Tag Archives: Mainstream

The Impact of Shadow Education on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students In Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the impact of shadow education on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. Indeed, thousands of the secondary school students in Nigeria attend shadow education , because they believed that shadow education is the only way to improve their academic performance and to support their mainstream education and similarly, their parents have optimistic on shadow education, because they always eager finding nearness centres or employ tutors for their children within their apartments.  Therefore, we have two types of shadow education formal and informal. Informal which takes place at home, while formal takes place within the school premises. Thus, students are lured to attend shadow education upon the level of socio- economic background of their parents neither upper class, middle class or lower class even a situation hardship economy of the country is not really barriers for them to attend  shadow education because they believed that there is more advantageous in  which they can benefits from shadow education rather  than mainstream education.Yet, shadow education creates room for proper interaction between  the teachers and students and make it easily for the students to express their views  freely without fear or panic. Similarly, it also allow the tutors to have additional incomes apart from main salary from the mainstream education, However, shadow education has different names  in Nigeria such as  prep, lesson, continuous education  and  coaching . Therefore, many parents like to send their children to standard formal education while informal  education  the tutors employ  to teach their  children  at  their apartments.

Citation: Adeniyi  Adewale  Ojo  (2022) The Impact of Shadow Education on Academic Performance of Secondary School   Students   In   Nigeria, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.8, pp.1-7


Keywords: Academic, Environment, Formal, Informal, Mainstream, Performance, geographical, shadow education, socio-economic background

A Discordant Harmony – A Critical Evaluation of the Queer Theory from an Indian Perspective (Published)

Queerness or rather queer sexuality in India has always been the favourite child of debate and discussions. Queer identity in India has always suffered through the dilemma of to be or not to be. As Dasgupta puts it, “Identities are complicated to begin with and become more complicated when relating them to nation and sexuality”. Given the diversity of India in terms of not only culture but ethnicity as well, Indian sexual identities are the product of “Mulipicitous effects and perceptions of tradition, modernity, colonization and globalization” (Dasgupta) that are more often in conflict with each other than in a harmonious synthesis. The main argument of this paper is to trace a lineage of queerness in India both in terms of its representation in literature by analyzing The Editor (1893) and The Housewife (1891) by Rabindranath Tagore; Lihaaf (1941) by Ismat Chugtai; and R. Raja Rao’s The Boyfriend (2003), and how it prevailed in reality or the societal perception of the same. Providing a literature review by building a bridge in between the ancient and the contemporary India, the paper attempts to trace the missing links of when and how queerness went behind the curtains only to reappear in front of a more complicated, confused and probably a more rigid audience

Keywords: Cross-Dressing, Gendered-Behavior, Hindu Mythology, Judith Butler, LGBT, Mainstream, Queer, Subaltern, Tagore.