Growth and Nutrients Utilization of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings (Burchell, 1822) Fed Telfairia Occidentalis Leaf Meal as Feed Additive (Published)
The research was carried out in the farm for 56 days to evaluate the benefits of Telfairia occidentalis additive on growth and nutrients utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings in a Complete Randomized Designed set up. The leaf of T. occidentalis were air dried for two weeks in an indoor facility, and then pounded into powder form. One hundred and thirty five (135) C. gariepinus fingerlings (mean body weight 9.6g) were randomly distributed into fifteen (15) plastic bowls at nine fish/ bowl in triplicates. Five diets designated as D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5, containing 40% crude protein with 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200g/kg of T. occidentalis leaf meal, were included in the basal feed, formulated and fed to Clarias gariepinus fingerlings at 5% body weight per day. The result revealed that T. occidentalis significantly (P≤0.05) improved the growth of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. The highest mean weight gain (14.6g) was in D2, followed by D3 (10.6g), while control D1 had the least 10.1g. Meanwhile there was significant (P≤0.05) difference in relative growth rate across the diets, diets that was fed with T. occidentalis had the best when compared with D1 respectively. The research demonstrate the efficiency of including leaf meal in the diets of fish. It has proved that leaf is proficient towards improving the well-being, growth, and nutrients absorption in fish. It uncover high survival rate when given to the fish in right proportion.
Length – Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Liza Ramada from Eastern Coast Of Libya (Published)
Monthly samples of Liza ramada were obtained during the period November 2014 to December 2015, from fishermen working at different location of the Eastern coast of Libya. Sex ratio,length-weight relationship and condition factor (K) were studied.Number of fish sample were 234. 96 were male, 47 were female and 91 were immature.Sex ratio male to female were 2:1. The correlation coefficient “r” with total Length and weight during all months, male, female, and both sex, was high, range between 0.761 to 0.995. The values of slope “b”ranged between 2.165 to 3.3and at most months, male, female and both sex, were bequal 3.The general equation of length-weight relationship for both sex were: W = 0.004543L3.22, For males was: W = 0.003L3.297, and For females was:W= 0.005L3.17. Values of condition factor of species L. ramada are high in December (2014) 1.0714 and April (2015) and lower values are on January (2015) 0.8163.
The dimensions of vessels and rays in the trunk of a fully grown tree of Afzelia africana were measured under the light microscope in order to obtain their actual lengths and widths in micrometer (µm). 50 measurements each of vessels and rays were carried out and their average means were determined using ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (D.M.R.T). The average length of vessels in the trunk were 0.37±0.20, 0.36±0.10 and 0.37±0.30 for the top, middle and basal portions while the average width were 191.92±0.30, 202.14±0.10 and 207.17±0.20 for the top , middle and basal portions of the trunk respectively. There were no significant differences (P≤0.05) in lengths of vessels from the base to the top of the trunk as well as from the core to the outer potion. Conversely, there were significant differences in the width of vessels from base to the top of the trunk as well as from the core to the outer portion. The ray cells, on the other hand, had 0.40±0.40, 0.38±0.30 and 0.37±0.20 as average mean lengths for the top, middle and basal portions of the trunk whereas, for these same portions the mean width of the ray cells were 49.41±0.20, 48.05±0.30 and 51.54±0.50 respectively. No significant difference was observed in the lengths of rays from the top to the base as well as from the core to the outer. Conversely, there were significant differences in the width of rays from base to middle but not from middle to top. In the same vein, there were significant differences in the width of rays from core to outer. Morphologically, the vessels were narrow, short, open-ended with simple perforation plates, and pits while the rays were multiseriate and heterogeneous. It was opined that the nature and dimensions of the vessels and the ray cells of this tree plant could be of physiological and pathological advantages to this taxon.