Tag Archives: locus of control

Coping Behaviour among Retirees in Anambra State: Influence of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control (Published)

The study focused on locus-of-control and self-esteem vis-à-vis retirees’ coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study used Ways of Coping Checklist, Index of Self-Esteem, and Nowicki-Strictland Locus-of-Control Scale; cross-sectional factorial designs; two-way ANOVA statistics, random and snow-balling samplings, 56 retirees (26 males/30 females), 60-81 years retirees’ age-range and SD=1.98. Results: Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria; Self-esteem and locus-of-control combined had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping systems; Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively significantly influenced only the retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; Self-esteem, locus-of-control, and their combined effects contributed 98%, 98%, and 90% respectively to retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; finally, Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively did not significantly influence retirees’problem-focused coping”, “social-support seeking coping”, “self-blame coping”, and “wishful-thinking coping” elements of coping system. Recommendations: Effective coping with retirement should involve improved self-esteem, and constructive/positive locus-of-control of retirees. 

Keywords: Anambra State, Nigeria, Retirees, coping-behaviour, locus of control, self-esteem

Locus of Control and Consumer Purchase Intention of Fabric Materials in Abia State (Published)

This study established the relationship between locus of control and consumer purchase intentions of fabrics in Abia state. Locus of control is a psychological concept that points where a consumer’s source of control is located. An individual’s source of control accounts for the differing purchase decisions made even for the same product. The study was anchored on attribution theory. The independent variables were search effort, product knowledge, chance and significant others. The dependent variable was purchase intention. The study adopted a correlational research design. Study population was made up of all adult buyers of fabric material in Aba. Sample size was 350using purposive sampling technique. Data generated through questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). Result showed a strong positive relationship between search efforts, product knowledge and consumer purchase intention. Result also showed a strong negative relationship between chance factor, significant others and consumer purchase intention. It was therefore recommended that marketers should recognize the influence of locus of control on their customers’ choice decision as the knowledge will help them know what marketing strategy to adopt in other to serve the customers better. They should endeavor to provide necessary product information and make it accessible to consumers.


Keywords: Purchase Intention, chance factor, locus of control, product knowledge, search effort

Locus of Control and Marital Status as Predictor of Counsellors’ Job Satisfaction in Delta and Edo States (Published)

This study investigated locus of control and marital status as predictor of counsellors’ job satisfaction in Delta and Edo States. The study was guided by nine research questions and nine hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The research design was predictive correlational survey. The population of the study is 359 practising guidance counsellors in all public secondary schools in Edo and Delta states. Delta state has 217 counsellors and Edo state 142 counsellors. The sample of the study was being made up of all practising counsellors in public secondary schools in Secondary schools in Edo and Delta States.  Since the population of 359 is small and manageable, the entire population was studied. Two instruments were used to collect data for this study. These are Locus of Control (LOC) and Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ). The research adopted the three instruments for the study. The researcher and other research assistances administered the instruments through direct delivery method. The researcher with the help of 11 well-trained research assistants, distributed the questionnaire to the respondents and collected completed copies from them.  Out of the 359 copies of the questionnaires distributed only 343 (95.5 %) copies were retrieved from the respondents. For data analyses, research question 1-9 was answered using a simple regression analysis.  The null hypothesis were tested using simple and multiple analyses. Findings from the study revealed that, self-efficacy is a significant predictor of job satisfaction of secondary school counsellors in Delta and Edo States. It was recommended that since marital status and locus of control are jointly predictors of job satisfaction among secondary school counsellors. Hence, earnest efforts should be made by governments and counselling psychologists to enhance locus of control of counsellors for the purpose of transforming education in Nigeria. Counsellors with internal locus of control are more likely to create and promote conditions and interpersonal networks that nourish and sustain work satisfaction.

Keywords: Counsellors, Job Satisfaction, Marital Status, locus of control

Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Students’ Academic Underachievement in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and academic underachievement among some secondary school adolescents. The study was carried out in Rivers State secondary schools. Purposive sampling techniques were used to draw a sample of 240 students identified as underachievers. Bakare’s (1977) progressive matrices adopted from Uwazurike (2008) was used to identify students with high mental ability while Basic Education Certificate Examination results of 2016 which is a cumulative record of examination  and continuous assessment scores of the students’ three years in school, was used as a measure of students’ academic ability. Based on the attained mental ability performance and academic achievement of the students, the academic underachievers were identified. The various independent variables of the study were measured with a questionnaire whose reliabilities were statistically determined with Cronbach Alpha and reliability coefficients ranging from 0.51 to 0.74. The research questions were answered with mean and Pearson product moment correlation (r) while the null hypotheses were tested with special Z to determine the significance of r. It was found out that there was a very low relationship between self-esteem, internal locus of control, external locus of control and academic underachievement which showed no statistical significance. Based on the findings, three relevant recommendations were made.

Keywords: Academic, Students, Underachievement, locus of control, self-esteem

The Correlation Between the Need for Achievement, Self-Esteem, Locus of Con¬trol, Habit in Studying, Parents’ Support and Learning Environment in the Class with Underachievement of Students at Senior High School in Medan, Indonesia (Published)

The objectives of this research are (1) to describe and to explain the correlation between the need for achievement, self–esteem, locus of control, habit in studying , parents’ support and learning environment in the class as their contri­bution to the under­achievement students, (2) to find a set of variables from among those that are under study, that are most efficient in explaining of under­achievement students. This study is descriptive correlational in nature. The study was undertaken in 8 (eight) general high schools in Medan  that constituted the sample of the study. The research subjects are all underachievers that totaled to 114 students. The data were colleted through surveys using questionnaires, scales, inventories, and formats that are administered to student. The data  obtained through surveys were analysed using a descriptive technique and multiple-regression with Stepwise. The results of analysis are drawn: (1) the underachievers were found to be low in need for achieve­ment, self-esteem, tend to be internal in locus of control, have poor learning habit, low parental support, and poor learning environment in the class was found to be moderately strong with a multipe R of 0,544 (p≤0,05), with an effective contribution of 29,6%. (2) the most efficient set of independet variable in predicting of the under­achievement students  consisted of parental support, need for achieve­ment, learning envi­roment in class, and locus of control, wict could explain 27,40% of the variance in the under­achievement students. Based on the conclusions drawn, some suggestions are proposed as folows: (1) through appropriate design of learning environments, in faciliting the inculcation of  impedent learnes that are able not only to respond convergent ques­tion, but also have the habit to explore alterntive solutions, and even to reshape problems before attempting to solve them, with the full backing of appropriate school culture, (2) the existence of one or more factors other than those that are invetigated in this study that could explain of underachievers which should be further pursued

Keywords: Achievement, Learn¬ing Habits, Parents Sup-port, Selfesteem, locus of control

Adolescents Self Esteem and Its Effect on Career Development (Published)

The purpose of this study was to establish the self esteem of adolescents in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya and to determine the relationship between self esteem and career variables. A sample of 369 secondary school students were surveyed on career self esteem, career maturity and career locus of control. The current study found that female students scored significantly higher on self esteem and internal locus of control than male students and that male students scored significantly higher on external locus of control. Self esteem was found to be positively correlated to career maturity and internal locus of control and negatively correlated to external locus of control. Using linear regression analyses, self esteem was found to be a significant predictor of career maturity, internal locus of control and external locus of control. Self esteem only accounted for 2% of variance in career maturity, internal locus of control and external locus of control. The results demonstrate that self esteem has a significant role to play in adolescents’ career development.

Keywords: Adolescents, Career Maturity, Gender, locus of control, self-esteem


Generating income and revenue are the primary roles of sales personnel. Whilst management has paid particular attention in training and developing the sales personnel, they seem to negate the profound impact of the personality of the sales person. Given the same sales tools, level of education, and propensity to work, some salespeople succeed where others fail (Martin 2011). The evidence suggests that the personalities of these truly great salespeople play a critical role in determining their success. Some salespeople succeed where others are failing. Why do some sales people succeed where others fail? The research therefore examined the effects of self efficacy, locus of control, and proactive personality in determining sales performance in the telecommunication sector internet service providers (ISP’s) in particular.

Keywords: Internet Service Provider, Sales performance, Salesman personality, locus of control, proactive personality

Contributions of test anxiety, study habits and locus of control to academic performance (Published)

The intention of this study was to investigate how the joint interaction of test anxiety, study habits and locus of control determine the academic performance of college students. Five hundred and eight randomly drawn final year students of the Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro and Moshood Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria were engaged in the study. They were given three questionnaires that took approximately forty five minutes to complete. The study was conducted in a classroom environment during the schools’ continuous assessment (CA) week. After collecting information from the students through questionnaires, their tests results were obtained from their faculties. These test scores were compared to the scores obtained from the questionnaires. It was discovered that the three variables positively correlate with, and significantly predict academic performance. This implies that academic performance is associated with non-cognitive and socio-psychological variables. It was therefore recommended that early intervention and proactive prevention programs that would aid the reduction of anxiety and nervousness in students be developed and implemented. Also, good study strategies such as evaluating the comprehension level, understanding the information from the text, anticipating the next thing, and knowing the purpose of learning a particular thing should be developed.

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Test anxiety, locus of control, study habits