Perception and Uptake of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test among Caregivers of Under-Five in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
The launch of RDT is hoped to enable in reducing the rate of presumptive treatment of malaria. However, simply making RDTs available has not led to high uptake of the test, in light of this, it is crucial to understand the perception of RDT and its uptake among caregivers concerning the treatment of malaria in under five children, therefore the aim of the study was to determine the perception and uptake of rapid diagnostic test in the treatment of malaria among care givers of under five children in Owerri West Local Government. Descriptive study was employed and a multi stage cluster and systematic sampling techniques was used to select 420 respondents in the LGA. The Instrument for data collection was structured pre- tested questionnaire which was administered by trained researcher after gaining informed consent from the respondents. Results of the study showed that more respondents were aged 30 -49 years 161 (38.3%), females 268 (63.8%), Married 216 (51.4%), Primary education 126 (63.8%) and civil servant was 196 (46%) respectively. Perception of malaria RDT showed that 175 (41.7%) respondents were of the opinion that mRDT was useful, 102 (24.3%) not useful, 101 (24%) dangerous while 16 (2.8%) felt it was not good. Malaria RDT uptake indicated that majority of the respondents 223 (53.1%) did not know about RDT and 215 (51.2%) did not carry out mRDT test. 300 (73.8%) indicated that malaria rapid diagnostic test is not very useful and 373 (88.8%) of caregivers were of the opinion that mRDTs w ere expensive. From the study it is evident that the perception of malaria rapid diagnostic is negative and low, therefore sensitization of the caregivers about mRDTs will be of benefit.
Statistical Analysis on the Pattern of Some Selected Diseases Affecting Children of Under Five Years of Age (A Case Study of Grimard Catholic Hospital, Anyigba) (Published)
The aim of this research is to examine the evaluation of the pattern of some selected diseases among children of under five years of age in Grimard Hospital Anyigba, Kogi State. Utilizing data obtained from the medical records of the hospital to carry out Chi-square, relative risk analysis and Odd ratio analysis. It was easy to study the pattern of the diseases affecting children. Based on the outcome of the study, it was observed that the diseases are independent of both age and sex. This implies that the diseases affect both sex irrespective of their age. Based on the outcome of the study, the relative risk analysis showed for each disease, the extent of association in both sexes. The risk of the outcome is increased by the exposure in Malaria, measles and malnutrition. This implies that the children are mostly affected by Malaria, Measles and Malnutrition. The risk of the outcome is decreased by exposure in Bronchus pneumonia, Gastric Enteritis and Anemia. This implies that the children are not mostly affected with the aforementioned diseases. From the Odd ratio, it was established that the probability of the occurrence of the disease i.e. Malaria, Measles and Malnutrition is not equal to the probability of the occurrence of the other disease i.e Bronchial Pneumonia, Gastric Enteritis and Anemia. The analysis recommend that adequate medical facilities should be provided and the federal government should improve the standard of living of its citizen and put more effort in the control programs and enlightenment campaign for immunization
Malaria Prevalence and Drug Management in Pregnant Women Attending Remotely Located Daura General Hospital, North West Nigeria (Published)
Health authorities in Nigeria have for many years promoted national malaria control measures such as the use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs), indoor residual spray of insecticides (IRS), intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and children and the use of artemisinin combined therapy (ACT) as first line of treatment to reduce the prevalence of the disease in the country. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these control measures, there is the need for continued disease monitoring and management across different zones of the country, especially among high risk cohorts such as children and pregnant women at remote locations. A 13 months study (July 2014 to July 2015) was carried out to establish the current prevalence of malaria among female patients attending Daura General Hospital in North West Nigeria, using standard laboratory procedures. Daura is a remotely located town that lies in the semi-arid zone of northern Nigeria at the intersection of roads from Katsina, Kano and Zinder in Niger Republic, with coordinates of 130 2’11’’ North, 80 19’4’’ East and 1,558 feet (474 meters) above sea level. Of the 8413 patients that tested positive for malaria parasite during the period, 1119 (13.30%) were children, 3721 (44.23%) were women, 2609 (30.99%) were men and 966 (11.48%) were the elderly. Among the infected women population, 2105 (56.57%) were pregnant (PGW), while 1616 (43.23%) were non-pregnant (NPW) women, indicating statistical significance in malaria prevalence between the two cohorts (p<0.05). Age related prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 11 – 20 years group (32.68%) of the PGW and 21 – 30 years group (44.43%) of the NPW than the 25.89% recorded in the 21 – 30 years group and 21.05 and 20.38% recorded in the 31 – 40 years and 41 – 50 years groups of the PGW respectively. The highest seasonal prevalence rate was recorded during the late rainy season (LRS) months of July to September (10.86% for PGW and 8.83% for NPW) followed by the 7.73% recorded for PGW and 7.24% recorded for NPW during the early dry season (EDS) months of October to December. The lowest rates (5.67 and 5.46% for PGW and 6.50% for NPW) were recorded during the early rainy (ERS, April – June) and late dry season (LDS, January – March) months respectively. Monthly prevalence rates were highest during August (15.63%), September (15.11%) and October (11.26%) for the PGW, while corresponding prevalence figures for these months among the NPW were significantly lower (p<0.05) at 8.29, 9.22 and 7.80% respectively. Major drugs prescribed for the prevention of malaria during the second and third trimesters once foetal quickening is noticed include sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine given monthly, while for cure and treatment during all trimesters quinine SO4, arthessunate, α-β arteate and arthessunate/lumefantrim were prescribed. Analgesics, electrolytes and vitamins were also indicated. Malaria is a major cause of hospital visits pregnant women especially during the rainy season months, indicating the need to improve advocacy on intervention control measures among these groups in the study area.
Antimalarial drug toxicity is viewed different, depending on if the clinical indication is for treatment or prophylaxis. In drug therapy of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which has a high mortality if untreated, a greater risk of adverse reactions to antimalarial medication is inevitable. The effect of the administration of Artesunate on the liver of wistar rats was studied. Study design was experimental and deployed clinical laboratory assessments. Four groups of wistar rats, each of five animals weighing between 100-150 g were used. Group 1 served as the control and was administered normal feed and drinking water. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 0.24mg/kg, 0.34mg/kg and 76mg/kg body weight Artesunate daily respectively, orally for four weeks. Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities and Bilirubin were determined at the end of the treatment. Results showed that in group 3 and 4, there was a significant increase in serum AST and ALT and a significant decrease in serum ALP. The results also showed that at mild doses (0.24mg/kg and 0.34mg/kg), Artesunate promoted weight gain and at highest dose (76mg/kg), it appeared to result in reduced percentage weight gain suggesting perhaps that high doses were toxic. It is concluded, that administration of high doses of Artesunate by the oral route produced considerable damage to the liver.
Collaborative Identification of the Health Needs/Assets of Ikot Ishie Community, Calabar, Nigeria (Published)
Background: Identification of health needs within Nigeria has often been done with a top-down approach where policy and funding determines what health needs to focus on for interventions. Communicable diseases such as malaria have been studied extensively however; lack of cohesiveness and continuity often derails the gains achieved.
Objectives: To work collaboratively with stakeholders in Ikot Ishie Community in identifying their health needs/assets.
Methodology: A community organizing exercise using Key Informant Interviews, observation and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) was implemented.
Findings/Results: As a community embedded in a malaria endemic area, people are aware of malarial signs and symptoms and can easily identify its management/preventive measures. Persistent self-diagnoses/treatment of malaria, lack of information about the causes, signs/symptoms of other conditions and poor patronage of the primary health centre for preventive and early diagnoses of diseases were the identified needs. Collaborative identification of needs/assets builds trust and ownership of interventions, encouraging continuity.
THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN MISSIONARIES AND THE FIGHT AGAINST MALARIA IN AFRICA (Review Completed - Accepted)
Malaria once turned Africa into the “missionaries’ graveyard” as many European missionary personnel and families perished planting the Gospel in the Continent in the 19th century. The situation, however, is not completely different today in many rural African communities. The purpose of this research is to present a social challenge to the present day Christian missionaries in Africa by describing the landmark achievement of the 19th century missionaries in the fight against mosquito plague in Africa, namely their introduction of the first ever drug for malaria treatment in the continent. Central and West Africa are used as a case for this study. This research applied descriptive analysis to the health and life situation that faced the early European missionaries as they laboured to evangelize the people of Africa
Nigeria: Can Cross River State Achieve The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) In The Health Sector By 2015? (Published)
The paper reviews outcomes of efforts made by the Cross River State Government towards the achievement of MDGs in the health sub-sector in Nigeria. Using descriptive statistics and comparative analysis to illustrate deviations from set targets the paper reveals that, in spite of the robust effort of government, achieving the MDGs in the health sub-sector in Cross River State by 2015 will be very challenging, partly due to inadequate responses to bring about the required decrease in the burden of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in the State. To bridge the observed gap, the paper recommends rehabilitation of health facilities and provision of equipment and personnel in existing health facilities; increased budget provision for health care services; building strong and robust partnership with support agencies and other sector actors; development of effective health sector policy in the State, as possible quick wins.