Tag Archives: Makurdi

Socio-Economic Impact of Coronavirus on Livelihoods in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The whole world is faced with a pandemic that threaten not only the health of humanity but also the economic and social aspect of life especially for a disadvantage City like Makurdi. The central issue the paper address is the socio-economic impact of coronavirus with focus on protecting livelihoods of the urban poor. The paper investigated the socio-economic impact of coronavirus on livelihoods in Makurdi using primary sources of data. Socio-economic impact rating by respondents was analyzed using weighted sum and weighted mean to rank impact of coronavirus on livelihoods in Makurdi. The result shows that, loss of business capital was rank 1st on impact of coronavirus on livelihoods, follow by reduce income generation 2nd, education expenses affected 3rd, difficulty to pay bills 4th, reduce standard of living 5th, increase crime/violence 6th, result to livelihood lost 7th, low productivity 8th, create more debt 9th, and create social distance was ranked 10th and last on the hierarchy list of impacts. The paper concluded that, the pandemic has both social and economic impact on people’s lives and livelihoods and it has push many people into poverty and many have lost their sources of  livelihoods. The paper recommended suspension of taxes on small scale businesses, provision of soft and long-term loans to small and medium scale businesses, and provision of scholarship to both primary and secondary schools to reduce out of school children in order to protect the future of the younger generation.

Keywords: Livelihoods, Makurdi, Socio-economic impacts, coronavirus

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013).  Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013). Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation