Tag Archives: Leakages


The strides in information and communication technology (ICT) makes e-commerce a critical and inexorable feature of the global economy. In modern trend, significant numbers of transactions are consummated online. In Nigeria, it is no longer news that Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) is promoting a ‘cash-less policy’ to drive development and modernation of our payment system in line with Nigeria’s version 2020 goal of being amongst the top 20 economies of the year 2020. This paper seeks to examine the tax framework to reflect the realities of modern transactions, establish a basis of taxation that arrests leakages and enables tax authorities to capture revenue that would otherwise have continued to leak. The researcher recommends the legal frame work of e-commerce taxation which has to be amended to reflect the global taxation principles of e-tax in our tax laws as a sovereign state so that investors and business carried on online should be taxed. Also that our tax policy and compliances to the regulatory authorities such as FIRS(Federal Inland Revenue Services)should be enforced on defaulting businesses, individuals and corporate entities as wells government agencies and departments to minimize tax evasion and avoidance.

Keywords: Assessment and E-Payment, Cybercrime, E-Commerce, ICT, Internet, Leakages, Legal Framework, Taxation

Rural Community Tourism as a Catalyst for Rural Entrepreneurship Development: Case of Miso Walai Homestay Program in Malaysia (Review Completed - Accepted)

The role of Community Based Ecotourism (CBET) towards rural community development has been realized particularly in the developing countries. Some of the CBT sites have become an incubator for rural entrepreneurial activities, which gradually developed into a hub for small scale enterprises (SME). This paper shares the experience of Miso Walai Homestay, a model CBT located in Batu Puteh, Kinabatangan in the state of Sabah, Malaysia that has directly and directly changed the mindset of the local community towards entrepreneurism and business environment. The researchers used the qualitative approach through combining semi-structured interviews and participant observation to understand how CBT triggered the development and growth of local small scale businesses and prepares the local community to embark on new business ventures.The CBT in Batu Puteh acts as an incubator to prepare the local community towards being entrepreneurs by solidifying the local community’s confidence in their ability to create business opportunities as well as their skills in running a business. CBT also creates an enabling environment for the growth of local small-scale businesses as evidenced by the establishment of new cooperatives and new businesses. The intervention of these businesses along the CBT value chain has created and will create significant economic return on investments for the local people; and minimize economic leakages through their local linkages

Keywords: Community Based Tourism Enterprise, Community-Based Tourism, Community-Based Tourism Ecotourism, Leakages, Linkages, Rural Entrepreneurship