Tag Archives: Libya.

Morphology and age cohorts of Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Grapsidae) in the southern Mediterranean Sea (Published)

The aim of this work was to establish morphological traits of P. marmoratus inhabiting the rocky intertidal zone of the southern Mediterranean Sea coast. 457 P. marmoratus collected randomly from the AL-Haniyah, Al-Hamamah, and Susah sites, eastern Libya, during 2019 were used in the study. The largest carapace length (CL) and weight (WW) were 35.1cm and 31.0g, respectively, while the minimums were 8.50cm and 0.40g. The means were 24.5cm and 10.2g. The order of WW by season was: winter and spring > fall > summer; by site: Al-Haniyah > Susah > Al-Hamamah; males being heavier than females. The WW-CL relationship was WW=0.001*CL**2.817; R2=0.909. The condition factor of P. marmoratus was highest in spring and lowest in summer, highest in Al-Haniyah and Susah and lowest in Al-Hamamah, and similar for both sexes, it increased in a negative allometric manner as the crab grew. The morphometrical parameters of male P. marmoratus were higher than those of females. Most morphometrical parameters scored higher values in winter and spring, followed by fall, and summer, with Al-Haniyah and Susah parameters being higher than the Al-Hamamah ones. Temporal and spatial variations of the morphometric parameters were discussed in terms of the availability of food and prevailing environmental conditions. Regressions of females and males P. marmoratus morphometric parameters with CL were strong and positive. Bilateral dimorphism was not observed. Four-year age groups, +1 (11-12mm), +2 (16-18mm), +3 (25-26mm) and +4 (32-33mm), comprised the P. marmoratus population.     

Citation: Ayiman Faraj Eisay, Hind Abdrabba Yousef, Sayed Mohamed Ali, Ramadan A. S. Ali (2022) Morphology and age cohorts of Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Grapsidae) in the southern Mediterranean Sea, International Research Journal of Natural Sciences, Vol.10, No.3, pp.14-32

Keywords: Libya., Mediterranean, Morphology, Pachygrapsus marmoratus, morphometry

Some Traits of Meiofauna in the Surf Region of the Southern Mediterranean Sea Coast (Published)

During the winter and summer of 2019, eight study sites in eastern Libya were used to establish meiofauna diversity in the Southern Mediterranean Sea’s near-shore sandy bottom surf region. The physicochemical characteristics of surface water at the study sites were mostly similar. Seventeen taxa of floatable meiofauna (extracted from sediment samples by floatation) were identified, sixteen during winter and ten during summer: By number of individuals per taxon, Nematoda and Foraminifera were the most abundant taxa. The other available taxa were Rhabdocoela, Xanacoelomorpha, Gastrotrichs, Polychaeta, Kinorhyncha, and Urodasys. Four non-floatable meiofauna taxa were encountered (Foraminifera, Mussel, Gastropod, and Ostracoda). This low diversity of floatable and non-floatable meiofauna was possibly due to the strong wave action prevailing in the region and the adjacent deleterious anthropogenic activities. Meiofaunal diversity was higher in winter than in summer, possibly due to the higher dissolved phosphorus concentration during this season. The causes of the between-site differences in meiofaunal diversity are unclear, but differences in adjacent coastal anthropogenic activities might had more impact than differences in the prevailing physicochemical traits of the interstitial habitat. New practical techniques for collecting and identifying the smaller meiofauna are needed.

Citation: Hajir O. A. Alfurjani, Sayed M. Ali, Hamad M. A. Hasan, Ramadan A. S. Ali (2022) Some Traits of Meiofauna in the Surf Region of the Southern Mediterranean Sea Coast, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, 10(3),12-28

Keywords: Libya., meiofauna, southern, surf region Mediterranean Sea

Some morphometric traits of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) in Umm Hufayn brackish lagoon, eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea coast (Published)

Eighty Liza aurata fish were collected from the artisanal catch of Umm Hufayn lagoon, eastern Libya, during January/ February 2018 for use in the present study. Values of key morphological parameters (descriptive, morphometric, and meristic) of the fish were established, correlated with each other, and related to fish length (as an indicator of growth and age) by power and linear regressions. The mean length of the fish was 21.331cm corresponding to weight of 89.011g. The established meristic form was:  D1, IV; D2, I+ 6-9 (8); A, III, 7-12 (9); P, 12-18 (15); V, I + 4-7 (5); LL, 34-54 (42), numbers between parentheses are modes of counts. Power and linear length-weight relationship were Y=0.006X3.111, R2=0.891and Y=15.89X-250.1, R2=0.824, fish growth is almost isometric; Fulton and Clark condition factors were 0.8498± 0.01486 and 0.6651± 0.01145. These factors did not correlate significantly with fish length, i.e. they did not change significantly during fish growth.

Keywords: Libya., Liza aurata, Mediterranean, Morphometric

The Effect of Marketing Deception on Consumer Buying Decision on Facebook. An Empirical Study on University Students in Libya (Published)

This paper investigates the effect of marketing deception on the consumer behavior. Specifically, it investigates deceptive practices related to the product, price, place and promotion on the consumer purchase process. Since Facebook has become an important social media platform that is widely used in marketing in Libya, this study explores consumer perception of deceptive practices on that social networking site. The data was collected through an online questionnaire that was posted on several groups on Facebook in Libya. The researchers were able to collect 418 complete questionnaires. The findings indicated the marketing deceptive practices has a negative impact on consumer buying purchasing process. This article contributes to the academic knowledge by highlighting the damaging effects of marketing deception on consumer behavior. Moreover, it contributes to practice by providing some guidelines to companies to follow when using Facebook in marketing in Libya. By getting away from marketing deceptive practices, companies will be able to yield the best outcomes from marketing on Facebook. The study is limited by the sample size and the sample nature which consisted of Libyan students. Future research can focus on different social networking sites and different age groups.

Keywords: Consumer Buying Decision, Facebook, Libya., Marketing Deception

Length-Weight Relationship and Growth of the Striped Seabream Lithognathus Mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758) From Al Haneah Fish Landing Site, Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Libya (Published)

Length-weight relationship and growth characteristics of the striped Seabream Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758) was established using 164 fish collected from Al-Haneah (eastern Libya, Mediterranean Sea) artisanal catch during March  to October 2015. The power relationship between total weight (W in gm) and total length (L in cm) for L.  mormyrus was highly isometric: W = 0.0132L^3.0008   (R2 = 0.8291). The length based von Bertalanffy equation of the order: Lt = L∞ (1 – exp (-K (t –t0 ))) was Lt = 30.465 (1 – exp (-0.159 (t + 2.5435))). The weight based equation was Wt =  374.2523  (1 – exp (- 0.159 (t  + 2.5435))) 3.0008. The growth index was low: ɸ = 2.169.

Keywords: Length-Weight Relationship, Libya., Lithognathus Mormyrus, Mediterranean Sea, Sand Steenbras, Striped Seabream, Von Bertalanffy Growth Equation

Voluntary Information Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Libyan’s Commercial Banks: A Longitudinal Analysis Approach (Published)

This study aims to measure the level of voluntary information disclosure in 54 annual reports of listed and unlisted Libyan’s commercial banks, over a six-year reporting period (2006-2011). It also examines if there has been any significant improvement in the levels of voluntary information disclosure provided in the annual reports, using a longitudinal analysis approach. To measure the voluntary disclosure level, this study develops a scoring sheet comprised of 63 voluntary information items and a dichotomous scoring method was applied. A longitudinal analysis shows that the extent of all five types of information disclosures is low, with an average of 38%, however there was an improvement in the general level of voluntary disclosure and its categories over a six-year period. In addition, it shows that the level of background information is the highest level of voluntary disclosures over the periods of the study and the level of corporate social information is the lowest level of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of the study time periods. This research project is to help develop the existing disclosure literature in relation to the banking sector, which is currently sparse due to the limited empirical research studies on the extent of banking disclosure and its developments.

Keywords: Annual Reports, Commercial Bank, Libya., Voluntary Disclosure

The Causative of Leaf Spot on Carob- Isolation and Identification (Published)

The main objective of the present study was to isolation and identification of the cause carob leaves spots. In this study, a total of 4 fungal isolates (referred as A1, A2 and A3) were obtained from symptomatic leaves collected from carob trees distribution in El-Beida city and its suburbs. The pathogen associated with the disease was identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. All the isolates produced olive-brown to medium-brown conidia with obclavate shape, but the isolates varied in size (length) of conidia, the number of cells per conidium, rate of growth and sporulation on media. Koch´s postulate was verified by inoculating healthy leaves. This was the first report of leaf spot disease of carob caused by Alternaria alternata in Libya.

Keywords: A. alternata, Carob, Libya., leaf spot, pathogenicity, symptomatology