Resettlement and Readjustment Patterns of Rural Dwellers during and After Flood Disasters in Bayelsa State Nigeria (Published)
Globally, riverine areas are naturally prone to flooding. In 2012 and 2018 for example, flooding became a national disaster in Nigeria. While Bayelsa State was recorded as one of the worst affected, the case of Southern Ijaw LGA was most lamentable. Out of the eight (8) Local government areas in Bayelsa state, seven (7) were adversely affected. Records revealed that public and private properties, infrastructure and facilities worth billions of naira were fully or partly submerged and destroyed. As part of its intervention efforts, the government provided internally displaced person’s camps and supplied relief materials. Other non-governmental organizations and philanthropists also supported with relief materials. Till date, the living conditions of some of the victims remain deplorable. This study examined the rural dwellers’ resettlement and re-adjustment patterns of victims of flood disasters in riverine communities of Southern Ijaw LGA.The study investigates the resettlement and readjustment patterns of flood victims in Bayelsa state. Exploratory and Descriptive survey designs were used in this study. A combination of cluster and simple random sampling techniques were adopted. Also, the instruments of questionnaire, interview schedules and focus group discussion were used. Taro Yamane (1967) formula was used to derive a sample size of 400. Chi-square (x2) test statistic was used to test the hypothesis. The study indicated that flood victims are more in shock and confusion during and immediately after flood disasters as well as worsened situation in terms of resettlement and re-adjustment patterns. Their conditions in terms of resettlement and re-adjustment pattern showed in their emotions. Larger proportions of respondents agreed that flooding occasions the dislocation and relocation of people and communities. From the study, resettlement and re-adjustment patterns of flood victims revealed that almost all flood victims are at state of shock and confusion during flood disasters. They are left with no other option than to evacuate their residences to temporary ‘open-room’ apartments provided by the government. The study concludes that the work of disaster managers before, during and after disasters is known to be very fragmented. Engineers do not usually work and cooperate with health professional and planners. Efforts should be made by the government to prevent the escalation of the destructive capacity of flooding in flood prone zones across the state by providing good drainage systems in various communities as well as making efforts to relocate people residing in the rural riverine areas that are most prone and vulnerable to future flood occurrence to upland areas.
Extent of Hand Washing Practice among Secondary School Students in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)
High incidence of diarrhoeal diseases has been noted among secondary school students in Nigeria. The place of contaminated hands in the transmission of these diseases especially living quarter with close proximity like schools has been observed. These diseases can be prevented if students wash their hands with running water and soap. This cross-sectional survey was designed to determine to what extent secondary school students in Ebonyi State practice proper handwashing. The sample comprised 420 male and female students in both junior and senior classes selected through a multi-sampling method from government schools, located in both urban and rural area of the Ebonyi State were used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 3-point scaled, 18-item self-structured questionnaire eliciting responses on extent of handwashing with soap and running water in 15 situations requiring handwashing. Face validation of the instrument was obtained by the judgement of 5 experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha, which yielded 0.862 reliability coefficient. The copies of the questionnaire were distributed among the students at an agreed upon time with the school by trained research assistance. The extent of handwashing practice was determined using the criterion means of 2.01-3.0 as high extent, 1.01-2.0 as low extent and 0.1-1.0 as very low extent. T-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The extent of handwashing was found to be low among secondary school students with a mean score of 1.31. It was found that male students practice handwashing significantly higher than their female counterparts and that there was no significant difference in handwashing practice of student by level of study of students and by location of residence of the students. The findings of the study have implications for the handwashing campaign in Nigeria, the health of the students, method of health education and hygiene education curriculum development. Recommendations were made which included that handwashing be promoted using the mass media, improvement on hygiene education curriculum and its delivery and provision of handwashing facilities for schools to concretize learning.
Influence of the Location and Crack Angle on the Magnitude of Stress Intensity Factors Mode I and Ii under Uniaxial Tension Stresses (Published)
This paper deals with the effect of crack oblique and its location on the stress intensity factor mode I (KI) and II (KII) for a finite plate subjected to uniaxial tension stress. The problem is solved numerically using finite element software ANSYS R15 and theoretically using mathematically equations. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and numerical solutions in all studied cases. We show that increasing the crack angle β leads to decreasing the value of KI and the maximum value of KII occurs at β=45o. Furthermore, KII equal to zero at β = 0o and 90o while KI equal to zero at β = 90o. However, there is no sensitive effect to the crack location while there is a considerable effect of the crack oblique.
Demographic Differences in the Knowledge of Breast Cancer among Women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)
Breast cancer is the most common of all cancers and is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, a condition that may be predicated upon by lack of knowledge about fundamental regimen necessary for cancer prevention. The study was therefore designed to determine demographic differences in the knowledge of breast cancer among women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The sample of the study comprised 1,845 women drawn through the multistage sampling procedure. A 40-item questionnaire was used to elicit information on knowledge symptoms, risk factors, prevention methods and treatment options of cancer. Descriptive statistic of percentage was used to answer the research question and inferential statistic of chi-square was used to test the entire hypotheses formulated for the study at an alpha level of 0.05. Knowledge of breast cancer was found to be on the average (48.72%); differed by age with younger women (35-44years 56.43%) reporting higher knowledge of breast cancer than the older ones (45-54 years 46.03%); women with post-secondary education (67.66%) had higher knowledge than those with secondary (60.16%), primary (49.03%) and non-formal education (39.01%); urban women (55.61%) were more knowledgeable than rural women (47.81%). Chi-square analysis indicated that significant association existed between level of education and knowledge of breast cancer. However, no significant association was found between age and location of residence. It was concluded that breast cancer knowledge of women in Ebonyi State is on the average and associated significantly with education, but not with age and location of residence of the women. Consequently, it is recommended that breast cancer education should be used to improve the women’s knowledge of the disease, especially for those with non-formal education, older women and those in the rural areas through interventions by government and non-governmental agencies and through curriculum revision for schools