Creating an institutional framework on a global scale to understand balance-of-power strategies is the crux of foreign policy today with United States superpower exceptionalism. ‘Altercating’ defence, diplomacy and development encapsulate the United States foreign policy in relation to national interests globally. Role theory applied in comparing the United States and Chinese grand strategies as case studies. The United States superpower statecraft’s clarity help superimposed any form of countervailing alliances globally; while China’s sociological pragmatist role currently could change based on ‘Power Transition Theory’ for hegemony power. Beijing is pursuing a grand strategy that combines both ‘internal balancing’ and external ‘soft balancing’, encapsulated as ‘warfare ecosystem construct’ as countervailing alliances for balance-of-power strategies with development of ‘Economic Corridors’ in East Asia ; and the United States ‘Globalization Agenda’ both executed as ‘mechanisms of power’ date back to their ‘hegemonic histories’ with adaptive construct for national interests.
The Free Trade Policy of the World Trade Organization: An Assessment of the Impact on the Industrial Development in Africa (Published)
This study focused on the impact of the free trade policy of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on the industrial development in Africa. It obtained its data from the secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, articles published and unpublished from libraries in Abuja and the internet. The data were analyzed using content analysis and the liberalist theory which revolves around three interrelated principles: rejection of power politics as the only possible outcome on international relations; accentuates mutual benefits and international cooperation and; implements international organizations and nongovernmental actors for shaping state preferences and policy choices was adopted as a framework for the purpose of analysis. The findings revealed that the Third World or developing countries have not benefitted from WTO agreement. It was realized that Foreign Direct Investment has not contributed significantly to the growth of the African Nations’ Economy. The paper, therefore, recommended as follows: African leaders should summon the political will and commitment to limit the negative impact of WTO’s free trade policies on their economies generally and the industrial sectors in particular. To do this, specific policy options including, but not limited to the followings, should be pursued with vigour: Adopt protectionist economic and industrial policies with emphasis on key sectors including the agricultural sectors; Promote and protect local industrial development that is capable of producing basic goods and services; Improve and strengthen their decision-making machinery and institutions; Limit import of major goods and services which they have relative comparative advantage and; Identify their specific interest and objective in respect of the subject of the WTO. This can be done through the process of a broad-based and in-depth examination of the issues and their implications. For the WTO itself, it should ensure that it carries all countries along by giving them equal treatment no matter their statuses etc.
Sympathy, Hospitality and Love in Nadine Gordimer’s The Pick Up (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper sets out to discuss the extent to which the trinity of sympathy, hospitality and love are interwoven in Nadine Gordimer’s The Pick Up. To be sure, this postliberation novel is a stunning tribute to what Arthur Schopenhauer calls “loving-kindness” which encompasses respect for ‘otherness’ and rejection of intolerance in any shape or form. As a one-time antiapartheid activist driven by her unflinching belief in deep-dyed liberal values, Nadine Gordimer reminds us through the casting of her lead characters, to wit Julie and Abdu, that human action must always be tinged with a measure of compassion and acceptance of diversity, or else the ravages of egoism and absence of empathy will doom us. This powerful work of fiction, indeed, teaches us that it is only through the steady exercise of compassion that one can carry out one’s responsibility for the ‘other’
Politics and economics share an intimate relationship. To separate either in analysis is unfair, as it dismisses the interdependency between both schools of thought. Thus, in issues pertaining to the Political Economy, there is a fusion between politics and economics to obtain the most thorough and holistic understanding of both spheres. Political economy is concerned with the allocation of scarce resources in a world of infinite wants and needs. In order to allocate these resources, politics are used within a state to provide for the people. Of the different analytic frameworks there are two dominant perspectives: Liberalism and Realism. Liberalism can be attributed to a political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual and their economic activities to be paramount in nation-states, while Realism is based on certain assumptions or premises that nation-states are the dominant actors within the political economy and the proper units of analysis. Other units of analysis are subordinated to the nation-state and therefore superfluous to integrate into evaluation. This paper is directed towards liberalism and realism paradigm; a matrix very useful in comprehending the behavior of the nation-state and in describing, explaining, and predicting political economy. The paper recommends that liberalism should operate under real-world conditions, reflecting state interest and aggrandizement, and such advancement should result in peace instead of the expected dose of conflict.