Tag Archives: Makurdi

Abundance, Distribution and Incrimination of the House Fly -Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) in the Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University Community in Makurdi, North-Central Nigeria (Published)

Flies collected from philanthropic environments are likely to be contaminated with human pathogens. Houseflies (Musca domestica) particularly pose significant public health threat owning to their ability to mechanically transmit human intestinal parasites and other disease-causing microorganisms. This study aims at determining the abundance, distribution and vectoral capacity of houseflies (Musca domestica) in the transmission of human intestinal parasites. Studies were specifically undertaken from September to October, 2019 when a total of 1,309 houseflies were collected using fresh fish as bait and the knockdown and sweep method, from three localities viz: Female Hostel, Student’s Village and University Staff Quarters respectively. The flies were morphologically identified and examined for possible incrimination with parasitic faunas using available standard microscopic techniques. The highest fly abundance of 613(46.83%) was recorded from the students village, followed by 480(36.67%) from the female hostels, while the least abundance of 216(16.50%) was recorded from the University staff quarters. Meanwhile, a total of 86 pathogenic parasites belonging to 7 genera and 9 species were collected and identified using standard techniques, from the external body surfaces of the flies viz: Entamoeba histolytica 21(24.42%) > Ascaris lumbricoides 17(19.77%) > Taenia solium 12(13.95%) > Taenia saginata 9 (10.47%) > Schistosoma mansoni 8(9.30%) > Enterobius vermicularis 7(8.14%) > Schistosoma haematobium 5(5.81%) > Hymenolepis nana 4(4.65%) > Trichuris trichiura 3(3.49%) respectively. The results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the abundance and distribution of houseflies across the sample localities. Similarly, significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between both the genera and species of parasites collected. The results have shown that houseflies were abundant and well distributed in the study area and were incriminated as potential mechanical vectors of important human parasites and hence their role in disease transmission in the study area is suspected.

Keywords: Housefly abundance, Makurdi, Nigeria, Parasites, University Environment

Socio-Economic Impact of Coronavirus on Livelihoods in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The whole world is faced with a pandemic that threaten not only the health of humanity but also the economic and social aspect of life especially for a disadvantage City like Makurdi. The central issue the paper address is the socio-economic impact of coronavirus with focus on protecting livelihoods of the urban poor. The paper investigated the socio-economic impact of coronavirus on livelihoods in Makurdi using primary sources of data. Socio-economic impact rating by respondents was analyzed using weighted sum and weighted mean to rank impact of coronavirus on livelihoods in Makurdi. The result shows that, loss of business capital was rank 1st on impact of coronavirus on livelihoods, follow by reduce income generation 2nd, education expenses affected 3rd, difficulty to pay bills 4th, reduce standard of living 5th, increase crime/violence 6th, result to livelihood lost 7th, low productivity 8th, create more debt 9th, and create social distance was ranked 10th and last on the hierarchy list of impacts. The paper concluded that, the pandemic has both social and economic impact on people’s lives and livelihoods and it has push many people into poverty and many have lost their sources of  livelihoods. The paper recommended suspension of taxes on small scale businesses, provision of soft and long-term loans to small and medium scale businesses, and provision of scholarship to both primary and secondary schools to reduce out of school children in order to protect the future of the younger generation.

Keywords: Livelihoods, Makurdi, Socio-economic impacts, coronavirus

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013).  Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013). Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation