Tag Archives: Market

Effects of International Marketing Environments on Entrepreneurship Development (Published)

Entrepreneurs all over the world seeks ways of introducing their products to international markets, unfortunately the international marketing environment pose a lot of opportunities and threats to foreign entrants. The cultural environment and political and technological environment has a lot to do in entrepreneurial success in global markets. This study employed the descriptive research design and questionnaires were used as instruments for gathering the much needed data. Findings revealed that the technological advancement has less significant impact on business transactions of international entrepreneurs which could be traceable to the fact that not all entrepreneurs are technological inclined to transact businesses. Furthermore, the political systems and governmental regulations on business dealings have a lot to do with entrepreneurial success in the international markets. The study recommends the establishment of a supportive governmental framework to serve as a platform for the willing entrepreneurs to succeed in the international market.

Keywords: Comparative Advantage, Entrepreneurship, International, Market, Nigeria

Teaching Materials: Role Play Simulation on Brazilian Government and Non-Market Forces Negotiation (Published)

This paper presents new teaching materials designed to: (a) provide teachers with educational tools and new insights about how to address insights on market and non-market forces’ strategies integration; negotiation with government; corporate compliance; mutual gains perspective; decision making process; ethics; uncertainties management; confrontations; relationship and credibility building; communication; strategic thinking. (b) enhance students’ skills on complex negotiations and consensus building; and (c) provoke debates in classroom regarding to changes in the Brazilian non-market forces, in particular the influence of government, on companies’ corporate strategies. a teaching material for professionals intending to study and explore the many variables present when negotiating with government. One key lesson to be absorbed by the participants is how to apply negotiations principles and methodologies. A full set of instructions to practitioners and to facilitators complete the present work.

Keywords: Compliance, Government Negotiation, Market, Non-Market Forces

Management of Open Innovation in Developing Small Businesses (Published)

Open innovation is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly important for the theory and the practice in recent years. The reasons for this can be found in the new innovation cycles, industrial research and escalation of development costs and also the lack of resources. The phenomenon of open source has attracted researchers and practitioners of innovation. The era of open innovation starts when companies understand that if they want to commercialize their ideas, they should look for a way to bring them to the market of ideas. They need to deploy the roads outside the current businesses and to realize that their center, where the knowledge is created, does not always equal the innovations that need to be found within the company. The approach of open innovation enables innovations to move easily between the external environment and the internal process of innovation of the company. How often open innovation approach is put into practice and whether there are recognized patterns are issues that are examine by our empirical studies.

Keywords: Competition, Customers, Management, Market, open innovation, suppliers

Slamming the Legal Guillotine on Deceptive Advertising: The Situs of Liability (Published)

This article examines the legal consequences of deceptive advertising with particular attention on who should bear the liability of such deceptive advertising. The primary objective of the study is to show that both the manufacturer who procures an advertising agent and the procured agent will be liable under the Nigerian law. The consumer is mostly motivated to go for a particular product by the persuasive force of an advertisement. Where the advertisement becomes awry, the issue of liability becomes germane. The article demonstrated clearly why the manufacturer and the advertising agent procured for the purpose of disseminating the deceptive advertisement are liable.

Keywords: Deceptive Advertising, Legal Consequences, Market, Trade, liability

Assessment of Digital Economic Trade on Consumer (Published)

Increasing volumes of e-trade contribute to motivation of consumers to obtain commodities and services in electronic space. At the same time, upsurge of e-trade determines rising scopes of shadow economy in respect of favorable conditions for traders and service providers to operate in e-space evading taxpaying. The purpose of the article is to identify the factors of digital shadow consumption. In order to fulfill the defined purpose, the empirical research – survey of consumers (e-trade participants) – was performed. The research of the scientific literature has revealed that thus far the problem of consumers’ participation in digital shadow economy has been basically analyzed focusing on the impact of e-payment systems on shadow economy. Nevertheless, the rapid spread of e-services determines the changes in the concept of shadow economy itself. It remains indistinct which features indicate whether economic activities performed in e-space should be accounted or not. Widely exploited e-spaces such as social network platforms, alternative future currencies, e-trade systems, cyber computer games or online gambling terminals generate turnover of real money (or its electronic equivalent), which is not officially accounted. The problem raised in this article is highly topical for Lithuania, where online networks as well as mobile connection systems are comparatively advanced (with reference to the data of Lithuanian Department of Statistics, the number of households possessing a computer and the Internet access made over 65% in 2013). Intense exploitation of advanced IT technologies and online networks is considered as a breeding ground for generation of digital economy, a part of which is presumed to be digital shadow. The results of the research have revealed that the most significant factors of digital shadow consumption include lower prices of products and services in digital black markets, unfavorable economic situation in the country, technological advancement, IT advantages, time saving obtaining a product/service in the local market and lack of opportunities to obtain a desired product in the local market. The majority of the consumers neither verify the status of a trader nor request (or not always request) purchase confirmation documents, which highly contributes to motivation of an illegal trader to maintain e-activities unregistered, this way escaping revenue taxation.

 

Keywords: Consumer, E-trade, Economic, Electronic, Market, Technology

Slamming the Legal Guillotine on Deceptive Advertising: The Situs of Liability (Published)

This article examines the legal consequences of deceptive advertising with particular attention on who should bear the liability of such deceptive advertising. The primary objective of the study is to show that both the manufacturer who procures an advertising agent and the procured agent will be liable under the Nigerian law. The consumer is mostly motivated to go for a particular product by the persuasive force of an advertisement. Where the advertisement becomes awry, the issue of liability becomes germane. The article demonstrated clearly why the manufacturer and the advertising agent procured for the purpose of disseminating the deceptive advertisement are liable.

Keywords: Deceptive Advertising, Legal Consequences, Market, Trade, liability

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being  the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth  The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Farm Products, Gender, Market, Youth

Economic Aspects of Certified Polish Cultural Products In Light Of Research (Published)

The purpose of researching a number of Polish tourist-oriented, high quality products was to determine the key economic factors for cultural tourism improvement in Poland. The results of research studies, which can assist tourism enterprises further develop the highest quality products of cultural tourism, have indicated that modern day tourist’s preferences are high-quality products. The studies have proven that the most important single factor influencing high quality products supply, was local authorities’ support of the tourist-oriented organizations that have developed the brands based on high quality) cultural products. The unique features of this research has been confirmed by A. Mikos von Rohrscheidt based on his studies performed from 2010 to 2014. These studies which are based on analyses of monographs and key scientific papers on cultural tourism published both in Poland and abroad.

Keywords: Cultural Products, Demand, Market, Price-Setting, supply

The World Trade Organization: Implications on Global Economy (Published)

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global body dealing with the rules of trade between nations. Its primary purpose is the regulation of the conduct of trade among member nations in order to ensure adherence to the principles of fair dealing. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. These agreements cover all areas of trade relating to goods and services, including intellectual property, custom tariffs, trade barriers and open markets, the principles of liberalization, their exceptions, and dispute settlement procedures. These agreements are however not static as they are renegotiated from time to time and new agreements added as deemed necessary by member nations. This paper thus examines the structure of the WTO vis-à-vis its origins and development, principles, hierarchies, and existing agreements with a view to determining their future implications on world trade.

Keywords: Global Economy, Market, Rules of Trade, Word Trade Organization

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Gender, Market, Youth

COMMUNAL NON-FORMAL FINANCIAL MARKET SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: A MODEL FOR NNOBOA MARKET SYSTEM (Published)

Communal market system of mobilizing resources or funding has been with the indigenous people in the past. In Africa, particularly in Ghana it has been with the traditional people up to today. As we find it had to move the economy as a whole up, the indigenous people through this means are making it up in life. The problem has been with the impulsion of the western capitalism, which thrives on greed and individualism. This article gives reasons why Ghana should introduce a second financial market with traditional flavor. It recommends the modification of the old land marks, nnoboa, with modern technology which thrived through trust, communality and reciprocity that worked before the invasion of the land by the west to force us into capitalism

Keywords: Capitalism, Development, Ghana, Market, Nnoboa, synergy

A SECTORIAL ANALYSIS OF SUKUK MARKET BASED ON DETERMINANTS OF RISK AND RETURN PERFORMANCES (Published)

The present study attempted to identify different types of risks embedded in sukuk structure and to determine the impact of different types of risks on return of sukuk. Further, this study has also attempted to explore the relationship between market risk, credit risk, operational risk, liquidity risk and sukuk returns. Researcher collected data from the year 2005 to 2013. Data were collected on periodic basis for determining the impact of the diverse risks on sukuk returns daily. This study analyzed the data using line charts, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and regressions i.e. ordinary least square with F and t statistics. Results of this study revealed that NASDAQ sectorial basis sukuk index found to have four models which explain from 84% to 91 % of variations in returns. As such global sukuk return, sovereign sukuk return, corporate sukuk return and financial sukuk return are explained by 84%, 91%, 86% and 88% respectively. These results might also be affected by interest rate risk, inflation risk, dollar rate risk, maturity risk, credit risk & default risk, legal & Shari’ah compliance risk, liquidity risk, and reinvestment risk. These results provided support for the hypotheses and shown a relationship between total return and different type of risks. Since sukuk markets are becoming famous in globally developed countries which try to adopt Islamic sukuk for prevailing financial crisis, this study has many implications for the managerial and policy making level.

Keywords: Market, Performance, Return, Risk, sukuk structure

DETERMINANTS OF RISK AND RETURN PERFORMANCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GCC SUKUK MARKET STRUCTURE (Published)

The research study focusing on determinants of return and risk performance in the GCC sukuk market structure is sparse. Therefore, present study attempts to identify different types of risks embedded in sukuk structure, to determine the impact of different types of risks on return of sukuk and to explore and analyze the relationship between market risk, credit risk, operational risk, liquidity risk and sukuk returns in GCC market. This research covers nine years sample period beginning from January 2005 to June 2013. The 2282 daily observations of adjusted closed values of each index has downloaded from websites of Nasdaq Dubai sukuk market. This study used various methods o analyze the data. Results of this study reveal that Nasdaq sukuk index sectorial basis in GCC found that 91% of the GCC sukuk returs were explains by GSKI, 92% of the GCC sukuk returns were explained by GSKC and 93% of the GCC corporate sukuk returns were explained by GSKF. This variance are due to maturity risk, Shari’ah compliance risk , liquidity risk, reinvestment risk , interest rate risk, credit risk, inflation risk and dollar rate risk. Thereby the objectives set in this study proved the relationship between total return and different type of risks. The implications of this study, limitations and areas for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: Market, Performance, Return, Risk, Structure, Sukuk

DETERMINANTS OF RISK AND RETURN PERFORMANCE SIGNIFICANCE ON MATURITY BASED SUKUK MARKET STRUCTURE (Published)

This research focuses on determinants of recent return and risk performance in the sukuk market. Therefore, this paper attempted to identify different types of risks embedded in sukuk structure and to determine the impact of different types of risks on return of sukuk analyze the relationship between risk and sukuk returns as objectives. Data were collected on periodic basis for determining the impact on daily from 2005 to 2013. This research study considered sukuk returns as dependent variable and many independent variables such as diverse risks, which are interest rate risk, inflation risk, foreign exchange risk, legal risk, Shari’ah compliance risk, credit risk, default risk, maturity risk, liquidity risk, and reinvestment risk. The data presentation and analysis using line charts and descriptive statistics followed by the correlation analysis, regressions i.e. ordinary least square (OLS) are conducted with F and t statistics.Results of this study reveal that Dow Jones maturity base confirmed that four models explain 70% to 80 % of variation such as DJ M3T sukuk return is 80%, DJ M5T sukuk return is 78%, DJ M7T sukuk return is 75% and DJ M10T sukuk return is 75%.There is relationship between market risk ,credit risk ,operational risk , liquidity risk and Sukuk returns. These results revealed that objectives set in this research study proved the relationship between total return and different type of risks. This research has implications for the managerial and policy making level. Since sukuk markets are becoming famous globally developed countries try to adopt Islamic sukuk for prevailing financial crisis

Keywords: Market, Maturity, Performance, Return, Risk

Economic Analysis of Sunday Market in Srinagar City (Published)

In the present study an attempt has been made to study various characteristics of Sunday market in the summer capital of Jammu And Kashmir State. The main aim was to study the quality and price structure of products sold in the market. Also special emphasis has been given to examine the job satisfaction of vendors and reasons for joining the Sunday market. With the help of interview schedules information has collected from 200 respondents. Our probe revealed that both second hand and good quality products were sold in the Sunday market at cheaper prices than normal prices. Also we found both sellers and buyers were satisfied in the market.

Keywords: Buyers, Market, Price, Products, Quality, Vendors