Analysis of Labour Productivity and Constraints of Rubber Latex Exploitation among Smallholder Rubber Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (Published)
The objective of the study was conducted to analyze labour productivity and constraints of small holder rubber farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 300 rubber farmer using purposive and random sampling techniques. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and labour productivity model. Result of the analysis revealed that wage tapping and share arrangement accounted for 43.33 percent and 36.33 percent respectively. Labour productivity analysis revealed a yield of 826,434.31 kg dry rubber per year and gross income of N81, 949,226.18 per year while the output per man day was 22.58 kg. Wage / man day was N377.78, while an average plantation owner reaps N1,860.56 after adjustments were made to wages and other costs of operation. The major constraints of rubber farmers included shortage and high cost of labour ranked the first major problem, inadequate credit as the second most important and significant constraint of rubber farmers while poor rubber prices and storage facilities problem were the third and the fourth most important significant problems faced by respondents. The study however recommended that rubber farmers should form cooperative societies and associations to enable them access production credit from commercial and Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) for rubber production.
Investigating the Relationship between Autonomy and Motivation Considering Gender Differences among Iranian Second Language Learners (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between autonomy and motivation considering gender differences among Iranian second language learners. To do so, 48 Iranian students studying at EMU were randomly selected and categorized based on their age, gender, and proficiency level. A ready-made questionnaire from Language Teaching Research Journal developed by Spratt et al. (2002) in four sections of a) responsibility of teachers and students from learners’ point of view, b) learner’s ability, c) motivation, and d) activity was distributed among the students from which they had to fill on a Likert Scale. The data then were gathered and fed to the SPSS software and shown in four tables. Chi-square formula was used to measure the correlation between given nominal scales. The finding of the study point towards the fact that motivation as a psychological factor is in fact the initial part of the learning process which consequently leads to learner autonomy and no significant digression was observed when the study focused on gender differences except for the fact that females tend to show a higher degree of autonomy in deciding contents of the syllabus while males were more dependent to the teacher.