Tag Archives: Marketing

Assessing the Efficiency of Soya Bean Marketing In the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts of Ghana (Published)

The study aimed at assessing the efficiencies of soya bean marketing channels in the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts, Ghana. The multi-stage sampling technique was employed in selecting thirty-seven soya bean farmers, two wholesalers, seven retailers, two small-scale processors and one large-scale processor of soya beans for the study. Gross Margin analysis was employed in determining the marketing costs and margins whereas the Shepherd’s Method was used in analyzing the efficiencies of the marketing channels. The study revealed that nine different channels existed through which soya bean was marketed in the study areas, with the simplest channel (Channel 1) being where farmers sell directly to consumers. Analysis of marketing cost and margins revealed that comparatively, Channel 1 had the least cost (GH2.40) and margins (GH10.50) since farmers dealt directly with consumers without any interference from market intermediaries, who usually increase transaction cost. From the study, Channel 1 was the most efficient channel with an Efficiency Index of 37.71. Thus, its marketing cost constituted a smaller proportion of the consumer price. The study recommends that farmers use Channel 1 where they sell directly to consumers to market their produce and also form co-operatives to protect them against price fluctuation and give them assurance of buyers. Moreso, the central government is directed to intervene in the form of road construction and improvement to help reduce the excessive transportation cost associated with the soya bean trade in Ghana

Keywords: Efficiency, Ghana, Marketing, Marketing Channel, Soya Bean

The Political Economy of Oil Marketing In Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Politics of Petroleum and Petroleum Politics in Ghana. (Published)

This article probed the politics of subsidy in developing countries.  In spite of the adoption of neoliberal policies of capitalism where production, distribution and exchange of goods and services are supposed to be in the realm of the private sphere, most developing economies are still ingrained unrepentantly in sacrificing scarce national resources meant for infrastructural development on subsidies while scavenging for loans from the International Financial Institutions for development.  This paper focuses on Ghana’s experience of the unbridled subsidies on petroleum products in spite of the striking parallels that exist between the state’s economic resources and the sustainability of petroleum subsidies. This paper argue that Ghana’s economic challenges in recent times, and its indebtedness to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) are as a result of the unbridled subsidy and politicization of petroleum products since Ghana’s Fourth Republic.

Keywords: Deregulation, Marketing, Petroleum, Political Economy, Regulation, Subsidy

The Political Economy of Oil Marketing In Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Politics of Petroleum and Petroleum Politics in Ghana (Published)

This article probed the politics of subsidy in developing countries.  In spite of the adoption of neoliberal policies of capitalism where production, distribution and exchange of goods and services are supposed to be in the realm of the private sphere, most developing economies are still ingrained unrepentantly in sacrificing scarce national resources meant for infrastructural development on subsidies while scavenging for loans from the International Financial Institutions for development.  This paper focuses on Ghana’s experience of the unbridled subsidies on petroleum products in spite of the striking parallels that exist between the state’s economic resources and the sustainability of petroleum subsidies. This paper argue that Ghana’s economic challenges in recent times, and its indebtedness to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) are as a result of the unbridled subsidy and politicization of petroleum products since Ghana’s Fourth Republic.

Keywords: Deregulation, Marketing, Petroleum, Political Economy, Regulation, Subsidy

Economics of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Marketing in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria (Published)

Non-Timber Forest Products are capable of providing food, medicine and income to sustain livelihood. The study investigated the economics of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) marketing in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identified the major NTFPs present in the study area; examined the marketing channel of NTFP; ascertained profitability of NTFP marketing as well as constraints faced by the NTFP traders. Forty NTFP traders were interviewed using structured questionnaire from two markets in Ikwuano Local Government Area.  Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Net Income and Profitability Index. Results showed that trade in NTFPs is profitable with Net Income of N180/2kg and N250/2kg from Ukazi leaf (Gnetum africanum) and oil bean seed (Pentachlethra macrophylla) traded. The profitability index was 0.18kobo and 0.16kobo respectively. There is need for support from research institutes and the government to harness the sustainable extraction and further processing of these NTFPs.

Keywords: Ikwuano, Marketing, Nigeria, Non Timber Forest Products

Vol 4, Issue 2, May 2016 ()

Keywords: Ikwuano, Marketing, Nigeria, Non Timber Forest Products

The Impact of Colonialism on the Development of Marketing in Nigeria: A Dyadic Analysis (Published)

For about a century, the British colonial masters took full control of the political, economic and even the social life of the people called Nigerians today. This paper traces the impact of colonialism on the development of marketing in Nigeria. It takes a look at the pre-colonial marketing practices of the nation-states and kingdoms and the development or otherwise of marketing during the era of colonialism in Nigeria. It points out that what the colonialists did or failed to do to develop marketing theory and practice in Nigeria. It adopts a theoretical review of related literature and also took a position on this topic that while the colonialists had set-up some institutions, they did very little to strengthen the institutions and develop human capital in the country. The article makes far-reaching recommendations that will help enrich marketing theory and practice, strengthen marketing institutions and contribute to the general well-being of the people and the nation as a whole.

Keywords: Colonialism, Development, Indirect rule, Marketing, Nigeria, Segregation.

The Influence of Legitimacy and Marketing in the Context of Accounting for the Environment in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Published)

Purpose – The paper intends to serve as a contribution to the requirements for organizations to account for and disclose the social and environmental (SE) consequences of their activities, aspects of the concept of sustainability accounting (SA). In particular, this research study investigates the current practices of environmental accounting (EA), whether it is influenced by the same values as that of society and is used as a marketing tool of the oil and gas sector in Uganda, a less developed country. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 57 oil and petroleum supply chains. Major data collection methods included a review of 13 annual reports/statements by oil companies and both a structured and a semi-structured questionnaire involving 272 respondents, with a response rate of 57.0%. A mixed-methodological approach was employed to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data together. Findings – (1) There are no detailed archival records related to EA; (2) respondents’ (106) responses to the possible consequences of not accounting for the environment were almost indifferent on issues that influence marketing, indicated by the small differences in the mean (1.83 to 2.50) and standard deviations (0.504 to 0.925); (3) responses on the influence of legitimacy and marketing on accounting for the environment ranged from 8.3% to 90.0%, while the mean ranged from 1.92 to 3.90 and the standard deviations from 0.303 to 1.482; (4) we suggest that EA is currently not being done, which is an indicator of poor management of the environment; (5) the results support that a marketing tool is not a significant determining factor of accounting for the environment, despite having a social role to fulfill; and (6) the results do support the theory of legitimacy, because oil and petroleum products suppliers in the country respond to environmental laws, regulations and guidelines. Originality/value – The highlighted perspective on how organizations account for and disclose the environmental trends of their activities – an aspect of the concept of SA in Uganda, a country with a youthful population, open markets, abundant resources and significant unexploited oil and gas reserves – distinguishes this study from others on similar topics.

Keywords: Environment, Legitimacy., Marketing, oil and gas sector, sub-Saharan Africa, sustainability accounting

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PRACTICES IN AGRO FORESTRY SYSTEMS OF GEDIO ZONE, SNNPR, ETHIOPA (Published)

The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practices in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone southern, Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and 5.63 in wenago and 6.97 Walema sites and 3.4 kochera. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%). The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3 kids %), young flock (9.64 %lambs; 13.24% kids) and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1%) in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; prioritized the major constraints as; availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Integration of sheep and goat with other agricultural practices is the dominant systems in the area.

Keywords: Feeding, Marketing, Mortality, Sheep, fattening, goat, grazing

CONTRIBUTION OF BRANDING IN ENHANCING PERFORMANCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN RWANDA (Published)

Strong branding has become a very important factor that influences consumer’s perceptions of a brand. Success in branding can enhance the performance of Tourism. This arises from understanding and managing the brand correctly to produce strong attributes that influence consumers when making their choices. Considering the increasing competition in the tourism industry, more governments have realized that branding can enhance Tourism and become a powerful tool to differentiate their countries and obtain competitive advantages by improving their image in tourism. The results have shown that the branding campaign in tourism is generally well developed and the image promoted corresponds in great measure with the one perceived by consumers. The value of this research concentrates on the fact that branding can enhance the performance of tourism in any Country. As a relatively new concept, branding still lacks empirical academic research. This study offers an original insight into branding as a tool in enhancing Tourism performance through image analysis. This research focuses on the importance of these dimensions (brand awareness, Tourism brand loyalty, Tourism brand image and perceived quality in enhancing the performance of the tourism sector in Rwanda ) of customer-based brand equity on consumer’s perceptions of a Tourism brand. This is based on the assumption that all these dimensions of customer based-Tourism brand equity have had influence on consumer’s perceptions of the Tourism brand. However, this project aimed to find out which among these three dimensions (brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality) appears to have the least brand equity in Tourism with respect to Tourism brand awareness, Tourism brand image, and perceived quality and Tourism brand loyalty. A structured questionnaire was constructed to provide answers to research questions. In this study, over fifty questionnaires were distributed, and all of the questionnaires were realized. Despite the academic attention to branding in Tourism, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and strategic brands, A comprehensive research framework with both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to suggest and assess these brand elements, meanings, and assets for both supply and demand sides of the market.

Keywords: Branding, Development, Marketing, Performance, Tourism

CONTRIBUTION OF BRANDING IN ENHANCING PERFORMANCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN RWANDA (Published)

Strong branding has become a very important factor that influences consumer’s perceptions of a brand. Success in branding can enhance the performance of Tourism. This arises from understanding and managing the brand correctly to produce strong attributes that influence consumers when making their choices. Considering the increasing competition in the tourism industry, more governments have realized that branding can enhance Tourism and become a powerful tool to differentiate their countries and obtain competitive advantages by improving their image in tourism. The results have shown that the branding campaign in tourism is generally well developed and the image promoted corresponds in great measure with the one perceived by consumers. The value of this research concentrates on the fact that branding can enhance the performance of tourism in any Country. As a relatively new concept, branding still lacks empirical academic research. This study offers an original insight into branding as a tool in enhancing Tourism performance through image analysis. This research focuses on the importance of these dimensions (brand awareness, Tourism brand loyalty, Tourism brand image and perceived quality in enhancing the performance of the tourism sector in Rwanda ) of customer-based brand equity on consumer’s perceptions of a Tourism brand. This is based on the assumption that all these dimensions of customer based-Tourism brand equity have had influence on consumer’s perceptions of the Tourism brand. However, this project aimed to find out which among these three dimensions (brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality) appears to have the least brand equity in Tourism with respect to Tourism brand awareness, Tourism brand image, and perceived quality and Tourism brand loyalty. A structured questionnaire was constructed to provide answers to research questions. In this study, over fifty questionnaires were distributed, and all of the questionnaires were realized. Despite the academic attention to branding in Tourism, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and strategic brands, A comprehensive research framework with both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to suggest and assess these brand elements, meanings, and assets for both supply and demand sides of the market.

Keywords: Branding, Development, Marketing, Performance, Tourism

MOTIVATION OF TOURISTS THROUGH MARKETING STRATEGIES OF OLUMO ROCK TOURIST COMPLEX (Published)

In Nigeria, Travel and Tourism had contributed immensely to the growth of GDP and also to employment. Tourism marketing in destination must take into consideration the behaviour of visitors for effective campaign design. The study investigates how visitors got information about the Complex and major motivating factors that attract visitors to the Complex. Structured questionnaire was employed to obtain information on the major objectives of the study. Majority of the visitors to the complex are youths. Visitors preferred use of brochures, travel guides and social media as marketing strategies. Push factors are observed to motivate tourists more for fun, excitement, relaxation and sightseeing. Tourists’ sources of awareness to the Complex are not different in respect to their demographics; also visitors who organise visits for themselves complain less about challenges of the Complex. Management of the Complex must endeavour to improve on infrastructure and recreational facilities for fun, sightseeing, relaxation and excitement.

Keywords: Information, Marketing, Motivation, Olumo Rock Tourist Complex, Tourists

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INCREASE THE MARKETING EFFICIENCY OF STORES IN KSA (CASE STUDY-AL-BAHA & BELJARSHY CITY) (Published)

This study aimed to reveal the interest that exerted by the stores in KSA in applying the marketing information systems and its role to raise the marketing sales, also the impact of marketing information systems on employers’ skills. The study is based on using the statical descriptive approach where the data collected by the primary and secondary sources. To achieve the objective of the study, 130 questionnaires have been distributed. 100 questionnaires were available for analysis. The statical methods are used to describe the variables of the study (means & standard deviation). One sample T-test, and simple correlation for testing the hypothesis. It was reached that there is a statical significant for using marketing information systems, sales growth and employers efficient. It was recommended the necessary to interest in effective and activated information system because it has a role raising the company skills and training the employers on using that system to increase the productivity of the companies and sales growth.

Keywords: KSA Stores, Marketing, Strategic Marketing, marketing efficiency, marketing information system

ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND PROFIT PLANNING: THE CASE OF NIGERIA LISTED MANUFACTURING COMPANIES (Published)

In this study, the relationship between accounting information and profit planning was empirically investigated. Specifically, the study investigated the effect of cost information, sales information and marketing information on profitability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out on the opinion of 222 top management staff purposively selected from the listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20). The results of the data analysis carried out in the study revealed that a positive significant relationship exists between accounting information and profitability of manufacturing organizations. Based on this, the study recommends that functioning accounting system should be put in place by the manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Accounting information, Cost, Marketing, Profit planning, Profitability and Manufacturing.

MARKETING EDUCATION FOR ECONOMIC SURVIVAL: THE CASE OF UNIVERSITY OF UYO (Published)

This paper views marketing education in two perspectives-as a practice whereby school-leavers exchange their knowledge and skills for money and secondly, as a practice whereby the entire educational institution like, the University of Uyo, exchanges/should exchange her stock of knowledge and skills to make more money. The paper concentrates more on the second perspective and highlights four strategies which the University of Uyo uses to source for more money. These include product diversification, discriminatory charging of students’, the use of multiple distribution channels and outright use of marketing promotion strategies, like advertising and appeal for support from the public. Education marketing is found to contribute greatly towards the internally-generated revenue (IGR) of the University of Uyo. Suggestions for greater strides in marketing by the university include setting up a distinct marketing management unit, experimenting on having cottage industries, especially for products that are of high demand by the employees like fuel; more involvement of the Alumni in fund generation, extending university services to artisans and finally, auditing the marketing outcomes and activities. The paper concludes that involvement in marketing is one sure way of stopping over-dependence on the government/proprietor for funds by higher educational institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Economic, Education, Marketing, Survival, marketing models, product models

ON THE MARKETING RESEARCH OF CONSUMER PRICES AND INFLATION PROCESS (Published)

Marketing information is used by financial and insurance institutions, business enterprises and companies for planning, control, monitoring and forecasting purposes in business. One of the problems is the detection and investigation of factors, which influence the behavior of consumers. Such a basic factor is, for instance, the consumer prices index. The significance of this factor periodically changes and depends on the values of main indexes of economy such as export, import, taxes, labor force, unemployment, inflation level, etc., and also on the behavior of consumers, their taste, living standard and style. For the marketing research of this dependence it is necessary to construct mathematical models of the evolution of consumer prices. In the paper, a new auto regression model with disturbances is constructed for consumer prices. The model includes monetary aggregate amount and control function. A new formula is derived for the solution of an equation for the consumer prices index, which can be used in forecasting the inflation process. Using the data on the consumer prices index in Georgia, a numerical example is given, which illustrates the estimates of the coefficients of the constructed model and the inflation process forecast.

Keywords: Inflation, Marketing, auto regression model, consumer prices

MODELING THE INDICES OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND MARKETING INNOVATIONS ADOPTED BY SMALL SCALE FLOUR AGRO- MARKETING FIRMS ABIA STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

A detailed analysis of the indices of organizational and marketing innovations has been examined in this study. The specific objectives duly analyzed were identification of the features of small scale flour marketing firms; analysis of the profitability and efficiency of the firms using income statement; ascertaining the determinants and indices of organizational, marketing and technological innovations. The technique of data collection was firstly a purposive sampling method to choose Aba and Umuahia Metropolis and small scale flour marketing firms and; secondly a random sampling selection technique was employed in selecting fifty specific firms for the study. The data elicited from sampling of fifty small scale flour marketing firms were analysed via descriptive statistics, income statement, probit and Ordinary Least Square Multiple regression analyses. The report from the results analyses showed that the significant indices of marketing innovation were price strategy, promotion strategy, distribution method, sales method, packaging and production strategies. On the other hand, significant indices of organizational innovation included work arrangement, quality management, motivation, use of promotion, product modification and employee schedule. The organizational innovation was highly significant than marketing innovation of small scale flour marketing firms in contributing towards enhancing the performance of small scale flour marketing firms. Thus, the organizational and marketing innovation indices analyzed in this work remained very significant and highly important tools for profitable marketing activity and in unlocking the marketing potentials of the firms and in encouraging competitive advantage over other firms that were indifferent about the strength of these organizational and marketing innovations. The study indicated that any small scale flour marketing firm that adopted for proper marketing and organizational innovations adapted successfully to emerging marketing challenges. Thus, it is recommended that small scale flour marketing firms should properly engage in organizational innovation involving work arrangement and effective employee work schedule which will contributing efficiently to better firm performance. Further, it is recommended that small scale flour marketing firms should include in their innovation portfolios price strategy, promotion strategy, distribution method, sales method, packaging, motivation, work arrangement, and product modification respectively which have the potentials to sustain the performance of the firms extensively.

Keywords: Determinants, Firm, Flour, Innovations, Marketing, Modeling, Organizational

MARKETING PRACTICES OF SMALL & MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES: A CASE STUDY OF SME’S IN MULTAN DISTRICT (Published)

Small and Medium Size Enterprises are the backbone of every major economy and empirical studies prove that small firms are more efficient and innovative in their operation, product development and marketing strategies. The objective of this research study is to analyze marketing practices (strategies) of Small and Medium Size Enterprises running entrepreneurs in Multan.This study is qualitative in nature in which we have studied the major characteristics of selected Small and Medium Size Enterprises. Primary Data was collected through a structured questionnaire by having interviews with the entrepreneurs. At least thirteen Small Medium Size Enterprises operating in Multan District were selected as a sample of study and a formal questionnaire was prepared. A field survey method was applied and faced to faced interviews were recorded to analyze the marketing strategies of SME’s. The evidences show that SME’s under study achieved success and established their names and brands through innovations. Their innovations were in the shape of unique designs that not only meet the need of customers. Their services are innovative in a sense that they satisfy the customers. Thus our consistent with previous studies which pinpoint that small medium enterprise are innovative and more efficient than large firms.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Innovation, Marketing, SMEs

THE ROLE OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN BUILDING CUSTOMERS’ LOYALTY- A CASE STUDY OF THE MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB-PAKISTAN (Published)

The objective of this research paper is to assess the role of relationship marketing in winning customers’ loyalty in the mobile Phone industry in Pakistan. De-regularization of the telecommunication sector in Pakistan has created huge competition to capture the maximum market share. For this purpose, industry marketers and planners are exercising various relationship marketing strategies to attract new customers and retain the old ones. To analyze the role of relationship marketing in building customers’ loyalty, the author has selected four independent variables such as service quality, price perception, brand image and value offers while customer’s loyalty is taken as dependent variable. A structured questionnaire containing 24 closed ended questions was developed to collect data from the field. The data was analyzed through Likert- scale. This scale is defined with 5 options of strongly agree on 5 and strongly disagree on 1. In order to check the reliability of the variables, a reliability test was conducted on 20 respondents of different age groups with different occupations. The results of this test showed positive significant relationship among the variables. The results of this study are robust and consistent with previous studies. This study provides in-depth knowledge about mobile users and cellular companies operating in Pakistan can take benefit from it.The finding of this research study is expected to be beneficial for the managers of the mobile operators in their decisions relating to the relationship marketing issues that are connected with the needs of the customers. These needs and interests of the customers, in turn, can increase their revenue and profits in the long-run.

Keywords: Brand, Customer, Loyalty, Marketing, Quality, Relationship, Satisfaction, telecommunications

EFFECT OF STRATEGIC MARKETING OF FINANCIAL SERVICES ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE (Published)

This study focuses on the effect of strategic marketing of financial services on organization performance. The primary purpose of this study is to focus on the relationship between marketing strategies and banks performance. The research design adopted for this study was survey research design in which a sample was selected at random amongst the population of the study and used as respondents for the study. Questionnaires were used as an instrument of primary data collection. Stratified random sampling was used to select the sample. Simple percentages and frequency distributions together with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The result of this study reveals that there is a significant positive relationship between the financial marketing services and profitability of First Bank of Nigeria Plc. Therefore, it is recommended that Banks should remove the communication gap that currently exists between the banks and their customers as most customers are not aware of the services rendered by their banks. Information can be provided through brochures, pamphlets, circular, adverts etc. The banks should devise ways of making it easy for customers to obtain information from banks.

Keywords: Financial Services, Marketing, Organization, Performance, Profitability, Strategic

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF INTERNAL MARKET ORIENTATION ON FIRM PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN GHANA (Published)

This paper provides empirical evidence on the effect of internal market orientation on the performance of commercial banks in Ghana. We adopt a quantitative research approach to analyse the relationship between internal market orientation and firm performance. A sample size of 136 marketing and human resource personnel of 15 randomly selected commercial banks in Ghana is used. Pearson’s correlation test and ordinary least square regression are used in data analysis. A strong positive relationship between internal market orientation and firm performance is found, r (131) = .863, p < .05. Similarly, internal market orientation significantly predicts firm performance at 5% significance level (t = 19.37, p = .000), with a variation of 74.4% accounted by internal market orientation. This implies that the performance of commercial banks is not limited to external marketing activities. Based on this evidence, commercial banks are expected to improve the effectiveness of their internal marketing endeavours to better leverage external market opportunities

Keywords: Firm Performance, Internal Market Orientation, Internal Marketing, Marketing, Services Triangle Model