Tag Archives: Maize

Effect of Maize/Bambara Groundnut Inter-Crop on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield Parameter of the Intercrop Species (Published)

The rationale behind the intercropping system is that it is an efficient utilization of land, and other natural resources and economic production system as it increased yield per unit area. Against this back drop, a field trial was carried out at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra State to evaluate the effect of maize/Bambara groundnut intercropping on soil properties, growth and yield parameters of the intercrop species. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments consisting of sole maize (SM), sole bambara groundnut (SB), intercrop maize/bambara groundnut (IMB). The treatments were replicated four (4) times and data collected were subjected to an analysis of variance test and mean were separated using least significant difference. The result obtained from the study showed that among the soil parameters tested, avail. P, TN and exchangeable K showed statistically significant difference among the treatments. The value obtained for TN, OC, Mg, EA and ECEC showed 12.50%, 3.2%, 33.33%, 20% and 0.60% increase in IMB relative to SB. The data obtained from the agronomic parameters tested showed that intercropping system greatly influenced the plant height, grain yield, relative and equivalent yield of maize in the intercrop and not effective in the intercrop bambara groundnut. The result obtained also showed an intercrop advantage with land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.54. With these findings, the farmers in the locality are advised to include bambara groundnut or any other legumes in their crop production systems for efficient and adequate utilization of natural resources and land management

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Intercropping, Maize, Soil Properties, land equivalent ratio

Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Graded Levels of Melon Shell as Replacement for Maize (Published)

This study to evaluate effect of replacing maize with graded levels of melon shell on growth of Clarias gariepinus fingerling was conducted for 16 weeks in the teaching and research farm of department of Fisheries, faculty of Agriculture Delta state university.  Pearson square formula was used to formulate five different Diet with crude protein value of 40%. The Diets had 0%, 25%, 50%75% and 100% melon shell inclusion respectively. Four hundred and fifty fingerlings were randomly distributed into fifteen tanks (1mx1mx1m) and grouped in threes to form five treatments (D1a-c – D5a-c). Fishes in each tank was fed 3% body weight of diet corresponding to tank number twice daily. Weight of fish were taken fortnightly. Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result obtained showed significant difference (P<0.05) in Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR). However there was no significant different (P>0.05) in Specific Growth Rate (SGR). Fish fed diet two with 25% melon shell inclusion had the best FCR and highest Mean weight gain among treatments.

Keywords: Clarias Gariepinus Fed Graded Levels, Growth Performance, Maize, Melon Shell, Nutrient Utilization

Serum Biochemical Composition of Laying Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Fed Diets Containing Sun-Dried Mango (Mangifera Spp) Kernel Meal (Smkm) (Published)

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sun-dried mango kernel meal on the serum biochemical parameters of laying Japanese quails. One hundred and forty four Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (i –iii) of forty eight quails per treatment. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 16 quails per replicate. In each of the three diets, mqngo kernel  meal (Mangifera indica) was used to replace maize at 0%, 25% and 50% respectively The result of serum biochemical composition showed that, ALT, serum sodium (Na+), serum bicarbonate (HCO3) and creatinine were within normal range. However, AST, Total bilirubin and uric acid were below lower limit across the treatments. The Serum potassium (K+) of quails fed treatments. 1 and 111 were within normal range but Serum K+ of quails fed 25% SMKM was slightly above the upper limit. It was also observed that, serum chloride (CL)was within normal range for  quails fed 50% SMKM  but was slightly above the upper limit for quails fed 0% and 25% SMKM. It is concluded that, SMKM did not influence the results of serum electrolytes as the deviations observed did not follow a regular pattern. More so, one of the determinant of liver function; ALT showed no significant (P>0.05) difference across treatments. Treatments could not have been responsible for the abnormalities observed in AST and Total bilirubin. SMKM can therefore replace maize in laying quails diets without adverse effect on the serum biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Laying Japanese Quails., Maize, Serum Biochemistry, Sun-Dried Mango Kernel Meal

Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Growing Japanese Quails (Cotintestineurnix Coturnix Japonica) Fed Sun-Dried Mango (Mangifera Spp) Kernel Meal (Published)

A study using complete randomized design (CRD) was carried out to assess the effect of Sun-dried Mango Kernel Meal (SMKM) on the carcass and organs characteristics of growing Japanese quails (Coturnix   coturnix    japonica). One hundred and forty four unsexed Japanese quails of about three weeks old were randomly selected and grouped into three treatments containing SMKM that replaced maize at 0%, 25% and 50% (TI, TII and TIII respectively) in properly compounded experimental diets. Each treatment was replicated thrice with sixteen (16) quails per replicate. The results of this study showed that SMKM did not influence the terminal live weights, carcass, dressed and neck weights of quails. In terms of organ weights, it was observed that SMKM affected the lungs, heart and kidney weights significantly (P<0.05) across  treatments. The relative organs weights showed significant (P<0.05) differences in heart, intestine, lungs and kidney weights but the reverse was with the gizzard and liver weights. However, the relative weights of drum stick,back  and breast muscles were significantly (P<0.05) different across treatments. It is concluded that sun-dried mango kernel meal could replace maize up to 50% in quails’ diets, however, choice cut-part of quails were  compromised.!

Keywords: Carcass and organ characteristics, Maize, Quails, mango kernel

Screening Of Maize Cultivars Grown In Lesotho for Drought Tolerance -2 (Published)

Drought is increasingly becoming a common natural phenomenon that adversely affects maize productivity in Lesotho necessitating mitigation strategies. Irrigation may be a viable option but water is becoming scarce, hence choice of drought tolerant cultivars maybe the best alternative. The study was conducted in Lesotho with the aim of (1) verifying the differences among maize cultivars in response to induced water deficit stress, (2) evaluating maize cultivars against different concentration levels of Polyethylene glycol which induces drought stress in germinating seed and seedling growth and (3) identifying cultivars of maize tolerant to drought stress. Complete Randomized Design with three replications and 22 treatments were employed in the laboratory experiment. Twenty-two different accessions of maize were collected from Department of Agricultural Research in Maseru, Lesotho, were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought tolerance at seedling stage. Water stress was induced by non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 6000 using the procedure which was described by Michel and Kaufiman (1973). After ten days, data were collected on plumule length, radicle length, coleoptile length, radicle fresh weight, plumule fresh weight, coleoptile fresh weight, radicle dry weight, plumule dry weight and coleoptile dry weight. Analysis of variance was performed using Genstat recovery Version 14 to establish the difference among treatments. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05 and P<0.01) among the accessions, PEG-6000 concentrations and their interactions for evaluated seedling traits suggesting a great amount of variability for drought tolerance in maize cultivars. It was further revealed that as concentration of PEG is increased, values of the parameters measured decreased. The maize cultivars which outperformed the others in terms of drought tolerance were CAP 9019, SNK 2778, DKC 78-27, PAN3MO1 and Natal.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, Drought Tolerance, Maize, Peg

Detection and Identification of Major Storage Fungal Pathogens of Maize (Zea Mays L.) In Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia. (Published)

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most  important food crop in the world produced on nearly 100 million hectares. Maize is attacked by more than sixty diseases and a number of species of insect pests and microorganisms in the field as well as in the storage.  Fungi are among the principal causes of deterioration and yield loss on farmers’ maize during the storage period. Among the storage fungal pathogens Aspergillus, Fusarium and  Penicillium are the most predominant species attacked maize grain and resulting in production of harmful products of Mycotoxins. The study was conducted at the Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine in plant pathology laboratory. Three maize varieties and two levels of disinfection were used and arranged in complete block design with five replications. The highest frequency of Aspregilus spp. (40.4%) at farmer preserved seed with surfaclly disinfected kernels on agar plate were recorded. The highest relative density of Fusarium spp. (51%) was only recorded on agar plate test on the farmer preserved seed which was not surfaclly disinfected. The lowest germination percentage (62%) were recorded on the farmer preserved seed which was not surfacelly disinfected. The Aspregilus spp are the most dominant fungi followed by Fusarium spp. were isolated in this study as well as in Ethiopia. These fungi are important in producing secondary metabolites which are carcinogenic to both humans and animals.

Keywords: Aspergillus; Fusarium; Penicillium; Mycotoxins, Maize

Value Chain Analysis of Maize in Mahabubnagar District of Telangana State, India (Published)

India is the sixth largest producer of maize in the world, and contributed about 2 per cent to the global maize production of 855.72 million tonnes (Mt) in 2012-13. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the corn belts from South where Karnataka alone occupies 12% of the total area (one million ha) and contributes nearly 16% of its total production. Nearly ¾ of the produce is being processed as animal feed and remaining for human consumption and industrial use. There is a huge demand for maize and maize products because, it is rich in lysine, tryptophan, amino acids and low fat content and it is a good product for diabetic and obese disorders. Now a days there is a more demand for maize value added products in urban and peri-urban areas, indicating a vast scope for fortification as nutritional supplementation at all the stages right from farmer’s field to consumer’s plate. The rich nutri-maize is available in abundance to the consumers at relatively cheaper price (compared to other cereals) can be further commercially exploited for nutritive health foods by value addition and making available them at affordable price for the advantage of vulnerable groups and other consumers at large. The main objective of the study was to carry out value chain analysis of maize in Mahabubnagar district and environs with a view to identify potential production, demand and supply, value chain, value additions, key sector constraints and opportunities and appropriate interventions.

Keywords: Cereals, Commercialization, Consumer, Good agricultural practices, Maize, Market Channels, Value Additions., Value Chain

Detection and Identification of Major Storage Fungal Pathogens of Maize (Zea Mays L.) In Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia (Published)

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop in the world produced on nearly 100 million hectares. Maize is attacked by more than sixty diseases and a number of species of insect pests and microorganisms in the field as well as in the storage.  Fungi are among the principal causes of deterioration and yield loss on farmers’ maize during the storage period. Among the storage fungal pathogens Aspergillus, Fusarium and  Penicillium are the most predominant species attacked maize grain and resulting in production of harmful products of Mycotoxins. The study was conducted at the Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine in plant pathology laboratory. Three maize varieties and two levels of disinfection were used and arranged in complete block design with five replications. The highest frequency of Aspregilus spp. (40.4%) at farmer preserved seed with surfaclly disinfected kernels on agar plate were recorded. The highest relative density of Fusarium spp. (51%) was only recorded on agar plate test on the farmer preserved seed which was not surfaclly disinfected. The lowest germination percentage (62%) were recorded on the farmer preserved seed which was not surfacelly disinfected. The Aspregilus spp are the most dominant fungi followed by Fusarium spp. were isolated in this study as well as in Ethiopia. These fungi are important in producing secondary metabolites which are carcinogenic to both humans and animals.

Keywords: Aspergillus; Fusarium; Penicillium; Mycotoxins, Maize

Significance of Actors in the Maize Supply Chain for Senior High Schools in Kumasi (Published)

The study seeks to address the supply chain of maize specifically to Senior High Schools in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana, looking at the actors involved in the supply chain, their inter-relationships as well as the kind of network that connect them. Knowledge of these objectives will help any prospective merchant or any other stakeholder to be guided by what is in store for them and its effect. Questionnaire was used to gather data from sixty-eight respondents. The results indicated that there are some actors in maize supply chain who serve as the link between the main actors like the merchants and the consumers. Little assistance the actors give to one another includes discount and little financial support. There must be trust and fairness as well as availability of loan facilities, collaboration and prompt payment of debt that will help to improve the network among the actors.

Keywords: Actors, Kumasi, Maize, Relationship, Senior High Schools, Supply Chain Network

PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDO-Β-GLUCANASES OF TWO NIGERIAN MALTED MAIZE VARIETIES (Published)

In this study, two Nigerian maize varieties (Farz 23 yellow and Farz 34 white) were malted at controlled experimental variables to determine the optimum conditions for the development of β-glucanases. The independent variable employed were steeping time, germination time and kilning temperature; and the measured (dependent variables) were diastatic power (DP), cold water extract (CWE) and hot water extract (HWE). Some properties of the two varieties were compared with those of sorghum (SK 5912). The properties of the grains were obtained as 1000-corn weight, (W) 241g and (Y) 248g; moisture content (%) 13.2, 12.8; germinative energy (%) 96, 92; germinative capacity (%) 99, 96; water sensitivity (%) 83, 82; broken kernel (%) 0.9, 1.1; protein (N×6.25%) 8.65, 9.02; and fat (ether extract, %) 3.70 and 4.14. The β-glucanases purified 2.59 and 0.56 folds for the yellow and white varieties respectively by a combination of 5M sucrose fractionation, ion exchange on Q-Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200; with a yield of 0.8% (yellow) and 7.6% (white). The specific activity for the yellow maize enzyme was 0.312µ/mg and 0.381µ/mg for the white. The optimal condition for the glucanase activity for the white variety were 50oC and pH 5.0 and 7.0, while maximum stability was achieved at 40oC, pH 5.0 and 7.5 (16h); and for the yellow 60oC and pH 5.0 and maximum stability at 40oC, pH 6.0 (16h). The purified enzyme of the white variety was appreciably activated by Co2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ gave inhibitory effects. The yellow variety glucanase activity was only enhanced by Mn2+ and fairly by Co2+. The yellow variety glucanase displayed remarkable wide substrate specificity and rapidly hydrolyzed amylose, amylopectin and starch. On substrate concentration the white maize enzyme indicated substrate enhancement on both Sigma cell type 20 and CMC. The Km values as obtained from Lineweaver-Burk plots for the white maize glucanase were 0.119 and 0.102mg/ml for CMC and Sigma cell respectively, and 0.072 and 0.0451mg/ml in same order for the yellow maize glucanase. Their corresponding Vmax were 3.7 and 3.5mg/ml/min for the white maize enzyme and 4.0 and 9.0mg/ml/min protein for the yellow maize enzyme. The very low Km values Sigma cell type 20 and CMC for the yellow indicates a high affinity of the yellow glucanase to the substrates. On overall assessment, the glucanases presents a promising application in the mashing conditions of the brew house.

Keywords: Characterization, Maize, Malting, Purification, β-glucanase

EVALUATION OF SIX CHINESE MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) VARIETIES IN THE HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT OF CALABAR, SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA. (Published)

Six hybrid Chinese maize varieties with a local best were evaluated for their growth and yield performance with a view to adoption in South east agroecological zone of Nigeria. A Randomised Complete Block (RCBD) Design was used. The cultivars did not differ (p ≤0.05) significantly in some growth parameters, this included emergence percentage at 5DAP (days after planting), plant height at both 4WAP and 6WAP (weeks after planting). Tasseling and silking differed significantly, the exotic varieties tassled and silked better than the control at 8WAP and 10WAP respectively. The only significantly different yield parameters were the length and weight of undehusked cobs, circumference of dehusked cobs. The exotic varieties matured earlier than the control between 11 to 14WAP and 16WAP respectively. There was no significant difference in the grain yield between the maize varieties. The Chinese varieties did not show a marked difference in grain yield compared to the local

Keywords: Environment, Evaluation, Growth, Humid Tropics, Maize, Variety Trial, Yield