cronbach’s Alpha is very high reliability statistics. All of variables surveyed Corrected Item-Total Correlation greater than 0.3 and Cronbach’s Alpha if Item deleted greater than 0.6 and Cronbach’s Alpha is very reliability with significance level 5 percent.. In addition, all of three factors of the brand advertising effectiveness at Lac Hong University with significance level 5 percent. The research results processed from SPSS 20.0 software.
The historical changes in our country as those of world historical periods of time have influenced considerably in the media evolution. The masmedia service as a service offered by third parties, with no participation from state, has been concessed to the private sector upon a rigid rule of the respect for the principles in a democratic society. The service of masmedia has some given features such as: (i) It is offered in respect of the public interest (ii) It is offered from the private profitable sector (with the exception of the state/public institutions) (iii)It should function as a watchdog of the other 3 state pillars executive, legislative and judicial. (iv) is should have an informative, educational, entertainment, investigative, cultural, scientific according to the characteristics of the community in a countr (v) It should be independent from any intervention. Media is established in the form of a commercial company, such form been given in accordance with the will of the founders, (members, shareholders, societies) as well as in accordance with the legal requirements. Most of the countries legislation require for a company that offers media service to be registered in the form of a shareholder company (joint stock).
Visual symbolic forms dominate today’s communicative landscape. Climate change is a topical issue in societies and its debates are not solely confined to linguistic representation, but also evident in visual symbolic forms. The communicative strategy for symbolic forms enhances our understanding of climatic changes, which consequently would initiate appropriate action to counter adaptation deficit often experienced in many regions of the world. Drawing reference from the Kenyan media context, this paper focuses on news photographic representation to answer the question “Can society see the climate changing?” This paper highlights specific visual symbolic form modalities used in News broadcasts to effect the understanding of climate dynamics in Kenya. The study found out that pictorial representation in Kenya’s media triumphs in use of crisis metaphors. It found that visual forms often take lesser roles when accompanied by written texts in climate change reporting. It acknowledges that visual constructions of climate change issues in Kenya appear in both local and international media reports. Nevertheless, the authors warn that the power of photographic representations in climate change interventions should not be underestimated.
Health issues are germane to the survival of the human race. Issues relating to health are considered very important to all strata of persons in the society irrespective of their socio-economic and political status as well as their political affiliations. It is in view of this that countries of the world take health matters particularly those on epidemics seriously because if they are left unattended to they can result in great catastrophic. It is to avoid catastrophic that countries of the world go all length to nip such problems in the bud. Anchored on the Information, Social Responsibility and Agenda Setting Theories, this paper found out how much attention was paid by The Guardian and Punch Newspapers on the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) especially in helping to enlighten the public of the deadly nature of the virus and the generally acceptable best practices in dealing with the EVD. The paper ascertained the extent to which media coverage helped in not only creating awareness on the epidemic but also how much coverage is been giving to the spread of Ebola. Using the content analysis method, The Guardian and The Punch newspapers were critically analyzed along the lines of their news report; feature stories, articles, opinion, advertorials as well as editorial write up in order to ascertain how well media coverage helped in stemming the tide of Ebola. It was observed that both newspapers paid close attention on the Ebola Virus Disease.
Ideology in News Reports: Al-Jazeera Reporters As Representative: A Critical Discourse Analysis (Published)
This paper adopts a critical discourse analysis approach to investigate the way reporters of Al-Jazeera English Satellite Channel use to covey events and actions during the Syrian crisis. The study aims to find out whether reporters are neutral in their coverage or they carry an ideology which accords with one of the warring parties of conflict. It also aims at finding out the ideological implications that reporters have in the news texts toward the parties of conflict in Syria. The study hypothesizes that news reporters of Al-Jazeera are not neutral, but rather they have a prejudiced and a one-sided ideology towards the conflicted parties. For the analysis of the data, the study follows Van Dijk’s (1998) model of ‘ideological square’. The analysis is limited to investigate some discourse features, among many others, for their importance and their abundance in the data under scrutiny. Finally, the study has come with some conclusions that validate the hypotheses.
The Complexities Of New Media: Can The ‘Web Media’ Completely Erase Traditional Media From The Communication Industry (Published)
Over the years, there has been a popular outcry among investors and operators in the communication industry that the advent of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) will affect the survival and mode of operation of the traditional media, especially newspapers and magazines. Although it is not in doubt that these technologies pose serious challenges to the survival of mainstream media. This has generated controversies as to whether the ‘web media’ will completely erase or overshadow the conventional media. This and other issues surrounding the convergence of new and mainstream media, is the thrust of this paper.
Nigerian Audiences’ Perception of Pentecostal Churches’ Ownership of Digital Satellite Television Channels (Published)
Pentecostal churches’ ownership of channels is a relatively new trend in Nigeria; apparently, it is one of the aftermaths of deregulation of broadcasting industry in the country. By the application of uses and gratifications theory; this paper investigated Nigerian audiences’ perception of Pentecostal churches’ ownership of digital satellite television channels. Survey research method was adopted for the study and a sample of 300 respondents was drawn using multi-stage sampling techniques, whereas the questionnaire served as the instrument of data collection. The work’s major finding is that the public perceives Pentecostal churches’ ownership of channels as a welcome development in Nigeria; they uphold the channels’ airing of miracles, albeit with regulations. Again, it found out that broadcasting of such religious programmes help to draw people closer to their Creator.
This paper sought to investigate the causes of high unemployment among youths in zimbabwe’s capital city, harare. This research followed a realisation that there can be no solution to the problem of high youth unemployment unless the causes of such unemployment are identified first. The study was a survey in which 180 unemployed youths were respondents as it was felt that they were better positioned to give critical primary data since they understood their situation and its causes better than anyone else. The findings indicated that the economic downturn in zimbabwe was the major contributory factor to the unemployment of youths in the city of harare. The ripple effects of economic downturn which include closure of industries and lack of foreign direct investment were blamed for the situation. theory-intensive secondary school and university curriculum, government’s misplaced priorities, corruption, nepotism, droughts, lack of specific job skills among the youths, preference of white-collar jobs, dislike of lowly paying jobs and educated youths who shun manual intensive jobs are but some of the causes singled out in this study. It is common cause that if zimbabwe is to correct the situation of high unemployment among youths, the country must attend to the causes first
Language is used creatively to enhance communication and critically evoke deep thoughts. It is a systematic resource which is powerful and active. Sometimes, the intrinsic power of language is often neglected by non linguists. Some are not conscious of the power of language which influences attitudes and promotes critical thinking. Others fail to realize that convictions are shaped by language. The study, therefore, examines the linguistic devices and styles in media discourse which are used to stake claims to knowledge, to influence attitudes and to promote critical thinking. Excerpts culled from different newspaper editorials are used to explore the linguistic devices and styles. Then, with Systemic Functional Linguistics complemented with Van Dijk’s theory of media discourse as models of analysis, it is observed that linguistic devices such as modality, evaluative adjectives, adverbs, generic phrases, rhetoric and idioms are used to state opinions, make predictions and influence attitudes. Furthermore, the linguistic devices evoke critical thinking, state different angles of possibilities, portray different shades of attitudes and judgments. The study concludes that the linguistic devices in the newspaper editorials shape and reshape attitudes and assess the potentiality of the state of affairs in the society. Hence, there is an intrinsic power in language to influence attitudes.