Loperamide is a safe over-the-counter antidiarrheal drug. However, at supratherapeutic doses, it produces opioid effects. Here, we evaluated the neurotoxic effects of loperamide in rats brain. 20 rats were randomized into 4 groups (A-D) of 5 rats each. Rats in groups A (control) and B received vehicle for 7-day while rats in groups B, C and D were orally gavaged with 1.5, 3 and 6 mg/kg body weight (BW) of loperamide hydrochloride. The results revealed a dose dependent decrease in acetylcholine. Reactive oxygen species increased significantly while antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in the brain. Loperamide induces necrotic related morphological changes in rat brain with significant increase in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA. Loperamide deplete acetycholine thus causing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidation of cellular macromolecules. This study provides biochemical evidence supporting the neurotoxicity associated with supra-therapeutic dose consumed for euphoria effect.
Effect of Co-Administration of Chloroquine Phosphate and Cefuroxime Axetil on Serum Lipids and Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Wistar Rats (Published)
There is scanty information on the response of biochemical system to the co-administration of anti-malarial drugs and antibiotics. This was what informed the need to undertake the present study. The effects of co-administration of chloroquine (CQ) and cefuroxime (CE) on serum lipids and lipid peroxidation in albino Wistar rats was investigated. Standard reagent kits was used for the assay. The study included assay on the effect of the co-administration of CQ and CE on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipid peroxidation. The result revealed that the level of HDL-C was not affected by the co-administration. Those of TC, TG and LDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) above the value obtained for the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level increased significantly (p<0.05) in group treated with CQ in combination with CE. The present study has revealed that co-administration of chloroquine and cefuroxime tends to raise TC, TG, LDL-C and MDA levels. The result reveals that co-administration of chloroquine and cefuroxime may adversely affect the metabolism of lipids.