Vocabulary knowledge is essential to language development and use in second language acquisition. As an important part of foreign language learning, incidental vocabulary acquisition has been paid much attention by experts and scholars. In the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition, the main input methods include reading, listening, reading-while-listening and audio-visual input. Based on the experimental demonstration of the three input methods of incidental vocabulary acquisition, this study summarizes the research results of incidental vocabulary acquisition at home and abroad, and puts forward some suggestions for future research on incidental vocabulary acquisition.
To make their learners achieve good competency in second or foreign language, teachers need to be careful in the choice of techniques, approaches and activities they use. Unfortunately, many teachers and course books separate the four macro skills in their teaching approach. The language which should be seen as a whole is taught in a segregated way, i. e. with whole lessons / sessions on listening, speaking, reading or writing skills. Language, whose prime objective is communication, is thus compartmentalised and leads to poor users. A good reader, listener or writer of a language is not necessarily a competent user of it in real communication situations. This paper proposes the presentation of news in class as an activity to integrate the four macro skills in teaching English as a Foreign Language. It is an exercise which involves the active participation of the whole class, considerably reduces the teacher talking time while increasing that of the learners.
This paper focuses on the improvement of Oral Communication Skills (OCSs) of Pakistan’s Public school’s Grade-6 students who have a lack of opportunities and are seldom exposed to the English language generally and OCSs particularly. Since more importance is given to reading and writing skills of English in which results overlook the importance of OCSs and due to which students are found to be silent, shy or have a profound fear of being wrong. It further highlights self developed strategies of students in improving accuracy and fluency in which the National Curriculum for English Language (NCEL) was taken as a guiding tool and action planner through which systematic lessons were delivered in classrooms. Findings of Pre and post intervention phases of four participants revealed that children’s OCSs had shown a marked improvement by giving opportunities to practice oral languages, providing conducive learning environment and using new teaching strategies. This study also claims that code switching, Peer and self error correction, short pauses and speech fillers are inevitable to improve speaking skills in the process of second language learning. It shows new ways in order to improve students’ speaking skills and has implications for second language learners and teachers.