Tag Archives: Liver

Incidences of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Hepatitis C Antibodies in Diabetics Patient at Oouth (Published)

In recent time, controversy have been stirred up over the aetiology of liver failure in diabetic patients. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the incidence of Hapatitis B surface antigen and Hapatitis C antibodies in diabetic patients at             OOUTH. 5ml venous blood samples was collected from the diabetic patients, centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5minutes and screened for HBV and HCV using ELISA and Diaspot Kits respectively. Out of the 230 diabetic patients screened for Hepatitis Virus Infection, 49 (19.6%) of them were positive while 185 (80.4%) were negative. HBV infection was highest in frequency by 43 (95.6%), followed by HBV and HCV co-infection, with a frequency of 2 (4.4%). Gender and ages of diabetic patients were observed not to have significant relationship with the incidence of viral hepatitis infection (P>0.05). Incidence of viral hepatitis was significantly higher in uneducated and widowed diabetic patients (P<0.05). Higher incidence of viral hepatitis infection was found to be significantly associated with tattooing (P<0.05) while no significant association was observed between same infection and each of alcoholism, blood transfusion, previous surgery and number of sex partners (P>0.05). When the diagnostic test result of diaspot was compared with ELISA, sensitivity of 11.1% and 82.2% were respectively observed (P<0.05).In conclusion, this study has established that the incidence of viral hepatitis was higher among diabetic patients with no formal education, those who are widows, and tattoo. It was further discovered that diaspot is less sensitive compared to ELISA

Keywords: Aetiology, Diabetes, ELISA, HBV, HCV, Hepatitis, Liver

Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Watermelon Seeds On Salt and Paracetamol-Induced Liver Damage in Female White Rats (Published)

Paracetamol is the commonest over the counter drug for the treatment of body pains. However, an overdose of this drug has detrimental effects on the liver and other internal organs such as the kidneys. This experiment was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective and regenerative effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of watermelon seeds on the liver of rats given overdose of common salt and paracetamol. Thirty five (35) female albino rats were used for this experiment and the rats were randomly distributed into seven groups with each group containing five (5) rats. The rats in group A were given only vital feed (40% of the body weights of the rats) without any extract. This was the normal group. The rats in groups B, D and E were given physiological saline at the dosage of 10g/kg body weight once orally. In addition, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (body weight) of aqueous extract of watermelon seed were given to rats in groups D and E orally twice daily respectively. The rats in groups C, F and G were given paracetamol at dosage of 3g/kg body weight once orally at the beginning of the experiment. In addition, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (body weight) of methanolic extracts of watermelon were given to rats in groups F and G orally twice daily respectively. These experiments were monitored for 28 days. The results of the histopathological analyses showed that overdose of salt and paracetamol damaged the liver cells of the rats. However, treatments of the rats with aqueous and methanolic extracts of the seeds of watermelon have hepatoprotective and regenerative properties.

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Citrullus Lanatus, Extracts, Hepatoprotective, Hepatotoxicity, Liver, Necrosis, Paracetamol, histopathology

Assessment of Selected Heavy Metal Residues in the Kidney, Liver, Muscle and Gizzard of Chickens Raised Within Enugu Metropolis (Published)

Studies were carried out for possible bioaccumulation of the following heavy metals; Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, V and Cu in the internal parts (kidney, liver, gizzard and muscle) of twenty seven (27) local and exotic chickens raised within Enugu metropolis after wet digestion of samples and subsequent use of atomic absorption spectrometer. All the selected heavy metals were found to be present in the studied parts of the chickens although at concentrations within their respective established permissible limits for meats consumption. The internal organs of experimental chickens accumulated heavy metals in the following increasing order: liver > kidney > gizzard > muscle. Except vanadium, the concentrations of all other metals in the studied parts of the chickens showed significance at p < 0.05 from the anova analysis. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg were very much higher in the kidney and liver the chickens than other studied metals. The experimental chickens accumulated heavy metals in the following increasing order: local chicken > layer chicken > broiler chickens.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Chickens, Heavy Metals, Kidney, Liver

TOXICOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN MALE RATS AS DIETARY FOR SIX MONTHS (Published)

The study consist of two groups, untreated control of twenty male rats feed on normal diets while treated young and adult 40 male rats feed solely on vegetable oil for six months during treatment. Some animals diet especially young ones. Grossly, macroscopically and microscopically studies were done, treated male rats showed rough greasy hair macroscopically in larged pale yellow liver discoloration. Microscopically, varying degree of vacuolation in hepatocyte associated with renal pathological lesion. Also showed thinning of epiderms reduce hair follicals and atrophic sepaceous gland in the skin, and atrophy of skeletal muscle associated with interstatial odema, and showed vacuolation in stomach (glandular region), small intestine and testis. also showed congestion and thickening bronchiolar epithelium.

Keywords: Liver, histopathology, rat, testis, vegetable oil

CYTOARCHITECTURAL DISTORTION OF THE LIVER FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF AQUEOUS MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED ON ACETAMINOPHEN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR RATS (Published)

This study aimed at elucidating the effects of moringa oleifera seed on acetaminophen (paracetamol) induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rats. Thirty two adult wistar rats were distributed into four treatment groups of eight animals each. Group A received normal chow and distil water, group B received 600mg/kg of moringa oleifera, group C received 6g/kg of paracetamol, group d received 600mg/kg of moringa oleifera and 6g/kg of acetaminophen for ten days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the experimental animals were sacrificed, the liver was removed and fixed in 10% formal saline. After complete fixation, the tissues were processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Under the light microscope, the histological examination of the liver showed marked tissue changes characterised by marke mononuclear cell infiltration, peripheral fibrosis, scattered limiting plate and dilated sinusoidal spaces in group D. this finding showed that moringa oleifera seed though containing natural antioxidant did not confer hepatoprotective effects on the liver architecture.

Keywords: Liver, cytoarchitectural distortion, moringa oleifera seed, wistar rat

HISTOLOGICAL EFFECT OF THE LIVER FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (GINGER) IN MALE RATTUS NORVEGICUS (Published)

Zingiber officinale is one of the most widely used spices in the world for food additives. It contains zingiberone, shogaols, gingerols, pandols, β-phellandrene, curcumene, cineole, geranyl acetate, terphineol, terpenes, borneol, geraniol, limonene, β-elemene, zingiberol, linalool, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, β-bisabolene, zingiberenol and α-farnesene. It is one of the medicinal herbs used to treat several ailments such as cold, headache, nausea, stomach upset, diarrhoea digestive, gastrointestinal disturbances, rheumatic complains, asthma and parasitic infections. The liver is the largest viscera in the body and performs several functions such as removal of waste product and worn out cells from the blood, converting drugs into forms that can be eliminated easily etc. Liver functions can be hindered by numerous substances such as medicinal herbs ingested on daily bases. This study aimed at elucidating the cytoarchitectural distortion of the liver following the administration of ethanolic root extract of ginger using ratus norvegicus. 35 rattus norvegicus weighing 125- 200g were divided into five groups designated A, B, C, D & E. A & B were the control groups and the experimental groups C, D & E received 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg & 500mg/kg of ethanolic root extract of ginger respectively for fourteen days. The results showed constricted sinusoids, constriction of central veins and pyknotic cell nuclei. The above result showed that ethanolic root extract of ginger could distort the liver cells and this is attributed to prolonged administration and dose dependent.

Keywords: Liver, ginger, rattus norvegicus

Mechanisms of Immunity to Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Albino Rats: Role Of Homologous Antibodies (Published)

The role of antibodies in conferring protection against infection caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in albino rats was carried out in this study. Antibody against E. coli O157:H7 of known titre was raised actively and used to passively protect some sets of rats intraperitoneally. Antibody titre was determined using tube agglutination test. At different intervals, starting from 30 minutes to 168 hours, the liver, spleen and ileum of actively, passively immunized and unimmunized rats were dissected out and the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 was counted in these selected organs using standard microbiological techniques. The highest recovery of the organism was seen in unimmunized rats followed by the actively immunized rats. The least recovery was seen in the passively immunized rats. The spleen trapped more of the organism compared to the liver and ileum throughout the experiment. From this investigation therefore, passively raised antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 play a significant role by causing a reduction in the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 in the organs examined. It is conceivable therefore that in case of an outbreak of infection caused by this organism, administration of preformed antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to infected individuals, that is, passive immunity will reduce the severity of the infection and also the spread of the infection in the community.

Keywords: Antibody, E. coli O157:H7, Ileum, Immunization, Liver, Spleen

Mechanisms of Immunity to Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Albino Rats: Role Of Homologous Antibodies (Published)

The role of antibodies in conferring protection against infection caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in albino rats was carried out in this study. Antibody against E. coli O157:H7 of known titre was raised actively and used to passively protect some sets of rats intraperitoneally. Antibody titre was determined using tube agglutination test. At different intervals, starting from 30 minutes to 168 hours, the liver, spleen and ileum of actively, passively immunized and unimmunized rats were dissected out and the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 was counted in these selected organs using standard microbiological techniques. The highest recovery of the organism was seen in unimmunized rats followed by the actively immunized rats. The least recovery was seen in the passively immunized rats. The spleen trapped more of the organism compared to the liver and ileum throughout the experiment. From this investigation therefore, passively raised antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 play a significant role by causing a reduction in the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 in the organs examined. It is conceivable therefore that in case of an outbreak of infection caused by this organism, administration of preformed antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to infected individuals, that is, passive immunity will reduce the severity of the infection and also the spread of the infection in the community.

Keywords: Antibody, E. coli O157:H7, Ileum, Immunization, Liver, Spleen