Tag Archives: Marketing

On the Marketing Investigation of the Behavior of Higher Education Consumers in Georgia (Published)

Marketing investigation of the behavior of consumers of higher education relative to prices of the study has been carried out in Georgia. Linear, exponential and auto-regression models of the behavior of tuition fees in four universities of Georgia are constructed using the marketing information on tuition fees received from respondent students.  Interval estimates of tuition fees are also constructed.

Keywords: Marketing, Price, Regression Model

Assessment of Fuelwood Exploitation and Marketing within Rural-Urban Fringes of Makurdi Town in Central Nigeria (Published)

This study set out to examine the sustainability of fuelwood exploitation and marketing in the rural-urban fringes of Makurdi town in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 230 fuelwood dealers was used to obtain data for the study. Findings from the study showed high informality which robbed the activity of definite and regular organisation of activities, and management of the supply base. It was also found that, fuelwood harvesting has led to the decline of species diversity in the area, involving especially Crossopteryx febrifuga and Sysygium guineense. Similarly, income realised from the fuelwood trade was not remunerative to encourage its sustainability. In addition, the study indicated that more villagers were entering fuelwood harvesting and trading activity; 66.0% of respondents joined it only between 2014 and 2016. The study noted that as more people join the trade, greater loss of species will be experienced to ruin the industry. The study recommends restoration of subsidy on kerosene and operation of woodlots by harvesters to sustain the activity.

Keywords: Fuelwood, Harvesting, Livelihood, Marketing, Sustainability

Economic Analysis of Rice Marketing In Some Selected Local Government Areas of Ekiti State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined economic analysis of rice marketing in some selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty respondents were sampled for the study in three (LGAs) in Ekiti State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to collect the sample. The result of the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers in the study area showed that the marketers were experienced. The results also indicated that majority of the respondents involved in marketing of food items (95%) while only 5% also practiced farming. The result of the findings showed that rice availability is very regular (80%) in the study area. The marketing margin was highest in Ijero (LGA) with 900 per 50kg of rice and the marketing efficiency was highest in Ado (LGA) (0.93). The gross margin analysis obtained was 106,207.80, revealing that rice marketing is a profitable business in the study area.

Keywords: Analysis, Economic, Marketing, Rice

Marketing Research on Food Consumers’ Behavior in Georgia’s Consumer Market (Published)

The marketing survey of thirty products has been included in the consumer basket of Georgia. Information obtained from the respondents’ surveys on the current and consumable acceptable prices of products are used by this information to construct linear, indicative and linear models to reflect the change in time.

Keywords: Marketing, Regression, Respondent, consumer prices

Effects of Marketing Extension Services on the Control of Postharvest Losses of Root and Tuber Crop Produce in Abia State (Published)

This study assessed the effect agricultural marketing extension on control of post-harvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in Abia State. This study employed public opinion survey. This study was conducted in Abia State, Nigeria between March 2017 and January 2018.Using the multistage sampling technique and a structured questionnaire as instrument, data were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty (380) respondents in the study area. Percentages, mean scores, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools for data analysis.The overall mean score of the farmers on the effects of marketing extension services on the control of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce was 2.858. Marketing extension services had significant effect on the volume of postharvest losses of root and tuber crop produce in the study area given that the F- statistics of 102.569 is significant at 1% level of significance and that computed F- value was higher than the F-tabulated value of (1.94) at 5% level of significance and (2.51) at 1% level of significance. Organizations and agencies providing marketing extension services (adps, research institutes, universities, ngos etc) should do so in accordance to famers’ needs.

Keywords: Extension Service, Marketing, post-harvest losses, root and tubers

Profitability and Marketing Efficiency of Smoked Fish: An Empirical Evidence from Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)

The level of efficiency and profitability of the market and marketing functions are very important for sustainable marketing of agricultural products like fish. To ensure continuous availability of fish for human consumption, nutrition, and wellbeing, the Nigerian economy requires effective and efficient marketing systems. Fish marketing serves as a medium for bridging the gap between producers and consumers of fish. The study considers 80 fish marketers from Ondo state using purposive sampling technique. The data collected for the study were analysed using budgetary technique and shepherd efficiency model. The study revealed that fish marketing is profitable with gross margin of #38,101.36 and 15k as return on investment. The shepherd efficiency model revealed that fish marketing activities among fish marketers is highly efficient with efficiency value far higher (558.0%) than 100% deducing that an increase in the cost of performing marketing service (that is added time, form and place utility) by 100 percent will give a more than proportionate increase of 458.0 percent in the level of satisfaction derived from a kilogram of fish sold in the market. It was recommended that government should focus on policy that encourages farmers and young graduates in the business as it is noted for profitability, efficiency and a source of livelihood.

 

Keywords: Efficiency, Fish, Marketing, Profitability

Managerial Roles and Competitive Advantage: SMEs, Perspective from Lagos State Nigeria (Published)

The operation of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) has awakened the interest of experts globally due to the varied challenges from low market share, poor sales growth, and dwindling profit. These have made them less competitive, market/product failure, and sub-optimal performance, and at times closures. Hence, this study investigated the effect of managerial roles on competitive advantage of SMEs in Lagos State Nigeria. Cross sectional survey research design was adopted using structured questionnaire. The target population comprised 460 owner- managers of the selected SMEs in manufacturing, real estate, agricultural and services sector in the five main divisions of the State (Ikeja, Badagry, Ikorodu, Lagos Island, Epe). Multistage sampling technique was used. Pilot study was carried out to establish the validity and reliability of the research instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.790 and 0.946. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistically and significant relationship was established between managerial roles and competitive advantage with adjusted R2 0.61, F-stat (4,450)=183.13, p<0.05. In addition, marketing (β = 0.529, t = 8.523, p<0.05), people management (β = 0.610, t = 13.055, p<0.05) significant affected competitive advantage while communication and negotiation exhibited insignificant effect on competitive advantage of SMEs in Lagos State. This study recommended that SMEs should actively invest in marketing and human resources to ensure competitive advantage.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Managerial roles, Marketing, SMEs, people management

Assessment of Fuelwood Exploitation and Marketing within Rural-Urban Fringes of Makurdi Town in Central Nigeria (Published)

This study set out to examine the sustainability of fuelwood exploitation and marketing in the rural-urban fringes of Makurdi town in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 230 fuelwood dealers was used to obtain data for the study. Findings from the study showed high informality which robbed the activity of definite and regular organisation of activities, and management of the supply base. It was also found that, fuelwood harvesting has led to the decline of species diversity in the area, involving especially Crossopteryx febrifuga and Sysygium guineense. Similarly, income realised from the fuelwood trade was not remunerative to encourage its sustainability. In addition, the study indicated that more villagers were entering fuelwood harvesting and trading activity; 66.0% of respondents joined it only between 2014 and 2016. The study noted that as more people join the trade, greater loss of species will be experienced to ruin the industry. The study recommends restoration of subsidy on kerosene and operation of woodlots by harvesters to sustain the activity.

 

Keywords: Fuelwood, Harvesting, Livelihood, Marketing, Sustainability

Deceptive Marketing Communication and Student Enrollment Decisions in Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIS) In Cameroon (Published)

The University Reforms in the early 90s in Cameroon set the stage for private interests, driven by economic gains to invest in the Higher Education Sector.  One of the outcomes of this move is the prevalence of misleading marketing communications that seek to attract and influence university enrollees.  Focusing exclusively on alumni these private university institutions, this paper employs snowball sampling of six hundred subjects and a logistics regression technique to gauge the true influence of deceptive marketing communication on students’ decisions to enroll in PHEIs. The findings reveal that, although 93.5 percent  of  alumni  admit to have been deceived to enroll in their respective alma maters (PHEIs), there is no inferential evidence  that student enrollment decisions are  induced by deceptive marketing communication.

Keywords: Asymmetry, Deception, Marketing, University Enrollment, communication

Marketing and Advertising Ethical Stance toward Customers (Published)

Marketing ethics is a well-established area of marketing research. Following the marketing ethics is important and a key factor for a firm to survive and succeed.  Research has shown that it is critical to focus on the accuracy of promotional messages provided to the customers. Giving the customer inaccurate information is known as misleading advertisements. This action is unethical due to leading the customer to buy a product which the customer thinks like what has been sawed in the Ad. Unfortunately, unethical advertisements are not directed just towered adult, however, children involved too. Moreover, many studies state that there is a growing number of marketers who are attracting the customers to buy unneeded products by using psychological and emotional appeals. I believe these appeals are the driving force would excite quick responses from the customers.  This study aims to identify marketing ethics by reviewing past studies and discover some unethical practices in marketing.

Keywords: Advertising, Appeals., Customers, Deceptive Advertisements, Ethics, Marketing

Post Hazard Market Recovery Strategy on Consumer Patronage of Bush Meat in Nigeria (Published)

This study sought to evaluate bush meat markets in the aftermath of epidemic out break of the Ebola in Nigeria. In course of epidemics, governments institute regimes of enlightenment campaigns to stop or minimize the consumption, handling and processing of wild animals whens studies show that major segments of the population of countries like Nigeria  are at risk of contracting diseases. Also post epidemic, bush meat consumption drops, thereby giving rise to the need to encourage consumption. The major objective of this research is to empirically study post hazard market recovery strategies on consumer patronage of bush meat in Nigeria. The study was descriptive, using random sampling method to sample 250 respondents in two states of the South-east and South-south regions of Nigeria, applying a five point Likert style questionnaire with 87.3% Cronbach’s alpha value.  Analyses were done using SPSS version 22. First hypothesis was tested with the aid of Pearsons Chi square test producing a significant result. Binary regression analysis was used to fashion out a model for coordinated marketing effort. Three conclusions were reached, in the event of outbreak of an epidemic, “hazard factors” have to be emphasized in the campaign communication, secondly, countering and removing warnings about consumption will significantly affect consumption in  post epidemic period and finally the messages must be clear, credible, and consistent in an effort  to  impact consumption.  Finally, policy reappraisal and modification of present strategies have to be embarked upon to restore normalcy to the market for bush meat.

Keywords: Bush meat, Consumption, Epidemics, Market recovery, Marketing

The Strategies Put In Place by Selected Private Universities in Kenya to Address the Issues of Financial Sustainability (Published)

Private universities have a great responsibility of managing financial sustainability and hence the need to explore different strategies that would enhance their financial sustainability. Kenya Vision 2030 requires institutions to develop strategies that will help in achieving its goals. Therefore, this paper explores the strategies administrators in private universities use to manage financial stability. Three major strategies were adopted by selected private universities to enhance their financial sustainability. These strategies include students’ recruitment strategies, internal and external funding strategies and program development, review and diversification. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy’s General System Theory (GST) originally developed in the 1940’s – which later came to be known as System Theory – was the conceptual framework that guided this study. Qualitative grounded theory design was used for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and reporting data. An interview guide was used to collect data for the two research questions that guided the study. Data was collected using self-developed interview schedule, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. The data was then organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through use of codes and formation of categories which eventually developed broader and tentative themes and patterns that brought meaning out of the information collected. Twenty respondents of this study were chosen purposefully from four out of the five universities in Kenya founded as theological colleges and had been chartered as private universities at the time of the study. Triangulation was used for data collection to increase the trustworthiness of the findings. The findings of this study indicate that the strategies that were put in place were not yielding sufficient income because of the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore this study recommends ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are major impediments to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financial sustainable university.  

Keywords: Financial Sustainability, Marketing, Private University, Program development, Strategies., Student Recruitment, review and diversification

Marketing Tools for Sports Management and Development in Universities (Published)

The university system is a fertile ground for identification, management, and development of sports talents for sports industry. Every industry including sports industry produces and offers products and services to the society. Sports products and services are produced by sportspersons for sports consumers, and this contributes to the socio-economic, political, infrastructural and cultural development of sports in the university and society at large, if well managed and marketed. Sports in universities can be managed and developed using marketing tools such as sponsorship, advertising, sales promotion, publicity and public relations, packaging, branding, merchandising, labeling, personal selling, direct marketing and warranty. The relevance and applicability of these marketing tools to sports management and development have been highlighted. It was recommended that sports marketing tools should be employed by universities for their sports management and developmental efforts and programmes. Experts in sports marketing and management should be integrated into the running of sports in universities. There should be collaboration between practitioners of sports and marketing professions to see how best sports can be marketed to consumers using different marketing tools. Researches on marketing and promotional tools with the aim of discovering more marketing tools and their applicability to sports should be encouraged.

Keywords: Marketing, Sports Development, Sports Management, University

Recommendations Enhancing the Effectiveness of Marketing Plan at NHA Be Garment Corporation (Published)

Marketing plays an important role in establishing relationships between customers and the enterprises offering to the market… The marketing function is also tasked with branding of the enterprises, participation in publicity activities, advertising and customer interaction through feedback collection. Marketing is a vital business function that is necessary in nearly all industries whether the organization operates as a for-profit or as a not-for-profit. For the for-profit garment corporation, marketing is responsible for most tasks that bring revenue and, hopefully, profits to an organization. In this paper, the process of implementation of paper researcher also performed a SWOT analysis. Based on the two engines on research results and researcher has suggested recommendations of marketing plan for Nha Be Garment Corporation. This paper had been conducting a rigorous SWOT analysis with the objective of realizing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in comparison with the competitors’. Also, this paper had been analyzed the political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, natural, and demographic factors, to better understand the environment in which the business operates. Both analyses are essential to successful marketing planning.

Keywords: Customers, Marketing, Marketing plan, SWOT

Use of Gemification in Marketing (Published)

In this paper we deal with the application of gemification in the field of Internet marketing. We suggest the use of gemification to increase website traffic, increase the time spent on the website, and to increase the customer satisfaction with our product.

Keywords: Game Based Marketing, Gemification, Marketing, Social Networking

Gaps in Marketing: Challenges for Business Education in the West African Senior Secondary School Commerce Curriculum (Review Completed - Accepted)

This study evaluated the concepts of commerce and marketing, the bases of, and dynamic phases of marketing and advanced rationale for integrating additional contents of marketing in the West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum. Topical elements in the existing West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum were identified for the proposed integration as a way of renewal of the curriculum to meet new challenges facing the learners in the emerging business economy of West Africa. Hence in the light of the existing relationship between commerce and marketing and the changes in the relatively new business worlds, it has become imperative to inject some additional contents of marketing into the existing commerce curriculum in the West African Senior Secondary Schools (WASSS). However, marketing as a discipline is needed to be accorded the right recognition and approved as a stand-alone subject in the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE).

Keywords: : Business Economy, Business Education, Commerce curriculum, Marketing, West Africa

Commerce and Marketing: Challenges for Business Education in the West African Senior Secondary School Commerce Curriculum (Published)

This study evaluated the concepts of commerce and marketing, the bases of, and dynamic phases of marketing and advanced rationale for integrating additional contents of marketing in the West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum. Topical elements in the existing West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum were identified for the proposed integration as a way of renewal of the curriculum to meet new challenges facing the learners in the emerging business economy of West Africa

Keywords: : Business Economy, Business Education, Commerce curriculum, Marketing, West Africa

Marketing Activities and Perceptions towards Domestic Tourism and Domestic Tourists (A Case Of Accommodation Providers In Sāmoa) (Published)

Effective Marketing strategies and techniques have contributed to the competitive survival and development of many tourism operators worldwide. Given Sāmoa’s geographic isolation as a holiday destination, marketing activities should aim to target both international and domestic tourists. However, the Sāmoan Government tends to focus predominantly on the promotion of international tourism. Domestic tourism and travel by local tourists is an area neglected by some tourism operators and domestic marketing and promotional activities are limited. This paper presents the results of a small scale study designed to investigate marketing activities, perceptions towards domestic tourism and the idea of locals as tourists from the view point of operators in the Accommodation Sector. Convenience Sampling identified a sample of 50 Accommodation providers for the study. The percentage method analysis confirms the existence of marketing activities. In spite of this, existing marketing activities are primarily designed to target international tourists. Talanoa Research Method (TRM) was used to conduct in-depth interviews. Thematic Analysis highlighted some interest among operators to invest in marketing activities however financial constraints, high preference for international tourists and personal motives limited interest and investment in marketing activities to target local tourists

Keywords: Accommodation Providers., Domestic tourism, Marketing, Sāmoa., Tourism

Marketing Strategy and Innovation at Michelin (Published)

The great management guru, Peter F. Drucker, once made a very profound observation that, “Because the purpose of business is to create customers, a business enterprise has two and only two basic functions – marketing and innovation. Marketing and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs” (Drucker, 1995). In this paper, we focus on the marketing strategies and innovation strengths at the France based company, Michelin. The company simply produces tires made of rubber, but still has a multi-billion dollar empire and is a leader in the tire industry, and continues to generate new plans for advancing its business. Indeed, Michelin has one of the most recognizable logo in the world (see above). We delve into the history of Michelin, its association with French culture, and seek to deduce what are the factors resulting in its marketing and innovation models that contribute to its huge success over the last 125+ years. The central scope of the paper is to understand the marketing strategy of Michelin in the global marketplace, and, at the same time, to analyze how Michelin has been successful in being able to innovate and maintain a stronghold in this sector in terms of market share. With respect to innovation, we note key disruptions that Michelin has been producing in its research labs and with respect to its marketing. We dig deeply into the strategic-branding approach at Michelin and analyze topics such as brand positioning, brand image and equity, advertising, market segmentation, and targeting, all in the aforementioned global setting.

Keywords: Advertising, Brand Image, Innovation, Marketing, Michelin, Strategy

Assessing the Efficiency of Soya Bean Marketing In the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts of Ghana (Published)

The study aimed at assessing the efficiencies of soya bean marketing channels in the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts, Ghana. The multi-stage sampling technique was employed in selecting thirty-seven soya bean farmers, two wholesalers, seven retailers, two small-scale processors and one large-scale processor of soya beans for the study. Gross Margin analysis was employed in determining the marketing costs and margins whereas the Shepherd’s Method was used in analyzing the efficiencies of the marketing channels. The study revealed that nine different channels existed through which soya bean was marketed in the study areas, with the simplest channel (Channel 1) being where farmers sell directly to consumers. Analysis of marketing cost and margins revealed that comparatively, Channel 1 had the least cost (GH2.40) and margins (GH10.50) since farmers dealt directly with consumers without any interference from market intermediaries, who usually increase transaction cost. From the study, Channel 1 was the most efficient channel with an Efficiency Index of 37.71. Thus, its marketing cost constituted a smaller proportion of the consumer price. The study recommends that farmers use Channel 1 where they sell directly to consumers to market their produce and also form co-operatives to protect them against price fluctuation and give them assurance of buyers. Moreso, the central government is directed to intervene in the form of road construction and improvement to help reduce the excessive transportation cost associated with the soya bean trade in Ghana

Keywords: Efficiency, Ghana, Marketing, Marketing Channel, Soya Bean