The paper proves that How the Steel Was Tempered depicts the theory of Marxism. During the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century, capitalism spread in various countries in Europe. As a result, the struggle of the common masses became more organized and conscious. As the conflicts between the upper and lower class became more profound, the philosophical thought of Marxism spread rapidly. The paper makes an analysis of Marxism in How the Steel Was Tempered. The paper discusses all the Marxist ideologies found in the novel, including: the inequality between classes, anti-Capitalism, class conflict, historical materialism, and alienation. So, this paper will add a piece of new information in the existing literature.
Marxist perspective has undergone a progressive dominance over time in the globe of literature. Marxist approach has always been an impressive implement in comprehending any literary sort of pieces in case of philosophy, economy, history and sociology. This aids learners to approach the text in a distinctive way that issues reader’s better sort of apprehension of literary works and serves to attain the purpose of communicative literary competence, appreciations and conventions. The research inclines to focus on one of the most appreciated and unparalleled novels of Saul Bellow, “Seize the Day (1956)”. The lens of Marxist point of view has been used in this study to bring out how all the characters affected by materialism hanker after worldly success, trying to survive with the critical circumstances, and at last gaining worldly success or failure in the complexity of modern American society. Here, most of the characters’ attitude and psychology are directed by longing for material wealth and financial stability. The paper critically demonstrates on how the quest for American dream, money and success triggers the actions of materialistic characters while specially concentrating on the actions of protagonist Tommy Wilhelm whose life is distorted in a capitalistic society due to the thirst for money and success.
Materialism and Commodifcation of Delegacy: A Political Economy of Vote Buying/Selling In 2014 Pdp Governorship Primary in Nasarawa State, Nigeria (Published)
Party politics in Nigeria is essentially a market scenario whereof political power, patronage and votes are objects of economic transaction. Driven by the logic of materialism and opportunism, the average Nigerian politician sees politics as a premium investment as well as an avenue for material accumulation and aggrandizement. Partisan relations in this context are characteristically commoditized in such a manner that passes for buying and selling of electoral patronage and votes. This paper examines this trend with particular reference to the 2014 PDP primary election in Nasarawa State. By way of a purposive survey conducted on a cross-section of delegates to the 2014 PDP primary elections in the State, the paper observes that vote buying/selling played a significant role in determining the outcome of the elections. The paper reveals that most of the delegates were approached with pecuniary offers by agents of political aspirants in a bid to influence their voting choices. Although there was no ample empirical evidence to prove that the delegates were actually compromised in the process, circumstantial evidence suggests that some of the delegates must have voted based on material inducement. The paper thus submits that vote buying/selling is an important determinant of electoral victory in primary elections in Nigeria. More empirical studies are required in other parts of the country to validate the findings of this study.