Bioproductivity of two contrasting watershed management system were evaluated in pot and field experiment to ascertain the effect of management and slope on the productivity of okra. The field studies were conducted on four slope gradients of watershed in an experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The pot experiments were carried out on the soils of the two management practices (managed and unmanaged) and were arranged in a complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. NPK fertilizer 15:15:15 at the rate of 150kg/ha was applied as blanket treatment and okra used as test crop. The experiment was carried out on a sandy loam typic paleudult in Amawbia Anambra state southeast Nigerian. The data generated from the study were subjected to analysis of variance and significant mean differences were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The result of the study showed that natural environments of the four slopes in managed plots significantly increased the growth and yield parameters of okra than the unmanaged plots. Slope 4 (plain) of the managed watershed recorded statistically similar productivity with the unmanaged plots by virtue of their non-significant difference (P < 0.05) exhibited in most of the parameters assessed. The NPK fertilizer result indicated that the treatment boasted the productivity of both managed and unmanaged watershed ecosystem.
Integrated Management System Implementation in SMEs: A Proposed model for Organisational Performance and Sustainability (Published)
Management systems are important for any organization especially to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that face limitations in areas that larger firms have stability. One of the approaches to overcome these challenges and maintain business growth is implementing and following an integrated management system (IMS), as a model for improving the organizational performance and to maintain sustainable growth in a business. SMEs are global leaders in providing employment opportunities – around 60-70 % in developed economies and 99% of all business in OECD countries, hence sustaining them and enhancing their performance in the business market over larger firms is critical to retain employment opportunities in the future. IMS provides internal and external benefits, especially being more feasible and appropriate for SMEs by increasing competitiveness, stability in business, effective resources management and resilience during market challenges. However, it’s important to focus on the specific characteristics and factors that determine SMEs effective implementation of IMS. To overcome the various barriers limiting their business growth and organizational performance, the proposed conceptional model developed through this research study in conjunction with the associated factors would enable SMEs to effectively implement IMS to achieve organizational performance and sustainability. SMEs in order to maintain a competitive nature in the emerging business markets must adopt different strategies and mechanisms to address the challenges in technology and innovation, which are the prime impacting factors that define a clear road map for sustainable growth.