The Effect of Marketing Deception on Consumer Buying Decision on Facebook. An Empirical Study on University Students in Libya (Published)
This paper investigates the effect of marketing deception on the consumer behavior. Specifically, it investigates deceptive practices related to the product, price, place and promotion on the consumer purchase process. Since Facebook has become an important social media platform that is widely used in marketing in Libya, this study explores consumer perception of deceptive practices on that social networking site. The data was collected through an online questionnaire that was posted on several groups on Facebook in Libya. The researchers were able to collect 418 complete questionnaires. The findings indicated the marketing deceptive practices has a negative impact on consumer buying purchasing process. This article contributes to the academic knowledge by highlighting the damaging effects of marketing deception on consumer behavior. Moreover, it contributes to practice by providing some guidelines to companies to follow when using Facebook in marketing in Libya. By getting away from marketing deceptive practices, companies will be able to yield the best outcomes from marketing on Facebook. The study is limited by the sample size and the sample nature which consisted of Libyan students. Future research can focus on different social networking sites and different age groups.
Length-Weight Relationship and Growth of the Striped Seabream Lithognathus Mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758) From Al Haneah Fish Landing Site, Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Libya (Published)
Length-weight relationship and growth characteristics of the striped Seabream Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758) was established using 164 fish collected from Al-Haneah (eastern Libya, Mediterranean Sea) artisanal catch during March to October 2015. The power relationship between total weight (W in gm) and total length (L in cm) for L. mormyrus was highly isometric: W = 0.0132L^3.0008 (R2 = 0.8291). The length based von Bertalanffy equation of the order: Lt = L∞ (1 – exp (-K (t –t0 ))) was Lt = 30.465 (1 – exp (-0.159 (t + 2.5435))). The weight based equation was Wt = 374.2523 (1 – exp (- 0.159 (t + 2.5435))) 3.0008. The growth index was low: ɸ = 2.169.
Voluntary Information Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Libyan’s Commercial Banks: A Longitudinal Analysis Approach (Published)
This study aims to measure the level of voluntary information disclosure in 54 annual reports of listed and unlisted Libyan’s commercial banks, over a six-year reporting period (2006-2011). It also examines if there has been any significant improvement in the levels of voluntary information disclosure provided in the annual reports, using a longitudinal analysis approach. To measure the voluntary disclosure level, this study develops a scoring sheet comprised of 63 voluntary information items and a dichotomous scoring method was applied. A longitudinal analysis shows that the extent of all five types of information disclosures is low, with an average of 38%, however there was an improvement in the general level of voluntary disclosure and its categories over a six-year period. In addition, it shows that the level of background information is the highest level of voluntary disclosures over the periods of the study and the level of corporate social information is the lowest level of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of the study time periods. This research project is to help develop the existing disclosure literature in relation to the banking sector, which is currently sparse due to the limited empirical research studies on the extent of banking disclosure and its developments.
The main objective of the present study was to isolation and identification of the cause carob leaves spots. In this study, a total of 4 fungal isolates (referred as A1, A2 and A3) were obtained from symptomatic leaves collected from carob trees distribution in El-Beida city and its suburbs. The pathogen associated with the disease was identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. All the isolates produced olive-brown to medium-brown conidia with obclavate shape, but the isolates varied in size (length) of conidia, the number of cells per conidium, rate of growth and sporulation on media. Koch´s postulate was verified by inoculating healthy leaves. This was the first report of leaf spot disease of carob caused by Alternaria alternata in Libya.