Working Capital Management –Performance Relationship: A Study of Small and Medium Enterprises in Akure, Nigeria (Published)
Despite the available potentials for sustainable growth and development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) especially in developing economies, poor management of working capital has continued to deny most SMEs the optimum performance needed to annex the inherent potentials in the business. The study therefore seeks to investigate the relationship between management of working capital and Performance of small and medium enterprises; assess various sources of financing working capital; evaluate working capital management and identify problems associated with the management of working capital of SMEs in Akure, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey with primary source of data collection through a well-structured questionnaire, to elicit information from randomly selected respondents. Both the descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis. The study discovered a significant and positive relationship between working capital and performance of SMEs; identified bank loan, loan from family members and friends, and personal savings as major sources of financing working capital. The study also revealed cash as mostly used of all other working capital components while ineffective management of cash appeared to be most worrisome of all the problems associated with working capital management in the study area. The study concluded that effective working capital management ensures that SMEs have enough funds for day to day running of the business, which suggests consideration for other sources of financing working capital such as cooperative societies among others, for optimum performance needed by SMEs to annex the potentials for sustainable growth and development.
The Impact of Coronavirus (Covid 19) On the Economy in the Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia: A Review (Published)
Ever since the appearance of the coronavirus, a state of intense anticipation arose over its evolution until it began sweeping through a large number of countries in the world and became a global epidemic, threatening all societies and peoples. The spread of such epidemics will necessarily have economic, political, and social implications. With the spread of this virus, the economic interests of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will be negatively affected in many sectors, including tourism and many others, as well as low oil prices. This article focuses on the negative impact of the coronavirus on the economy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and how the Kingdom has tried to get out of this crisis and confront it, as well as plans for life after the coronavirus.
Utilization of Electronic Human Resource Management among University Administrators in Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the utilization of electronic human resource management among university administrators in Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The population of the study comprised forty-six (46) Deans in the six (6) public universities in Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria. A sample size of forty-one (41) Deans representing 89% of the entire population using a simple random sampling technique was taken. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Instrument titled, “Utilization of Electronic Human Resource Management among University Administrators Scale (UEHRMAUAS) was validated. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.82 using Cronbach Alpha Statistics which guaranteed the use of the instrument for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the hypothesis was tested using z-test statistics at 0.05 alpha level. It was found among others that, utilization of human resource management among university administrators in Rivers and Bayelsa States in Nigeria has improved the administrative process in the universities. Recommendation among others is that the university management should ensure the provision of internet connected computers in all the offices in the universities.
Working Capital Management Firm Liquidity and Stock Market Seasonality: Evidence from Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the relationship between Working Capital Management Firm Liquidity and Stock Market Seasonality among quoted firms in Nigeria. Six hypotheses were formulated following the dependent variable of Stock Market Liquidity. The independent variables employed for this study include: Liquidity Ratio, Account Payable Day, Account Receivable Day, Inventory Day, Firm Leverage and Firm Size. This study is based on ex-post facto research design and employed a panel data set collected Fifty (50) non-financial companies over an eight year period ranging from 2011 to 2018 financial year. We analyzed the data set using descriptive statistics, correlation and Panel Ordinary Least Square Regression Analysis. Our finding lends credence to the efficient market theory which holds that share markets prices are unpredictable and as such cannot be forecasted. Specifically, the finding suggests that market liquidity cannot predict stock market returns irrespective of the season of the year. Hence, we carefully hold that the stock market in Nigeria is efficient due to its randomness and will rapidly respond to any information or anomalies presented to it. The study recommends among others that policy makers in emerging markets such as Nigeria should ease entry barriers for prospective firms so as to enhance liquidity. The study further recommends that, proper inventory management system should be put in place in order to avoid working capital mismanagement.
The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize the importance of human capital within organizations, as well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that capital. Learning and development as many refer to it now is one of the most important aspects of our lives and our work. Many people view training as an activity that produces the result or outcome of learning and learning is typically viewed as new knowledge, skills and competencies or abilities. In this report we will discuss the training and development and its importance now a day for all organizations in order to achieve and reach their objectives and goals through set a training plan and then translate this plan to real training courses for each employee to refine and improve their skills, knowledge…est. Also we will talk about the several types and methods of training and development. Finally, how much value or interest that this training and development can offer to the employees and the company itself.
Influence of Mentoring On Professional Commitment of Business Educators in Tertiary Institutions in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated mentoring and professional commitment of business educators in Edo and Delta States. One research question guided the study. Two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A population of 231business educators was used for the study because the size was manageable. The instrument used for the study was a 10 item questionnaire. Cronbach Alpha was used to determine the reliability of the instrument and the result yielded aggregate reliability co-efficient of 0.87. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question. The t-test was used to test null hypothesis 1 and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypothesis 2. The finding revealed that mentoring practice did not influence the professional commitment of business educators in Edo and Delta States. The result of hypotheses testing showed no significant difference on professional commitment of business educators either by gender or types of tertiary institutions in Edo and Delta States. It was, therefore, recommended among others that management of tertiary institutions in Edo and Delta State especially of department of business education programme should compulsorily institute formal mentoring practice in addition to the available informal professional mentoring for business educators. This could help to give more opportunities to the young/inexperienced business educators to learn from the wealth of experience of the older and more experienced business educators so as to enhance their professional commitment. Also, management especially of department of business education programme need to urgently improve on the present professional mentoring practice for business educators by encouraging use of multiple mentoring among business educators in different tertiary institutions in Edo and Delta States.
Characterization, Classification and Management of Some Soils in Ujam District of Makurdi, Benue State (Published)
An intensive soil survey was carried out in Ujam District, the two sites chosen were designated: (1) Tse-Tswam and (11) Tse-Ordam. The aims were to characterize, classify and proffer management practices for the soils. At each site, three profiles pits were sunk and morphologically described. Samples collected from identified genetic horizons were subjected to analyses using standard analytical procedures. The soil profiles ranged from deep (118cm) to very deep (200cm); well to imperfectly drained; epipedons’ colour varied from very dark brown (7.5YR 2/3)/brownish black (7.5 YR 3/1) due to melanisation; subsoils were dull reddish brown (5YR4/4) due to rediomophism and brownish gray (10 YR 5/1) as imprint of gleization; Mottles on the subsoils may be attributed to drainage impedance; sandy loam or loamy sand surfaces with clay to sandy clay loam subsoils to sandstone parent material and weak fine crumb to moderate/strong fine-coarse subangular blocky structures. The soils had medium to high sand (41.20-83.00%), very low to medium clay (06.02.58- 43.25%) and low silt (10.65-16.96%) fractions; medium bulk density (1.19-1.38gmcm-3) and porosity (48.68-56.60%). Soil reaction was slightly acid (5.67-6.50); low organic carbon (1.05-0.30%), nitrogen (0.03-0.18%), Available phosphorus (3.00-10.10%) and EC (0.10-0.13dms-1). CEC was very low (6.34-9.10cmolkg-1) likewise CaCO3 (0.00-2.00%); medium to high base saturation (48.80-91.90%). All soil units (1-V1) possessed argillic horizons with base saturations that were ≤50%(NH4OAc at pH 7) and were classified into Alfisols at soil order level; units 1 and 111 further qualified into Eutric Epiaqualfs (Vertic luvisols Clayiec,kandic), 11 into Dystric Haplustalf (Dystric Luvisol Kandic, Clayiec) and 1V into Arenic Haplustalfs (Vertic Luvisols arenic, Dystric). Units V was placed into (Haplic Eutrustalf (Glayeic Luvisol Eutric,kandic) at subgroup while soil unit V1 was keyed into Glayiec Haplustalf (Glayeic Luvisol Kandic, Clayeic). Organic/mineral fertilizers incooporation into these soils will improve soil fertility, structure and water retention.
Examination of the Application of Health and Safety Plan on Construction Sites in Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)
The construction industry is an important part of the economy in many countries and is often seen as a driver of economic growth especially in developing countries. Owing to its relatively labour intensive nature, construction works provide opportunities for employment for a wide range of people skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled. Despite its importance, construction sites are considered risky with frequent and high accident rates and ill-health problems to workers. However, knowledge on health and safety management and related factors on construction sites in Lagos State is not well documented. This study was therefore undertaken to examine the current practice of application of Health and Safety Plan during project implementation. In pursuing this objective, a descriptive case study research design was used where 32 construction project sites in Lagos State were selected through random sampling. A total of one hundred and twenty eight (128) copies of questionnaire were administered to participants with years of experience on construction management in Lagos State, Nigeria. Data obtained based on snowball and random sampling technique were analysed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21 using Mean Scores and Relative Importance Index (RII). The significance of each of the associated variables as impacted on construction workers health and safety practices on buildings project were determined using Independent Samples Test, Mann-Whitney U Test. Descriptive outcome of the statistical analyses showed a high prevalence need of safety practices. The findings of the study established dissatisfaction with effective use of health and safety plan and its implementation among site operatives because workers find it difficult to adapt to as it was against their traditional practices(RII=0.776), unethical practice of workers due to human attitudinal peculiarities (RII=0.766),inadequate engagement of safety managers on sites (RII=0.764), inadequate engagement of safety managers and ineffective supervision on site(RII=0.762) as well as poor communication between site managers and site operatives (RII=0.756) as factors preventing effective use of health and safety plan among the categories of respondents sampled. The study concluded based on Mann-Whitney U Test result on health and safety improvement measures and control systems available for health and safety practices and workers performance on construction sites. The study recommends use of a more proactive and integrated management mechanism to enforce the existing Safety and Health regulations in construction sites, in order to prevent accidents, injuries and ill health on the site.
The Dynamics of Internal Boundary Conflict Management between Cross River State and Her Neighbours 1978-2010 (Published)
The concern of academics the world over is to contribute to the development and peaceful co-existence of its citizens, hence they domicile their research towards achieving this objective. Using descriptive methodology, this study critically examines the crisis bedevilling Nigerian communities, arising majorly, from boundary or border lines. This crisis has raised a lot of concern with dire consequences on the people’s cordial relationship. This paper therefore attempts to examine the existing relationship over time amongst the people of the study area, taking into consideration the causes of the conflict with a view to proffering possible solutions in curbing them. In achieving the above, the paper discovered that DECREE 23 of 1985 rather than carefully studying the situation with consultations, the authorities were rather in a hurry with its enactment. Also at the pivot of the conflicts is the National Boundary Commission which must be proactive if peace must be achieved.
Perception of Stakeholders on the Maintenance Management Strategies for Sports Facilities in Selected Universities in Southwestern, Nigeria (Published)
The paper identified and examined facilities maintenance strategies adopted in selected universities in south-western Nigeria, examined maintenance planning and factors influencing the choice of maintenance strategies adopted in the study area. Data were sourced using a structured questionnaire administered on sportsmen and women and the maintenance staff of the maintenance department in the universities sampled. The sample size captured all the fifteen games, featured in Nigeria university games association (NUGA) in the three federal universities that had such facilities for the fifteen games and have hosted the national and international sporting event were purposively selected. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages and mean response analysis. The findings revealed that the most influencing factors for the choice of maintenance strategies were maintenance policy with a mean score of (3.90), technological factors (3.85), maintenance standard (3.76), maintenance tactics (3.74), economic factors (3.74), and environmental factors (3.73). The study concluded that the most widely used maintenance strategy was reactive maintenance strategy and identified its problem to be the adoption of a piecemeal approach to the maintenance of facilities thereby resulting in under-maintenance of sports facilities.
Student Council Members’ Management of Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
In Kenya, there has been increasing concern that acts of student indiscipline are on the rise in schools. In light of this view, this paper explores the extent to which student council members manage of students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by the Social Systems Theory, which states that an organization is a system that comprises of different units which are interrelated in carrying out activities. The study’s main research question was to what extent do student councils to meaningfully participate in management of students’ discipline in secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County? The study employed ex post facto research design. The target population was student councillors, deputy, head teachers and principals in public secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County. Stratified simple random sampling techniques were used to select the sample to participate in the study. Data collection was through use of a questionnaire and interview. Descriptive statistics such as means, percentages, frequencies, means and standard deviations were used to analyse and present the research data. To test hypotheses independent samples t-test and ANOVA were used. From the findings of the study, the research concluded that student council members were aware of the mission and vision of their schools. Majority of the participants were trained to follow rules and regulations. Problem solving strategies were also covered during training. Moreover, student council members were taught the importance of skills public speaking. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the Kenya Ministry of Education should come up with a proper school governance system that enables student councillors to participate in decision-making process and especially in matters that concern students through active involvement in various meetings. The Ministry should adopt a proper school governance system that enables student councillors to participate in decision-making process especially in matters that concern students through active involvement in various meetings.
The study investigated electronic human resource management for University administration in Rivers State. Five research questions and five hypotheses were formulated to serve as guide for the study. The design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. Population of the study was 12,056 academic staff in Rivers State Universities while 749 academic staff were sampled for the study through stratified random sampling technique. Instrument used for data collection was a 25-item questionnaire titled “Electronic Human Resource Management for University Administration Questionnaire” (EHRMUAQ) and the instrument was validated by two experts in the Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha statistic with an index of 0.82.Research questions raised were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using z-test at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of the study revealed that public and private Universities differ in the extent of use of electronic platforms for planning, recruitment and selection, wage administration and compensation, and performance appraisal for University administration, while they do not differ in the area of training and development. It was recommended among others that sufficient electronic devices should be provided in these Universities for carrying out these administrative functions.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of credit risk on the financial performance of commercial banks in Nepal. The balance panel data of ten commercial banks with 160 observations for the period of 2001 to 2016 have been used for the analysis. The regression results revealed that capital adequacy ratio (CAR), non-performing loan ratio (NPLR), and management quality ratio (MQR) have significant relationship with the financial performance (ROA) of the commercial banks in Nepal. Similarly, credit to deposit ratio (CDR) and risk sensitivity (RS) have no significant impact on the financial performance of the commercial banks in Nepal.
Principals ‘management of Internally Generated Funds to Enhance Public Secondary Schools’ Financing for Sustainable National Development (Published)
This study aimed at investigating the ways management of internally generated funds enhanced secondary school financing for sustainable national development. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study comprised all public secondary schools principals/vice principals. A study sample of 539 respondents was used to generate data for the study. Three null hypotheses were formulated to be tested in the study. A 24 item questionnaire titled “Principals’ Management of Internally Generated Funds for Improved School Financing Questionnaire” (PMIGFISFQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated, and its reliability established at 0.89. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. The null hypotheses testing revealed significant relationship between management of school internally generated funds and schools financing improvement for sustainable national development. It was found out that principals’ management skills in budgeting, auditing and keeping financial records significantly relate to school financing improvement. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Government through Ministry of Education and secondary Education Board should organized seminar and workshops for school principals to sharpen their skills in financial management of internally generated revenue as a strategy for improved secondary schools’ financing for sustainable national development.
Effect of Management Factor on Stochastic Frontier Production of Organic Rice Farming in Indonesia (Published)
The main problem in this study is the effect of management factor on stochastic frontier production of organic rice farming that emphasized production efficiency. The aim of this research was to analyze the role of managerial ability of farmers in organic rice farming production. This study was conducted on 216 organic rice farmers as a sample during two planting seasons with purposive sampling method. The sample was consisted of two farmer groups, i.e. Pangudi Bogo and Pangudi Raharjo in Dlingo Village, Mojosongo District, Boyolali Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. This research used stochastic frontier production function approach with cross section data and estimated with maximum likelihood estimation. The result showed that average value of production efficiency is 0.5928 and the most dominant variable in determining the technical inefficiency of organic rice farming was variable of farming system management.
This paper examined the implications of land tenure system on farm layout and management practices in a rural economy. In addition to the synthesis of the existing literature, key informant interview (KII), Focus Group Discussions (FGD), personal observations and questionnaire administrationwere used in data collection.Simple statistical tools wereused to analyze theland tenure features, farm layout and farm management practices. The results revealed that 58% of farmers have use rightto land, 25% have right to trade offtheir land, 17% use family land and 50% have right to lease their land. Sun shade and storage barn were observed farm facilities with foot part used for layout. About 70% practice mixed cropping while 30% practice mono-cropping with no significant long term investment on farming due to existing tenure system. The paper recommends a review of the existing land tenure to accommodate land right to encourage long term investment to ensure sustainable agriculture.
Modern School Management and Its Impact on the Academic Achievement of the Students of the Basic Stage in Jordanian Public Schools (Published)
The study aimed to identify the modern school administration and its impact on the academic achievement of the students of the basic stage in the Jordanian government schools. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool and data collection and analysis. Directorate of Education Jerash, While the sample of the study consisted of (20) students from Jerash Elementary School for Boys. The study found that there is a statistically significant effect of the modern school administration on the academic achievement of the students of the basic stage in Jordanian public schools. Modern administration in the various directorates of education affiliated to the Jordanian Ministry of Education.
The Preferred Crisis Management Strategies among Lecturers in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria and the Need for Guidance and Counselling Intervention (Published)
The aim of this study was to investigate the preferred crises management strategies among lecturers in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study was one thousand two hundred and forty-two (1,242) lecturers. The total sample used for the study was five hundred respondents who were drawn through stratified random sampling from four institutions of higher learning in Cross River State. The instrument used for the data collection was the researcher’s developed Preferred Crisis Management Strategies Questionnaire (P.C.M.S.Q). It has two sections, A and B. Section A contained the personal data while B contained four point Likert scale type, made up of sixteen (16) items. The data collected from the samples were subjected to statistical analysis using the population and independent t-test. To accomplish the study objective, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The following findings emerged; the preference for force crisis management strategy by lecturers was significantly low in tertiary institutions in Cross River State. Sex does not influence lecturers’ preference for dialogue as a crisis management strategy. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made. The government should adequately fund education, and the schools should devise local sources of generating funds while well-meaning individuals and companies should assist, dialogue should be adopted as evidenced in the study.
The study sought to analyse the effect of road asset management (RAM) on performance of road agencies in Kenya. The study was guided by stakeholder theory and it posited a conceptual framework in which road assets management was the independent variable, road agency performance the dependent variable. A correlation survey design was employed to find out the relationships between the study variables.A purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents for the study and data was collected using structured questionnaire. Results showed that RAM was a positive and significant predictor of road agency performance in Kenya and it accounted for 81.7% of variance in performance of the road agencies in Kenya.The study concluded that RAM contribute significantly to road agency performance and recommends that RAM should be integrated in the policies of road agencies in Kenya in order to realize better condition of roads in Kenya in the long run.
The Role of Village Consultative Board (BPD) in the Management of Village Funds in Limbong Village, Dolok Merawan Subdistrict, Serdang Bedagai Regency, Indonesia (Published)
The village fund in its management is carried out in an orderly manner, abiding by the provisions of the legislation, efficient, economical, effective, transparent, and accountable by paying attention to the sense of justice and propriety and prioritizing the interests of the local community, listed in Government Regulation number 22 of 2015 concerning Village Funds. Supervision of Village Fund Management by BPD in Limbong Village is done by monitoring all income and expenditure of village cash, to support the monitoring, BPD Limbong Village, Dolok Merawan District asks for Village Finance Report, both income and expenditure but in doing the monitoring are still many members Some of the BPD who do not understand what to do even know nothing about thevVillage fund.