Tag Archives: Literature

Romantic Ecologism: Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the False Eco-criticism Tributes (Published)

Colonial and postcolonial environmental criticisms of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (TFA) have attributed to the novel eco-critical consciousness of significance, apparently ignoring the concern for environmental sustainability that is the foundation of current arts and humanities endeavour into the environmental discourses. On the strength of representations of human and non-human nature in the novel, critics have adjudged the novel to be a quintessence of the ecocritical ideal. Against some of the conceptual underpinnings of foremost ecocriticism postulations, ecological consciousness attributed to TFA are contested in this present study as false and misleading. The utilitarian values of ecocriticism and the remediating goal of literature in environmental studies, which are absent in the primary text and many of its secondary readings, are recommended as the basis for attributing ecocritical consciousness to texts. Natural entities and practices in the novel are contested as contextualization devices, employed by the author, for situating characters and events in their organic, pre-colonial African setting, and are described in this paper as the lost ecological values of Africa that are decried by contemporary critics of the global impacts of the science and technological cultures on the environment. This study employs ecocriticism as its theoretical basis.  

Keywords: African literature, Chinua Achebe, Ecocriticism, Environment, Literature, postcolonial literature

Place in Muhammad ‘Ali Taha’s Short Story Collection the Leaning Date Palm. The Role of Place in the Literature of the Arab Minority in Israel (Published)

The present study deals with the function of place in the short-story collection The Leaning Date Palm by the Palestinian writer Muhammad ‘All Taha, published in 1995. The study begins with a definition of the concept of place in the context of narrative fiction, and the important artistic, sensory and semantic functions it has as an artistic component in the story. This is followed by a discussion of the writer’s background and his literary output, after which we provide a survey of the main topics and ideas, as well as the prominent other features, of the story collection The Leaning Date Palm. Our study leads to the conclusion that place plays an important role in this story collection, especially due to the author’s focus on national issues in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Place, after all, constitutes a fundamental element in that conflict. The author, our study has found, deals with the concept of place from a number of different perspectives: Longing for the past, the traditional place, the importance of returning to one’s homeland, and protecting one’s land.

Keywords: Arab minority, Israel, Literature, Muhammad ‘Ali, Taha’s short story, leaning date palm

The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Families as Presented in Hard Times (Published)

This paper investigates the Industrial Revolution’s impact on families as presented in Hard Times novel. The researcher will discuss the main components and features of the families in Britain at that time, in which Charles Dickens represented them in different types as Gradgrind’s family, Bounderby’s family, Stephan’s family, and Cecelia’s family. These families represent the typical sort of family at that time with its features and their problems they face such as getting a divorce, getting drunk, and family disintegration in general. In addition to the reoccurrence of money motif being a capitalist at the expense of the family bonding as represented between Mr. Gradgrind and his daughter Louisa.

Keywords: Charles Dickens, Literature, hard times novel, industrial revolution, novel

EFL Teaching-Learning Utilizing English Literature: A Source of Exploring the World of English (Published)

The universal truth is that language whatever is meant for communication either written or spoken and each language has its own niceties and subtleties loaded with social and cultural norms. The present study specifically focuses on the teaching and the learning of not only English language skills but also the importance of English literature, i.e. prose, poetry, peculiarities, weird, quirks, and bizarre of English language have also been encompassed. Now the question arises, how all this can be utilized in EFL classroom.  The best possible answer is the use of different forms of literature in the target language. Another important point is that the selection of different literary texts, poems and other helping material have been suggested as a model according to the level of ESL learner, i.e. under graduate students.   Some model texts and couplets have been given in Table-1 and Table-2. It would be appropriate to provide a suitable modern literary text to improve the language skills and competency, critical thinking, stylish and effective communication either written or spoken as closer to native speakers as possible. All this is possible through well- thought, well-planned, well-presented pieces of literary work and S-S and T-S interaction.  The most important are motivation and the roles of teachers and students toward an overall success.

Keywords: EFL, Literature, Poetry, Teaching-Learning, peculiarities, prose, quirks and bizarre aspects., weird

The Use of Literature as a Tool for Holistic Development of Students’ Personality (Published)

Man is not just a physical being but also has several other dimensions which include the spiritual (soul and spirit), social, cognitive and emotional aspects; the proper development of all these listed aspects of man can be viewed under the scope of holism. It is not only the intellectual and vocational aspects of human development that need guidance and nurturing, but also the physical, social, moral, aesthetic, artistic and spiritual aspects. As a result, this paper looks at how holistic education can be used in developing Literature-in-English curriculum in Nigeria, the interconnectedness of all aspects of human life vis-a-vis Literature-in-English, its implication on teaching and learning. This paper draws ample instances from two texts from the present West African Examination Council (WAEC) 2016-2020 Literature-in-English syllabus. It concludes by stating that education should be based on experiential learning and should empower all citizens to participate in meaningful ways in the life of the immediate community and society at large. It also advocates that holistic education as an approach to pedagogy meets the needs of all types of learners, serves as a source of fulfilment and gratification for teachers and parents which should therefore be integrated into the Nigerian education at all levels.

Keywords: Literature, Pedagogy, holism, interconnectedness, personality and curriculum.

Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria: A Critical Review of the Literature (Published)

The paper reviews existing literature on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to ascertain the level of corporate social responsibility activities that will enhance the performance/profitability of businesses in Nigeria. It revealed that the success of an organization depends on the extent to which the organization is capable of managing its relationship with key groups, such as financial and stakeholders, but also customers, employees, and even communities or societies. Stakeholders must be considered in the decision making process of the organization. CSR is a concept that includes many different activities and actions which businesses have to involve themselves in for the purpose growth sustainability and growth of businesses. Businesses that voluntarily participates in local community development, such as providing the community with donations, assisting them with projects and sharing some of its profit with the community, helps to increase the business profitability in the long-run.


Keywords: CSR, Literature, Nigeria, Organisation, Performance

Tagore – Born Romantic – In the Eyes of the Psychologist (Published)

Romantics are as much made as born, It was echoed in Tagore’s voice, ‘ I am a born romantic ‘ . But they can not be assessed solely in psychological terms and they need the right environment …. ‘As for the right environment – it seems to have been an unfavorable one’. (Clarke, 1962). Indeed the earlier stressful life-events worked as a set, which sometimes released or directed the poet’s creative energies. It is on record that events in Tagore’s life have provided him and stimulated him with an urge for creation.Methodology was followed by content and dynamic analysis In the present phase, the life event stress occurring during the year immediately previous to the composition of the poem under study has been studied . The version of life-event scale entitled as ‘An Anglo-American comparison of the scaling of life-events’ was used in case of Western Poets where as ‘Bengali Version’ adapted by Sarkar, S (1990) was used in case of eastern poets.  Tagore has shown the free and unfettered expression of personality, ‘selfless creativity’ through his creation. The poet has explored the area of darkness which Jung has called ‘shadow’.  There is a constant struggle in human psyche between light and darkness, dynamically between superego and id. Enlightenment rose suddenly and spontaneously not from above but came up from darkness. As in Indian philosophy, Yajnavalka has said, when visible lights are extinguished, one find the ‘light of self’.

Keywords: Content and Dynamic Analysis, Literature, Psychology, Rabindranath Tagore

Literature and Politics-A Review of George Orwell’s Animal Farm And Chinua Achebe’s A Man of the People (Published)

Philosophical discussion of the topic “the interrelations of literature and politics” can take many forms. For instance, one might be concerned to argue for or against the claim that literature must be understood as a product of the social and political forces that are at work when it is produced. Or, one might be concerned to assess the claim that literature is a form of political critique, perhaps even a preeminent form of it. Or, one might argue that literature can induce political change, that is, can be revolutionary—perhaps that it should be. Further questions involve how political and aesthetic properties interact in works. Does the presence of both sorts of property in a work create difficulty for aesthetic judgment? If one thinks that aesthetic judgment requires separating aesthetic from political properties in some strict way, the presence of political properties in the work will be problematic for aesthetic judgment. The problem might go as well to the heart of artistic production—that is, formalism of various stripes holds that one isn’t “really” creating art, if one is creating political “art.” Or one might be concerned that political and aesthetic properties are so intertwined that strongly negative or positive political judgment might spoil aesthetic judgment.Recent cases in the relationships of literature and politics often are drawn from music or cinema, for example, Dady Lumba’s Nana oye winner (A signature tune of the present ruling New Patriotic Party,NPP, a political party in Ghana), and  Dee Aja’s Onaapo (A signature tune of the National Democratic Congress, NDC, the main opposition political party in Ghana today). Typically, issues of the political nature of art center on conceptions of artistic content, even where content is considered in relation to aesthetic form.  In this paper, we focus instead on the interrelations of literature and politics from the print point of view. More specifically, we investigate claims that literature can criticize and alter political belief by being experienced in terms of its form in Chinua Achebe’s novel A Man of the People and George Orwell’s Animal Farm which are admired by some for their technical innovations and formal composition but reproached for their political content by others. This battle of complementation and condemnation of political satires applies to other standard cases such as Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Luís Bernardo Honwana Who kill mangy dog, and Knut Hamsun’s Hunger, Kwame Nkrumah’s I Speak of Freedom.This study indulges the political satire in George Orwell’s Animal Farm and  Chinua Achebe’s A Man of the People.

Keywords: Animal Farm, Interrelations, Literature, Politics, Satire, a Man of the People

Knowledge, Practice and Perception of Contraception by Literate Adolescents in Calabar, Nigeria (Published)

The current prevalence rate for contraceptive use in Nigeria is approximately 11%–13%. This rate is very low in view of the fact that sexual activity is high and there is also widespread awareness of the various contraceptive methods among Nigerian adolescents and youths. There is sufficient research evidence identifying the various factors that contribute to the low prevalence of modern contraceptive use in Nigeria, with the most common factors being religious adherence and myths about the side effects of modern contraceptives. This survey aims to ascertain the knowledge, practice and perception of contraception among literate adolescents in Calabar. This was a self-administered questionnaire -based study carried out in Calabar metropolis. The information was obtained at three different higher institutions in Calabar. Information collected include age, knowledge and use of contraceptives, source of information, and awareness of other methods of contraception and myths about contraception. A total of 1,596 female adolescents were recruited into this study. Their age range was 16 to 19years, with a mean age of 17.6years. The respondents have all attained basic secondary education and were all currently pursuing tertiary education and have all had sexual intercourse and have heard about contraception or family planning.  Of this number, 968(60.7%) have used Emergency contraceptive pills, 26.6% used male condom, 6.1% use CopperT (CuT), 1.9% use injectables, 1.1% use implants  while 3.6% have not used any method. They all however had one form of concern or the other about modern contraceptive methods. Adolescents and youths are undoubtedly the bedrock to propagate any programme irrespective of the field. Adolescents are therefore in dire need of information on reproductive health issues not only on contraception but also on other issues concerning their reproductive health. They should be assisted and given unhindered access to various methods of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion.

Keywords: Adolescents, Contraception, Education, Literature, Myth, Nigeria

An Analysis Of Character Education Values In Non-Fiction Novel “Habibie Dan Ainun” Created By Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie And Its Advantages As Literature Reading For Senior High School In Medan, Indonesia (Published)

This study aims to determine the character education values in the novel Habibie dan Ainun by Bacharudin Jusuf Habibie and its advantages as a literature reading material in senior high school. Based on the research results that were conducted, there are 18 values of character education based on the National Education System. The character education values include: character values relating to God, character values relating to self is honest, disciplined, independent, creative, curiosity, love reading, responsible, and hard working. Character values relating to others, character values relating to environment includes: tolerance, and love of the homeland.

Keywords: Education, Literature, character values, novel

The Journey as Structural and Instrumental Technique in Nigerian Children’s Fiction (Published)

One unique feature of Nigerian children’s literature is the exploitation of the framework of journey to establish the relationship between the physical journey and the journey of life. Thus, the major characters in most books for children are always on a journey. This is very significant, as it helps the child brave up for the unpredictability of life, especially at this time when his mind is still impressionistic. Through textual analysis of select Nigerian children’s fiction, this paper reveals that the journey as used in these children’s books does not only serve structural purposes but also didactic and instructional.

Keywords: Fiction, Journey, Life, Literature, Nigeria, Relationship, children

Improving Language Proficiency and General Knowledge: A Case for Free Voluntary Reading. (Published)

Free voluntary reading is just as its name states. It is free reading; free in the sense that students chooses what material they want to read, choose to read or not to read and to report in class on the reading they have done or not. It is purely reading with no strings attached. This is a strategy voiced by Stephen Krashen and quite a good number of language educators have decided it is worth a short. Research reports support the assertion that those who read more do better in a wide variety of tests. They become better users of language and have a wider horizon of life. They are also reported to have a greater general knowledge. It is in view of these that this paper recommends FVR as a probable solution to the lamentably poor standard of English in schools and the general poor academic outcomes.

Keywords: Academic Outcomes, English, Free Reading, Language, Literature, Student

Language Use And Lexical Attrition: Do They Change Over Time (Published)

The issue of language use has already been assumed to be an important predicting factor for language attrition. Intuitively, it makes perfect sense that second or foreign language learners who make little use of a language experience more attrition than ones who use the language more frequently. Therefore, the availability or the lack of opportunities to use the language could influence the amount of language attrition, let alone an essential variable like vocabulary knowledge. Such language use factors must be considered in any model concerned with explaining FL attrition, and the primary purpose of the present study is to provide evidence about this. It attempts to examine a population of college acquired English among college leavers who vary in the extent to which they have been able to maintain contact with the target language over time. The findings demonstrated that participants rated many of their patterns of contact with English and vocabulary in particular somewhat lower after the end of formal instruction. Furthermore, the most powerful predictor appears to be the use of the internet which is strongly linked to better retention of productive vocabulary test over time.

Keywords: English, Language, Language Attrition, Literature, Vocabulary

Texts, Contexts And Motivational Strategies In Teaching Literature To Saudi Students (Published)

This paper has focused on the three crucial issues of teaching literature among the undergraduate students of Saudi Arabia. First it has explored the selection criteria of the literary texts: which texts are the best at tapping the motivations of the students. This selection is important to create “a highly motivating, amusing and lively lesson” (Hismanoglu, 2005, p. 65). Secondly along with eliciting contexts from the students, the study has reviewed the appropriateness of the major academically established contexts (for example, historical, formal, reader response, postcolonial etc.). It has emphasized that choosing the appropriate context for analysis is vital to avoid Saudi students’ alienation with the “methods and styles which are unorthodox and incomprehensible, when compared to their upbringing” (Springsteen, 2014, p. 11). Since the class room activities are often found “different, sometimes challenging, and often marginalizing” (Shaw, 2009, p. 225), the article has identified some relevant and effective motivational strategies that work in consonance with the students

Keywords: Literary Contexts, Literature, Motivational Strategies, Teaching Literature, language skills

The Use of Literature in an EFL Classroom (Published)

This research aimed at investigating the students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the literature courses offered by the English Department in the College of Basic Education in Kuwait. The Students’ perceptions were examined based on a 5-statement questionnaire which addresses the extent to which students believe the literature courses enhanced their proficiency in the four skills. Overall, the participants viewed the literature courses as effective in improving their English competencies. However, they did not believe that the literature courses helped in improving the oral skills. The results also pointed to some inadequacies which seem to be related the implementation of the literature courses. In order for these inadequacies to be effectively redressed, the researchers recommend that further studies be conducted on other aspects, like the teaching methods and tools used in implementing the courses and the feedback from instructors.

Keywords: Classroom, Effectiveness, English, Literature


The influence of the media and intelligence on world literature has been immense. There is a close relationship between the media, intelligence and literature. Although the media helps the writer to make his work reach a wider audience quickly, the intelligence officer who is more of an adversary reports his activities to the state that uses it for a higher goal. The media watches everyone including the writer, but who watches the activities of the media during agenda-setting, sensationalism and yellow journalism? This is the thrust of this paper.

Keywords: Intelligence, Literature, Media


The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which literary characters can be used in teaching English to speakers of other languages. The study is an interpretive qualitative in nature. The findings indicate that there are numerous ways to make use of literary characters in English language lessons. There are a lot of activities that can be used to develop students’ writing, others enhance reading skills. However, all these activities can be utilized to practice and develop listening and speaking as well. So they have to be as interactive as possible. For this reason class work is supposed to be conducted in pairs or groups. Some activities are in a form of interviews, others produce posters or letters. The ones compiled in this article are but prototypes subject to adjustment, modification, simplification or a combination of several ideas, so as to suit different teaching and learning situations. The main recommendation, however, is not to let characters go without being exploited to the maximum for the benefit of the language learner

Keywords: Classroom Activities, Literary Characters, Literature, Teaching English


This article clearly defines the terms of the Millennium Development Goals and the roles literature should play in the realisation of the vision. In its view, literature has existing structures prior to the launch of the programme by the United Nations in 2000 and which the objectives can conveniently fit into. These structures comprise political criticism, feminist criticism, eco-criticism or environmental literature and utopian or futuristic literature. Through political criticism, the world can entrench good governance which in turn will eradicate poverty as well as guarantee Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), better health care or find remedies to diseases. The paper goes ahead to argue that feminist criticism in literature has got the capacity to sensitise the world on gender equality and other gender issues by presenting highly educated and empowered women as characters in literary works. Eco-criticism alerts us on the danger of environmental degradation while utopian literature has the sheer force of catapulting us to an ethereal world where we will forget the present anomy and give a breaststroke thrust to the future. These are the concrete facts the paper discusses. It concludes by stating that as the mandate of MDGs supposedly ends in 2015, literature could continue the good work it has been doing for mankind before the advent of the Millennium Development Goals.



Keywords: Eco-criticism, Feminist criticism, Literature, Millennium Development Goals, Political criticism

Representations Of Nature in J. P. Clark’s “Night Rain”: An Eco-Critical Study (Published)

One significant beauty of literature is the openness of this academic discipline. It permits sensible endless debate on issues with a view to reconciling them and to bring out the best from the divided opinions for ultimate use of the most enduring and outstanding perspective from among many. Even before now that world has turned a global village; the geography of our existence allows us to tell our stories because man is heavily connected to his environment. Our culture and all our material creations including literature are therefore reflections of our ecological existence. This paper examines J. P. Clark’s “Night Rain” as a product of the relationship between literature and the environment, and the representation of nature, which make up the environment in a literary work. With the application of Eco-criticism as our theoretical framework, the paper concludes that our lives are not meaningful except they are situated in the cultural context of our environment. Hence, the study and understanding of culture in relation to the environment through literature will help us in solving the challenges of the 21st century.

Keywords: Culture, Eco-criticism, Environment, Literature, Nature, Representation.

Satire As Typified In Ramonu Sanusi’s Le Bistouri Des Larmes (Published)

Literature is an essential weapon for socio-political, cultural and economic struggles among other things. This art called literature is a source of dialogue, debate, exchange and innovation. A form of creativity which allows transfer of culture and knowledge that are useful for coping with societal challenges In other words, it paints life with a view to share human experiences, feelings, imaginations, observations, findings, predictions and suggestions for practical realities. In this paper, we attempt to examine “Satire as exemplified in Ramonu Sanusi’s Le Bistouri des larmes.”The purpose is to enhance the decoding/understanding of African Literature of French expression. Our review is premised on sociological approach, which holds that literature and other forms of creative arts should be examined in the cultural, economic and political context in which they are written, produced or received. This literary theory explores the connections/relationships between the artist/writer and his or her society. To better understand a writer’s literarywork(s), it may probe into the writer’s society as well as studying how societal elements are represented in the literature itself since it is believed that literature has certain functions to perform in contributing to the development of human societies through moral or behaviour re-orientation. The paper concludes that satire is an essential mechanism in the hands of many African writers to achieve their motives.

Keywords: Creativity, Fiction, Literature, Non-Fiction, Satire, Social Transformation, Society