This study aims at investigating the basic theories of translation that should be used by Saudi Arabia university students, College of Science and Arts AL-Baha University in academic year 2016-2017 during the second semester. The study also aims at disusing these theories, showing the kind of theories, introducing translation theories in details and suggest suitable theory for translation. Also introduce Linguistic Theories Related to Translation. because Translation theory derives from comparative linguistics, and within linguistics, it is mainly an aspect of semantic; all questions of semantics are related to translation theory. linguistic approach to translation theory incorporates the following concepts: meaning, equivalence, shift, text purpose and analysis, and discourse register. focuses on the theory in general; it is role of communication in exchanging knowledge, science, culture, and the linguistics theory that is related to translation in general. It is history and development. Finally, it focuses on the works that have been done in the area of translation theory. For these purpose, research questions are posed.
This article is written to analyze and give some suggestions concerning language planning in National Education Policy (NEP) 2017. Each government permitted new articles in the constitutions and policies but without following a suitable line of investigation and management of researchers. So in this state of affairs language planning changed into more important beside other national troubles. From the initial day of Pakistan, Pakistani facing tribulations regarding language planning even one of our parts now Bangladesh was separated mainly because of this issue. Pakistan is a multilingual country with five major languages and fifty eight other languages. Language planning is need of all countries especially countries having multilingual and multi-ethnic makeup, Pakistan is one of those countries which have not only multilingual composition but also a conflict on the basis of languages. The scope of this study is that the researcher giving some new plans and suggestions to amend policies. In present time ‘National Education Policy 2017’ is a good step towards the development. Language planning is official and government-level policy concerning the assortment and promotion of a incorporated administrative language or languages. The researcher recommended that Urdu is a sign of nationalism and lingua franca and English as global language must run side by side, so we can accomplish maximum consequences by competing with the other countries in respect of nationalism. Some suggestions as followings: The issue of language planning should be taken as national issue of Pakistan. All language policies should be made after proper research by the skilled linguistics, psychologists, sociologist and policy makers. Major work should be done on Pakistan language especially in respect of corpus planning as well as status planning to make it a standard language of Pakistan.
The aim of this study was to discourse analyze of political cinema in Iran after the war from 1989 to 2013. For the purpose of this research is descriptive analysis was conducted to collect information on library. Population in three period after the Islamic Revolution “from 1989 to 1996, 1997 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2013” was studied. Discourse analysis of political cinema after the war, within the period specified, underlying the approach of Fairclough and integrate it with roses, Aydma and Kress and Van Leeuwen who are affected by social semiotics, operational model for critical discourse analysis of the film. And with respect to the proposed model Paul Gay, the elements of the six organs, which he identifies as text fragments, examined chosen films. According to the findings in the first period, “1989 to 1996”, pure thoughts patriotic and revolutionary themes have been witnessing a fundamental transformation. Which include two periods, first, the concept of “development” that accompanied the pattern of “rationalitAy” in the Rafsanjani government conceptualized. The discourse of war, the rise of the urban upper classes and groups based on the concept of “construction”, ie development projects, all of which are examples. But in the second part of the first period, the discourse of “democracy” and “freedom” are met. In the second decade 1997 to 2005, traditional political discourse, reformer discourse changed. Government film policy, in particular, before and after June, under the sovereignty of political discourse “conservative” and “reformist” has been developed. The third period, from 2006 to 2013 with the victory of Ahmadinejad (2005), to open in 1981 in the form of a new meaning system helped the fundamentalist interpretation. Therefore it can be concluded that the selected films examined in this study have political implications affecting the society of his time.
Advancing the Igbo Language using elements of knowledge management (KM); The role of Academics in South-Eastern Nigerian Universities (Published)
Universities in the South-Eastern part of Nigeria have become the focal point of enlightenment for its people who predominantly speak the Igbo language. In the contemporary Nigerian society, universities manifest their increasing importance in the face of a failing academic system in a Federal Nigeria that has failed to advance the Igbo language. This paper argues that the elements of knowledge management (KM) can be used by academics to advance the Igbo language which has steadily become a dying language. Academics in South-Eastern Nigerian Universities where the Igbo language is spoken are in an advantageous position to advance this language given the advances in communication technology and opportunities for research collaboration. This paper further advocate developing a good research infrastructure in the Igbo language centered on the socio-cultural views of the Igbo society using elements of knowledge management will go a long way to advance and promote the Igbo language