A Critical Analysis of Promotional Mix Element and Organizational Performance in Champion Brewery Plc, Uyo. (Published)
Marketing mix element enabled the company to plan and execute pricing, promotion and distribution of products, services and ideas. Therefore, this study explores the use of promotional mix element (advertising, personal selling and sales promotion) to determine the relationship with organizational performance. The study was guided by three objective, research question and hypothesis. The descriptive survey research design was adopted and the population of the study comprised 330 employees in Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo in Nigeria and a sample size of 181 were drawn using Taro Yamane Formula. The instrument used in data collection was questionnaire with both closed and open ended questions. The instrument was validated by experts and reliability of the instruments was established using Cronbach Alpha and result yielded reliability coefficient of 0.84. Data obtained were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and the result revealed a significant relationship of promotional mix element such as Personal selling,, advertising and sales promotion on organizational performance. This therefore means that Personal selling, advertising and sales promotion are the promotional mix element that can enhance organizational performance. it is recommended that management periodically evaluates the contribution of sales promotion relative to other promotional tools and that organizations should use personal selling to promote their products since it has a greater influence on sales.
Citation: Uforo Akpan Ekanem (2021) A Critical Analysis of Promotional Mix Element and Organizational Performance in Champion Brewery Plc, Uyo, European Journal of Business and Innovation Research, Vol.9, No.4, pp. 11-23
Strategies for Sports Products and Place Management Adopted by Football Club Operators in South-South Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated strategies for sports products and place management adopted by football club operators in south-south, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population as well as sample for the study was 450 football club operators. A structured questionnaire titled strategies for sports product and place management questionnaire (SSPPMQ) was used for data collection. The reliability co-efficient of 0.77 was established through test-retest method using Pearson product moment correlation. The generated data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for research questions, while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of the study revealed that, some of the sports products management strategies such as provision of quality sports equipment for sports consumers and sales of quality sports items were not adopted by football club operators in south-south Nigeria. The findings also showed that, some of the sports place management strategies include adequate parking space, clean environment and the lightning inside and around the stadium were not adopted by football club operators in south-south Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, sports products should be regulated by sports ministries and the club management should provide adequate parking space, clean environment and the lightning inside and around the stadium.
The Effect of Branding on the Marketing Performance of Companies in the Mobile Phone Industry (Case Study of Techno Ghana, Accra) (Published)
In today’s highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business and its related marketing performance. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the performance in terms of success of the companies. The purpose of this study sets to analyse the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To identify the challenges associated with branding at Techno Ghana, identify the importance of branding in the marketing of Techno Products, determine the branding strategies adapted by Techno Ghana and ascertain the relationship between branding and the performance of Techno products in Ghana. Descriptive research design was used and data was collected from a sample size of 50 with the aid of questionnaires. Convenience sampling method was used for the selection of the respondents. Results revealed that lack of branding know-how and insufficient branding guidance for entrepreneurs are major challenges in techno Ghana. Also the results indicated that, brand impacts on the purchase decision of customers, helps customers to identify the source of products, and communicates features and benefits while developing and maintaining it branding activities through both internal and external agency. Brand extension and multiple branding are the major branding strategies used by Techno Company. Finally, the findings show that the company employs logos, jingles and packages and communicated them through TV campaigns and Events.
Application of Marketing Mix in Re-Positioning Adult and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria (Published)
Marking performs the role of bridging gaps between producers of goods and services and potential consumer. Marketing information serves as great instrument in repositioning organization’s operations. The paper examines the application of marketing mix in the repositioning of Adult and Non-formal Education to meet the global trend of sustainability. The paper presents the marketing mix (price, product, promotion and place) as the wheels upon which Adult and Non-formal Education could ride to greater height. The paper also highlighted the importance of Adult and Non-formal Education in nation building and maintains that these potentials are not fully taped because of the way the public, students, practitioners and the government perceives Adult and Non-formal Education. The paper concludes that given adequate involvement of government at all levels to Adult and Non-formal Education and the adoption of the marketing strategies presented in this paper, the dream of making Adult and Non-formal Education relevant will be achieved.
The Influence of Marketing Mix and Consumer Knowledge towards Kefir Mask Consumer Decision Process (Published)
This research aims to analyze the influence of marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion) and consumer knowledge towards consumer decision of kefir mask. This research is based on the theory of consumer decision processes developed by Engel et al. (2012). In addition, the independent variables included in this research, are based on the theory developed by Sumarwan et al. (2009), and consumer knowledge developed by Peter and Olson (2010). The research design is descriptive, with the survey conducted through questionnaire. The sampling technique used was convenience, with 152 samples obtained. There are six latent variables in this research, include marketing mix elements (product, price, place, and promotion) as well as consumer knowledge as independent variables, and consumer decisions as a dependent variable. The data obtained were processed using descriptive and structural equation modeling (SEM) method through LISREL software. Descriptive analysis explains that most of the examples obtained are women, with an age range between 18-25 years, married, undergraduate, and work as students. SEM analysis explains that there is a positive significant relationship of all marketing mix variables and consumer knowledge towards consumer decision process.
Marketing is a process within company to create value and build mutual relationship with its customer. Marketing is also a strategy to achieve the mission of organization and company; therefore, they have to be effective and better than their competitor in producing, shipping and communicating consumers’ value to the target market. The aim of this research is to find out and analyze the influence of marketing mix to the AIDA model. Marketing mix and AIDA model influence consumers in purchasing online product. The object of this research is consumer who buy online product, and the number of the sample are 97 customers; the sample is chosen by using accidental sampling. The researcher applies path analysis as data analysis method, and the result of this research shows that marketing mix influences AIDA model. Marketing mix and AIDA model influence directly and indirectly to the consumers in purchasing online product.
This research aims to demonstrate direct influences of marketing mix variations on the customer-based brand equity process for tablet chocolate and convenience products. The proposed model examines product quality, price perception, reaction to stock-outs, the perceived effect of advertising as antecedents of the customer-based brand equity process, along with the moderation of brand consciousness. Methodology includes simple random sampling and the partial least squares. Sample involves 172 female tablet chocolate consumers out of Generation X and Millennials in Istanbul, Turkey. Results indicate that product quality generates brand knowledge and loyalty, but price perception generates only loyalty. Besides, brand consciousness moderates the effect of product quality on brand knowledge. Implications include the effects of neglecting brand experience, the link between operations and marketing, and transition of marketing mix. The final model is proposed as a minimum requirement to substitute tablet chocolate branding due to concerns about public health and sugar consumption.
An Empirical Study of Marketing Mix as a Satisfaction Tool in Modern Sport Administration in Ghana (Published)
This paper aimed at (i) finding the extent of marketing mix adoption among sport institutions (ii) investigating the factors which prevent successful implementation of marketing mix by sport institutions (iii) identifying whether marketing mix adoption really leads to sport customers’ satisfaction (iv) highlighting any other findings which are relevant and can contribute towards effective marketing mix adoption by sport institutions in Ghana. The research took place in Takoradi Polytechnic, School of Business Studies, Department of Marketing. From October- 2015-Decemeber 2015. Structured self-completed questionnaires, journal, internet, books and Sport ministry of Ghana manuals were methodology used to collect data. 450 respondents from five main sport disciplines, sport stakeholders’ groups and Ghanaian sport customers were purposively selected. Data was analyzed using frequencies, mean, standard deviation, squared multiple correlation and cronbach alpah. 12 board members, 25 Chief executive officers, 30 Operating managers, 40 Coaching managers and 93 Other sport officials (Sport administration) and 146 sport customers, 24 sport sponsors, 30 sport development members, 25 sport advocate and 25 other sport stakeholders (Sport stakeholders) were sampled from 10 million Ghanaian sport customers (18 years and above and of sound mind). Source-Ministry of Youth and Sport, Ghana. Summary of views of respondents (Sport administrators) about marketing mix as a satisfaction tool on Likert scales ( 1=strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3= neutral, 4= agree and 5 strongly agree) is medium. Also, from Sport stakeholders’ perspective effectiveness of marketing mix adoption among sport institutions is medium. The study concluded that marketing mix adoption among sport institutions in Ghana is medium and also its usage as a satisfaction tool is effective for Sport administrators and ineffective for Sport stakeholders. Furthermore, it was discovered that the 7ps (product, price, promotion, place, people, process and physical evidence.) on their own are not enough to satisfy sport customers’ needs/wants
THE IMPACT OF SERVICE MARKETING MIX TO IMPROVE PERCEIVED IMAGE OF USERS OF PUBLIC URBAN TRANSPORTATION BUSES. CASE STUDY: COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSPORT COMPANY (ETUM) IN M’SILLA CITY ALGERIA (Published)
This study aimed to determine the impact of service marketing mix to improve perceived image of users of public urban transport buses. The theoretical part covers all the elements of marketing mix (7P’s). In addition, it includes a general overview about customer perceived image and that form a background for a better understanding of service marketing for public transport companies. In the empirical part, quantities research methods are used and data is collected through a survey for a random sample of ETUM buses users in M’silla city and obtained a total of 297 responses valid to analyze. The study results indicate that there is a relationship impact between marketing mix used by ETUM company and customer perceived image, but only 24,6% of respondents have a positive impression in service provided by the company, which is a very small rate. However, the impression in marketing mix used by ETUM company is overall neutral tended to be very likely negative especially if the company remains the current marketing strategies. Finally, the study has revealed that the difference in customers perceived image is not probably due to customer characteristics or differentiation; gender, educational level, and the income. Otherwise that difference is attributed to age group and profession.
The study sought to look at the role of marketing communication in the provision of micro finance services, using Bonzali Rural Bank, in the Northern Region of Ghana as a case study. Both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used to gather information from Bonzali Rural Bank. The researchers adopted the quota, purposive and simple random sampling methods to select the respondents. Questionnaires were respectively administered to customers of Bonzali Rural Bank. The data was analysed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).Some of the key findings during the research were that the physical evidence of the Bank was not the best. Personal selling according to the research was not at its peak, an indication that the Bank has not done a lot in that regard. Based on the findings, the Bank is doing well with the Marketing Communication Mix Elements. The researchers recommended that the Bank should focused on the physical evidence, i.e., the environment it operates including the building itself, equipment, vehicles etc. as they all communicate with the customers and the customers’ make judgment of the services provided by the Bank through the physical evidence. Not only that, but the processes and the people who deliver the services
Researching 4Ps Roles toward Each Other from View of Customers to Achieve Success in Marketing by Domestic Aluminum Producers (Review Completed - Accepted)
In our today competitive world, customers are the main focus of attentions for organizations; and their satisfaction is the main factor of acquiring competitive advantages for the companies. Also to attract customers’ satisfaction and meet the needs of them would not be achieved unless you have the exact recognition of customers’ requirements, expectations, tendencies, abilities and their limits in purchasing products. So by access to such information and using effective factors, making proper decisions, success in marketing and corporation progress will be achievable. To know different dimensions of customers’ tendencies and prioritize the related indicators in a standard frame is the most considerable, which in this study; the mentioned frame is marketing mix (the major variable) and its subdivision. By presenting the primitive model of research, according to the fact that in real world the variables have effect on each other, the first questionnaire is used to find out the quality of variables relations and to finalize the research method by means of DEMATEL method. The next two questionnaires are used to find out the weight of variables in marketing success and access to competitive advantages by means of ANP (analytical network process) and AHP (analytical hierarchy process) methods. Due to the study results, it is proved that the variable of product has the most influence on marketing success.
Marketing Mix – An Area of Unethical Practices? (Published)
In this paper we intend to develop the concept of ethic in marketing so the first section is concerned with presentation of the components of marketing and how each of them can subject of unethical practices. We try also to discuss some relevant issues related to the same. In the second section we focus on empirical study in order to show that many unethical marketing practices may be occurred especially which are related to pricing and advertizing practices.