Tag Archives: Materials

Mediating Cross-Cultural Barriers in English as a Foreign Language Classroom: A Pilot Study on Teachers (Published)

Recent researches on the impact of cultural barriers in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching-learning suggest that cultural barriers emerge due to the lack of successful mediation between the native language culture and the target language culture. Eventually, the teaching-learning of EFL in Bangladesh, a south-east Asian country, encounters cross- cultural barriers quite extensively as the home language culture is quite distinct from the target language culture. Therefore, this study concentrates on EFL teachers’ role in promoting intercultural communicative competence among EFL learners through successful mediation of native language culture with foreign language culture. 12 EFL teachers and 200 tertiary level students from Bangladeshi private universities were chosen as the subjects of this study to identify their perspectives on this issue. The findings of the study suggest the need for constructive changes in the choice and use of teaching-learning materials and teaching methods in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: EFL, Materials, Mediation of Cultures, Native Culture, Teacher Role


It is noted that in Nigeria, buildings begin to demand for maintenance almost immediately after completion and handing over to users. As a single building belongs to several owners, corporate decision is required in maintaining it. The process of arriving at a workable decision remains a problem in the maintenance of such buildings due to protracted consultation and individual differences. This paper analytically investigates the frequency of maintenance of multi storey buildings compared with single owned building within the area Lagos, Nigeria. This paper examines these processes, the challenges and possible resolution for meeting point of ideas in order to sustain the commonwealth without jeopardizing the interest of any through a field survey. Structured questionnaire and non-participant case study were adopted in collecting quantitative and qualitative data. This study adopted quantitative analysis in form of tables to evaluate the attitude of respondents towards the maintenance of external surface of buildings vis-à-vis painting in the area. Three hundred and eighty four structured questionnaires were administered in six randomly selected Local Government Areas within the study area in April-May, 2012. The findings show that buildings that belong to single owners are better maintained than buildings that belong to multi-owners due to sense of ownership and ability to take decision on maintenance issues swiftly. Multi ownership system requires some level of enlightenment and thorough education in the area. The primary culture of the people in the selected area supports the compound system which multi ownership denies.

Keywords: Maintenance, Materials, Multi- Storey, Multi-Owner, Residential Building, Single Owner

The Building Industry in the Housing Programme: Technology, Materials and Labour Towards Adressing Housing Shortage in Nigeria (Published)

The building industry is a sector of national economy engaged in preparation of land and construction, alteration, and repair of buildings, structures, and other real property. More agents, institutions and intermediaries have become involved in the various stages of housing construction as a means of producing more housing for human shelter. Building Industry work involves the construction of a new or existing commercial, industrial or domestic buildings or structure. The major form of urban land use is housing construction, and also the pattern of urban land use largely determines the pattern of urban growth and development. (Agbola, 2002). However, this paper examined the essential link between the building industry, technology, materials and labour in relations to housing programme. And its goal is to critically examine the roles of building industry in the housing programme since housing programme as immensely contributed to the development of building construction industry in Nigeria. The paper shows some of the functions of building industry in housing programme, the materials to be use , technology employed and the labour used in the construction process and highlights the need for government to encourage both the private and public building industry to provide quality and affordable housing for human consumption as this will be part of the housing programme organized to alleviate the problem of inadequate housing in most developing countries.

Keywords: Building Industry, Housing Programme, Housing Shortage, Labour, Materials, Technology