Lead poisoning is a global problem in the 21st Century. It cause permanent brain damage, kidney disease, nephropathy, seizure, coma and even death in some cases (Mousa, 2015). Lead exposure accounted for 494,550 deaths and loss of 9.3 million disability-adjusted life each year (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), 2015). The highest burden is in low and middle-income countries. IHME also estimated that lead exposure accounted for 12.4% of the global burden of idiopathic developmental intellectual disability, 2.5% of the global burden of ischemic heart disease and 2.4% of the global burden of stroke. Exposure to lead contaminated soil and dust resulting from mining has caused mass lead poisoning and multiple deaths of people in Nigeria, Senegal and other countries (WHO, 2017). The problem is more prevalent in Zamfara state especially in Bagega of Anka local Government Area where hundreds of lives are lost on annual basis. Bagega and its environs are part of the region where active artisanal gold mining is being carried out in Zamfara State, Nigeria. Thus, the poisoning outbreak is very severe in the region. During the period of lead poisoning outbreak, a joint research was conducted by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Blacksmith Institute (BI) and World Health Organisation (WHO). It was revealed that out of about 120 children examined, 96% were found to show life threatening Pb concentrations in their blood (Galadima, 2012).
The purpose of the study was to determine how the levels of calcium, phosphorus and zinc affected the levels of lead in the human blood. The levels of lead, calcium, zinc and phosphorus in human blood of subjects from Nairobi city centre, Nyamira town, Nairobi suburban and Nyamira rural, Kenya are presented in this article. The subjects in Nairobi City Centre had the highest mean blood lead (BPb) level of 29.9 + 16.91 Вµg/l, while Nyamira Rural subjects had the lowest mean of 24.20 + 7.07 Вµg/l. The mean lead level of the subjects was statistically significant between Nairobi City Centre and Nyamira Rural (p< 0.01). The mean calcium level was highest in Nairobi Suburban with a mean of 88.3 + 26.4 mg/l and lowest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 68.4 + 26.5 mg/l. The mean zinc level was highest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 1126.2 + 543.4 Вµg/l and lowest in Nairobi Suburban subjects with a mean of 806.4 + 189.9 Вµg/l. The mean phosphorus level was highest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 36.0 + 17.4 mg/l while Nyamira Rural subjects had the lowest mean of 26.6 + 9.7 mg/dl. The mean levels of calcium, zinc and phosphorus for Nairobi City Centre significantly different from those of Nyamira Town, Nairobi Suburban and Nyamira Rural (p<0.01, df = 99). There was a negative correlation of the mean levels of lead and calcium, lead and zinc and lead and phosphorus for all the study areas.