Anti-Bacterial and Phytochemical Potential of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extracts on Some Wound and Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria (Published)
Majority of Africans today depend either totally or partially on medicinal plants for the healing of their ailments which was used by their ancestors. This form of treatment, which is referred to as ethno medicine is sometimes the only kind of health care available to the rural populations. As part of the efforts to ascertain the healing capability credited to Moringa oleifera by the general public and some traditional practitioners, this work aimed at determining the antibacterial potentials and phyto-chemical constituents of M. oleifera was embarked on. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaf of Moringa oleifera (FMLE, FMLDW and DMLE, DMLDW) were obtained using a standard method (1). The antibacterial efficacy of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaves of Moringa oleifera was tested against Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi, isolated from wound and feaces respectively, to ascertain its effectiveness in the treatment of wound infection and typhoid fever using Agar diffusion by punch method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and phyto-chemistry of the extracts were also evaluated. The mean values of zones of inhibition obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The least significant difference was determined according to LSD test at P ≤ 0.05. Results obtained showed that FMLE at 500mg/ml has the highest zone of inhibition of 22.00b against S. aureus, E. coli and lowest 15.00b against S.typhi, compared with DMLE with the highest zone of inhibition of 20.00b against S. pyogenes and lowest of 10.00b against S. aureus. FMLDW presented the highest inhibitory activity 28.00b against S. pyogenes and no activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while DMLDW recorded 20.00b P. earuginosa and 10.00b against S. pyogenes. Both the aqueous and the ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leave exhibited appreciable level of inhibition against the test bacteria, but the aqueous extracts were not as effective as the ethanolic extracts. Phyto-chemical analysis of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaf of Moringa oleifera revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids and tannins. The findings from this work could be of interest and suggest the need for further investigations in terms of toxicological studies and purification of active components with a view to using the plant in novel drug development.
The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia arrereh Del. and Ficus thoningii Blume were analyzed using GC-MS. Eight compounds representing 100% of the essential oil from the leaves of Cassia arrereh Del, were characterized, with the major constituents as 10-methyl- Eicosane 32.50%, 2, 6, 10, 15-tetramethyl- Heptadecane 31.34 %, (R)-(-)-(2)-14-Methyl-8-hexadecen- 1-ol 12.73%. While ten compounds representing 99.99% of the essential oil from the leaves of Ficus thoningii Blume were characterized, with the major constituents as 2, 6,10, 15-tetramethyl- Heptadecane, 42.42 %, 9-methyl- Nonadecane,17.62%, Eicosane 16.17 %, , and methylsalicylate 10.58%. Although Cassia arrereh Del. and Ficus thoningii Blume belong to different families of Caleaslpiniaceae and Monaveae respectively, they both contained methylsalicylate and 2, 6,10, 15-tetramethyl- Heptadecane, 42.42 % in different proportions.
ASSESSMENT OF LEAF-TYPE AND NUMBER OF LEAVES USED IN WRAPPING ON THE QUALITY OF “UGBA” (FERMENTED PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA BENTH SEED) (Published)
Assessment of leaf-type and number of leaves used in wrapping on the quality of Ugba (fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds) was studied. Ugba is a delicacy commonly consumed by people of South Eastern states of Nigeria. Raw African oil bean seeds were boiled, dehulled, sliced, reboiled, washed and steeped in cold water for 10h and washed again, drained and wrapped with different leaves [plantain leaves (Musa paradisiaca), cocoyam leaves (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and Okpopia leaves (Alchornea laxifora Benth leaves)] and fermented for 72h. The samples were wrapped with different number of leaves ranging from 1-5. The sensory evaluation and proximate analysis of the fermented samples were carried out. Statistical analyses of both were determined using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference at P≤0.05 confidence between the samples. The composition of Ugba wrapped in Okpopia leaves (Alchornea laxiflora), cocoyam leaves and plantain leaves had different levels of moisture content (44.3%, 52.83%, 47.04%) respectively. Protein ranged from (6.77% – 8.59%), fibre content ranged from (17% – 39%), carbohydrate content range from (35.23% – 44.57%), fat content ranged from (6.5% – 12%) and ash content ranged from (13% – 33%). There were significant differences (P≤0.05) among all the samples in protein, fibre, carbohydrate, fat and ash contents respectively. The highest protein and carbohydrate, least fat, moisture and ash contents were from samples A (Okpopia leaves wrapped with five layers), suggesting best wrapping material. Organoleptic characteristics of the samples showed that the wrapping materials influenced the sensory attributes and the best wrapping material was shown to be Okpopia leaves with five layers, according to the panelists.
Proximate composition and phytochemical analyses were carried out on the leaves of Annona muricata using standard methods. The result of the proximate composition showed that the leaves contained 88.99% dry matter, 11.01% moisture, 25% crude protein, 14.96% ash, 22.20% crude fiber, 21.22 % fat and 16.62% carbohydrate contents. The phytochemicals detected in the ethanolic leaf extracts were flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside, tannins, triterpenoid, saponin and reducing sugar. The findings indicate that Annona muricata leaves is a potential source of highly nutritious feed stuff and phytomedicine. They are of nutritional, clinical and veterinary relevance considering the diverse ethnopharmacological uses of the plant in different parts of the world