Genetic diversity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) introduced for adaptation in Lesotho (Published)
Common beans are introduced in Lesotho from CIAT-Malawi annually to evaluate them for adaptation and other characters of economic importance. They are not being characterized for identity, therefore the study was conducted at National University of Lesotho located in the Maseru District of Lesotho with specific objectives of (1) estimating genetic distances among the common bean genotypes using morphological features and (2) identifying morphological characteristics that contributed to discrimination of these cultivars. Randomized Complete Block Design was applied with four replications. Twenty cultivars of common beans from CIAT-Malawi were used as treatments. Data were collected using descriptor of common beans compiled by International Board of Genetic Resources Unit. Data generated were subjected to cluster analysis and principal component analysis using Genstat recover (2015). Results of cluster analysis revealed four groups, of which two consisted of five cultivars, another had four and the last one only two cultivars. Besides, there were three outliers. The results of principal component analysis showed the total variation accounted for by both principal component 1 and 2 was 35.95% with each constituting 18.62 and 17.33 %, respectively. The characters responsible for variation from the first principal component analysis were seed shape, colour of flowers, colour of wings, seed-coat pattern and pod beak orientation. The characters influencing separation along the second principal component were number of locules per pod, number of seeds per pod, leaflet length, days to flowering and pod colour. It can be deduced that the cultivars broad in to Lesotho is diverse broadening the genetic base of the existing common bean genotypes
Variability in Yield and Yield Components among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Genotypes (Published)
Common bean is an important leguminous crop grown by farmers for home consumption and local market in Lesotho. Its low productivity has been a great concern necessitating introduction of new improved cultivars that are tested for adaptation and yield potential. The study was conducted at National University of Lesotho located in the Maseru District of Lesotho with specific objectives of (1) determining the difference in yield and yield components of common bean genotypes obtained from CIAT and also (2) determining correlation coefficient among the yield components of the genotypes. Randomized Complete Block Design was applied with four replications to lay-out an experiment. Twenty cultivars of common beans obtained from CIAT were used as treatments. Parameters measured were plant height, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and weight of 100 seeds (g). Data generated were subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat recovery version (2015). The results revealed significant differences in number of pods per plant, yield and plant height among twenty cultivars. No significant difference was obtained among different bean cultivars for weight of 100 seeds per pod and number of pods per plant. Number of pod per plant showed a positive correlation between number of seed per pod, plant height and seed weight per pod but had negative correlation with weight per 100 seeds. Seed weight had negative correlation with all components of beans.
Wheat being the third most important cereal crop in Lesotho, after Maize and Sorghum, has been decreasing in production, area planted and yield. This decline has not been determined using statistical analysis. The objectives of the study were to (1) determine trend in wheat production, area planted and yield, (2) estimate regression coefficients of factors affecting wheat and (3) establish correlation coefficient of these factors. Time series data from 1961 to 2013 on total production of wheat, area planted, yield, rainfall and temperature were captured from FAOSTAT (2013). GENSTAT software was perform statistical analysis. The results revealed a dramatic decline in production, area planted and yield of 77%, 82% and 33.16%, respectively. Regression analysis revealed significant difference (p>0.01) among the regrsessors and each regressor had elasticity coefficient influencing wheat production. Correlation analysis showed that yield was highly correlated (r =0.6678) with area and moderately correlated with temperature (r =0.363) and rainfall (r = 0.2011).
Aims of paper were: to compare area planted and harvested sorghum; determine production trend over the time-period of 53 years; estimate productivity trend and growth rate; and compare National Cereals supply–demand balance. Time series data collected from FAOSTAT and Bureau of Statistics spanning 1960 to 2013 were subjected to GENSTAT for statistical analysis. Results showed persistent decline in area planted and harvested. Area under sorghum cultivation, production and yield fluctuated erratically throughout study period. Production decreased from 84 000 tonnes in 1975 to 22 000 tonnes in 2010, with only 18% of the period recording yield above 1 tonne ha-1. Increase production area did not always translate into higher yield. Despite low yield, sorghum utilization was 16 000 tonnes compared to 11 000 tonnes produced, thus necessitating an import of 5 000 tonnes, thus there was higher sorghum self-sufficiency level. Promotion of sorghum production and its use should be revisited to address food security and export value.
Trend Analysis of Maize Production in Lesotho and Its Distribution among the Ecological Zones (Published)
Maize is the major staple crop in Lesotho as evidenced by production and consumption levels. Speculation showed that maize production and area planted is declining dramatically and no appropriate analytical tools have been employed to verify this. The objectives of this study were; (1) to determine the trend of maize production, area planted and yield using time-series data (2) to determine distribution of maize by production and area among ecological zones. Time series data from 1961 to 2013 on maize production, area and yield were collected from FAOSTAT (2015). Data on ecological zones were obtained from Bureau of Statistics in Lesotho (2014). Genstat software was employed for trend analysis using time series function and ANOVA was to establish differences in maize production among ecological zones of Lesotho. The results revealed that trendline for maize production had declined from 107,000 in 1961 to 94,000 tons in 2013. Production and area curves appeared cyclical. Trendline for area planted maize for 54 years was constant from 1961 to 2013. Yield trendline was constant at 860 kg ha-1. Maize production in the lowland was the highest, followed by Foothills, Mountain and Orange river zone. There is a potential for Lesotho to increase maize production by mainly increasing yield.