In East Asia, particularly China, under the deep-rooted influence of Confucianism, many women have been living in a subordinate manner, either consciously or unconsciously. Even when the proportion of girl students at college is almost as half as the total population in higher education, researches show a different narrative in their mindset. As for this study, the focus is on gender and other socio-cultural issues in mobile-based language learning through a learning management system (Blackboard) in a MBA program at Shenzhen University, China. The participants are 138 students (68 male, 70 female) who were enrolled in Fall 2018. In line with Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, this study explored the gender and other socio-cultural factors in mobile-based language learning and tried to set up a mechanism for an effective learning mode, where tasks/projects are designed in such a way that woman students may become aware of their conscious/unconscious mentality of being subordinate, and hopefully enhance their self-esteem to be aspiring in their future career.
This research set out to investigate the extent to which the language of agricultural inputs (chemicals) sold in Cameroon markets is intelligible and reliable to farmers, most especially the rural farmers. The South West, North West, West and Far North Regions were taken as case studies. Data was collected from inscriptions on inputs, farmers’ questionnaires, interviews with input sellers, agricultural experts and farmers, as well as personal observation of the researchers. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively following Swales (1990) and Bhatia’s (1993) approaches to genre analysis. The findings from questionnaires and interviews revealed that the language of agricultural input products use in Cameroon is less intelligible to rural farmers. This is because of the scientific nature, the formulae and abbreviations used which are difficult for a non- agricultural expert to understand and the fact that most rural farmers have low educational levels. Moreover, some chemicals sold in Cameroon markets do not have labeling and the language of withdrawal period. In addition, the result from questionnaires, interviews and personal experiences revealed that the language of most inputs like fungicide and herbicide are unreliable. Those who respect the application as prescribed on the chemicals fail in their farms and those who violate succeed. This unreliability and absence of instructional language have negative impacts on agricultural output and human health.
Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy at face value is a historical fictional work that recreates the murky opium trade between British India and China which culminates into a full blown war between England and China. However, the three novels Sea of Poppies, River of Smoke and Flood of Fire also explores political, social, commercial and linguistic intricacies of the early colonial period. This article examines how Amitav Ghosh throughout over-1600 pages of his much acclaimed trilogy experimented with at least 23 other languages and dialects, at the backdrop of the vast seascape of the Indian Ocean, from Cape Town to Hong Kong the Opium War between the British Empire and China in 1839.
This paper investigated the utilization of language by the Nigerian media to propagate peace, security and national development. Radio news has the ability to influence public opinion in diverse ways. The study adopted a critical discourse analysis of some selected messages which were relayed at the middle of the radio news texts of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation, Nigeria. Twenty mid-news messages were purposively selected for analysis based on the information conveyed in them in order to reveal the inherent and embedded messages in them. The data were grouped and analysed using four major headings – Government and politics; Education, health and religion; Socioeconomic and cultural issues; and National peace, crime and security. For our analysis, the theoretical frameworks adopted are Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) which emphasizes the form/function relationship in language. The linguistic features embedded in the messages and the contributory ideological effects on the listeners were analysed. The study revealed that the mid-news messages were useful for public enlightenment, social mobilization and they also served as facilitators for development and growth by enhancing the public orientation towards national integration, economic empowerment, educational awareness, political discourse, sociocultural issues and poverty alleviation. The paper, therefore, brings to the fore the significance of radio mid-news messages in sensitizing members of the audience towards actions needed to be taken as the situation demands.
The aim of the research is to develop a vision for the professional work of the workers in the tourism sector and highlight their problems with tourists. A number of controls work to regulate the behavior of workers in the tourism sector, taking into account the traditions and customs of the profession. Some negative behaviors may occur from some workers in the tourism sector due to some misconduct of some tourists The study is conducted on the employees of tourism, and distributed 150 questionnaires, of which (130) returned a questionnaire It was excluded (30) questionnaires, so relied on (100). The study found a number of results, the most important of which are problems between the workers in tourism and tourists due to the gender variable, and there are problems between the workers in tourism and tourists due to the variable age. The study recommended the following: To spread tourism awareness among the tourism workers with the importance of developing a language and career development by organizing lectures, seminars, conferences, institutions, governmental and non-governmental bodies. Providing tourist training courses for all employees in tourism and giving them courses in different languages in cooperation with colleges and institutes of tourism and hotels
Language Use and Style, as a Depiction of African Literature: An Example of Niyi Osundare’s The State Visit (Published)
The continued domination of English language in the African world especially in literary field has caused various doubts on what could be termed the African Literature. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine, how African writers have used language and style of writing to depict their continental identity in works of art. Researchers have established that the some parts of Africa had their literatures (either oral and or written) long before some parts of Europe. Therefore, the advent of English language is not the genesis of literature in Africa. The research, having examined this paramount discourse from Niyi Osundare’s The State Visit has concluded that language use and style are very significant beacons of African Literature.
Language is particularly significant in law because it is through it that law finds expression. From formulation to interpretation and enforcement, law exclusively depends on language. Legal contract is notorious for formalities and unchanging nature, especially with the use of archaic words and formulaic expressions is an important genre of legal English. Although the formalities afford lawyers opportunity to achieve “precision”, they constitute a serious challenge for the layman. This study examined the frequency, structure, and meaning of archaisms to argue that the elements are operational tools in legal contracts. The data for the study were derived from ten purposively sampled legal contracts (scanned and converted to electronic-version) of about 7116 words of the Akure Judicial Division of Ondo State Nigeria. With corpus linguistics methodologies, using register analysis within the purview of Systemic Functional Grammar, the study adopted the content analysis methodology to identify archaisms in the legal contracts, and to quantitatively and qualitatively analysis the data. The study found 20 archaisms of 4 categories occurring 187 times (2.6%) of the total number of words to justify the claim that archaisms, which are no more found in general English usage, are still very much in use in legal documents, especially contracts. This study concluded that archaisms which according to lawyers, are used to lend a touch of formality and precision to legal language, should give way to modern words which can serve both lawyers’ and non-lawyers’ needs.
Decoding the Underpinning Assumptions of Linguistic Theories: The Lens on Structural Linguistics (Published)
Linguistic theories are frameworks about language and language use. Linguistic theories seek to outline the parameters of operations in any given language. They are developed by linguists who study language over a period to arrive at specific assumptions about the nature of human communication. Among others, the most prominent linguistic theories today include generative linguistics, systemic functional linguistics and structural linguistics. This paper dwells on the inherent assumptions of structural linguistics as a theory. Structural linguistics is defined as a study of language based on the theory that language is a structured system of formal units such as sentences and syntax. An example of structural linguistics is phonetics. It is also defined as a language study based on the assumptions that a language is a coherent system of formal units and that the task of linguistic study is to inquire into the nature of those units and their peculiar systematic arrangement, without reference to historical antecedents or comparison with other languages (Chomsky 1972).
Language Use and Language Maintenance in Ọ́lọ̀wà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated language use and language maintenance in Ọ́lòwà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria with a view to identifying the factors responsible for the use or non-use of the languages in contact, namely Ígálà, Bàssà-Ngé, and Bàssà-Kómǒ, and how the factors manifest across different socio-cultural groups in the community. Fishman’s theory on the relationship between micro- and macro-sociolinguistics, which centres around who speaks what language to whom and when, was used. One hundred respondents from each of the three language groups totaling three hundred respondents representing the different age groups, sexes, and socio-cultural classes were selected through random sampling. The data were analyzed using simple percentage to determine the extent of language use and language maintenance. The findings show that each respondent is proficient in his or her native language and in the dominant language, Ígálà. Factors responsible for this include ethnic identity consciousness, inter-ethnic relations such as marriage, economic, communal and other socio-cultural activities. Another factor is religion. This work adds to our existing knowledge of how the three languages used in the community have co-existed without any of them being endangered
Language cannot be separated from the society. It is the unifying instrument among the members of any given society. Languages are used in situations. If the situation is not given, there is nothing the language use could be marched with. It is on this note that this paper examined language and situation with particular reference to English language in Nigeria context. Various crucial aspects of language were examined. Some English lexical items were also discussed in various situations. The paper concluded that the choice of lexical items used in communication is determined by certain factors in situational context. It was therefore recommended that every language speaker should study and understand the situation in which he/she finds himself/herself before selecting lexical items. A good knowledge of register is also expected of every speaker and writer of English. This will go a long way in assisting the speaker’s/writer’s choice of appropriate lexical items as situation demands.
Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
The main focus of this study is to analyze the phonemic differences between allomorphs of the same morpheme in the adjectives and verbs of the Kamayo language .This study is qualitative and it uses key informants in gathering the needed data. The common phonemes used which signify the time when the event happened is attached to a root word. Often times, the phonemes : [tag], [ya], [yaka] [ki] [yang], [an] are commonly found in the past form of the verb; while, [yaga], [ga] [paga] and [yag] are phonemenes usually used in the present tense of the verb. The [mag], and [mang] in the beginning of the root word and [an], [on] and [i] are also attached in the end of the root word which are usually used in the future tense of the verb.The common phonemes used in the comparative degree in all categories of adjectives are the [ya],[ay] [ka] [ga] and [ma], where [ya], [ ka] and [ga] are phonemes commonly attached in the beginning of the root word, while [ay], and [ma] are usually found in the end of the rootword to signify the comparison. The phonemes [i], [ay], [hay],[hi] are usually found in the end of a superlative degree adjectives. The phoneme[ hi] is an allomorph of the vowel sound in the words “ guapuhi’, ‘guapahi’ and pubrehi’. On the other hand, the adjectives used to describe an amount has no specific distinction in meaning among the words “ few”, “some”, “multiple”,” plenty”, and “ several”, usually in the Kamayo Language it would only use one word “ hamuk-hamukay” for comparative degree and “ hamuki” and “hamukay” in the superlative degree.The result of the analysis revealed that kamayo language is distinct and it has its own characteristics. It is further revealed that because of its distinctness it is interesting to come up with teaching materials perfectly suited to the first language of the learners in the classroom for Mother Tongue Based-Education in the place of Surigao del Sur.
Language as the Device for Psychological Manipulation in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Psycholinguistic Analysis (Published)
Language is the unique human talent that works amazingly in molding one’s thoughts and deeds. If grown unrestricted, it can help people widen their notions about things and issues in and around them. On the other hand, if shrunk and chained, it hinders the flourishing of ideas and information. The blossoming as well as the limiting power of language has been very perspicuously illustrated by George Orwell in his dystopian novel, 1984. How linguistic constituents hold the absolute ability to do and undo human thoughts has been portrayed in the novel in the most striking manner. Orwell has shown how language can manipulate psychological functions supreme-handedly. To lead popular thought to a certain target, language has to be engineered in the required mechanism. It does so, and attains complete control over people’s mind. This paper examines how language sets a demarcation line for human psychological processes. It attempts to dig deep into the linguistic treatment in 1984 and comes up with a vivid description of the dominance of language on people’s mental procedure. It investigates the manipulations of the ‘Newspeak’ and strives to grasp a psycholinguistic analysis of the novel.
English Expressions in Ghana’s Parliament (Published)
This paper takes a look at the English language spoken on the floor of parliament by Ghanaian parliamentarians. It attempts to ascertain the English features of Ghanaian parliamentarians and whether the identified features can be described as Ghanaian English. The study was guided by the syntactic features given as typical of WAVE (Bokamba, 1991) and the grammatical description of African Englishes (Schmied, 1991) and a careful reading of the Hansard which is the daily official report of parliamentary proceeding. It is revealed that the English spoken by Ghanaian parliamentarians has identifiable Ghanaian features that can support the claim that their English is typically Ghanaian.
Conflict is inevitable and part of the society. A conflict can be encountered in the home, between a husband and his wife, between parents and their children. Conflicts can also be between friends, colleagues, a teacher and his students, and even between religious leaders, politicians, traders, just mention it. Conflict is not entirely negative. The society needs conflict to advance as conflicts enable people know their rights, duties and short comings. The manner a conflict is handled is very important. Language at this juncture, plays an indispensable role in managing conflicts on one hand, and on the other hand, escalating a conflict. In other words, the paper explores language as an instrument capable of deescalating or escalating a conflict.
The principal objective of this study is to investigate the impact of consumer culture on advertising decisions in Cameroon. The cultural variables used include: language, religion, individualism/collectivism, beliefs, values, customs, and pride. We collected primary data from the towns of Douala and Yaounde through the use of questionnaire, calculated Cronbach`s alpha for each of our measuring instruments to ensure their reliability. This data is analysed through Chi square analysis test, multiple correspondence analysis, the test of T student, poison regression analysis, and Spearman correlation test. We found out that prominent values influencing advertising decisions are; pride, face to face contact in business negotiation, elastic time concept, long term orientation, and high social tides. Our results showed that consumer culture has a strong impact on advertising in all the regions with the exception of the centre and south regions. It is represented in the products we buy through design. Lastly, local models have a strong positive impact than foreign models, we recommend enterprises advertising in Cameroon to practice ethno advertising, and more so new products should first be advertised in the rest of the regions and gradually to the Centre and south Regions.
The Pattern of Inheritance Utterance Addresing Angkola Mandailing Society Through Biola na Mabugang Reconstruction; Culture and Language Studies (Published)
This research deals with the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society. This research aims to describe three formulated research problems; 1) the classification of pattern utterances, b) the method of pattern utterances and 3) the pattern of inheritance pattern utterances Angkola Mandailing society in which it has seven purposes namely; i) respect ii) honor iii) helping iv) family building v) intimate relationship vi) problem solving and vii) marriage. Then, the descriptive qualitative method was used to achieve the objectives of the reserach. The data were obtained and analyzed from Biola na Mabugang by the researcher, Rosmawati Harahap. The findings showed that there are 15 of 33 classifications of utterances found Biola na Mabugang. Then, the pattern of utterance is decided based on Dalihan na Tolu (three main kinship elements; kahanggi, mora and anak boru) . Last, the existence of parents, children and experiences play an important role in the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society in South Padang Lawas and Padang Lawas of South Tapanuli.
The Performance of Language Heterodoxy in Black Theater: Profanity and Inversion on Amiri Baraka’s Stage (Published)
In LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka’s playtexts, the authority of the English language seems to become the object of linguistic mutilation and salient profanity. The employment of an obscene language and the disfigurement of language transpire to be acts of a deliberate withdrawal from linguistic norms. The dramatist along with the plays’ characters seem to drop identification with domination from the agenda of cultural and political options, and gesture toward altering and inverting linguistic conventions and connotations. The playwright, consequently, appears to invert and subvert the English language, a language that is perceived as odd and dominative. Inversion is indexical of the linguistic proclivity to chase a language which levies its significations and meanings. The dramatist’s transformations carved on the tissue of verbal and written forms signal an urgency to unchain the black vernacular and break off the shell of the English language. Baraka’s style seems then to ground inversion with variation, revision, and repetition on the body of language itself. In this light, mutilation tends to assume a disruptive syntax, uncommon orthography, and disparate typography. Inversion implicates new terms and forms for the production of novel meanings. This is the new modality upon which the playwright’s writing style is predicated. The goal of this article is to spell out Baraka’s resort to profanity and mutilation along with outlining the reversal of signification and its attendant senses. The second objective of this article is to sketch and delineate the pattern of inversion marshaled by the dramatist. The first part sheds light on the playwright’s recourse to profanity and obscenity of parlance. The second part traces the mutilation of language and takes stock of the inversive pattern.
Language as a structure of meaning giving and reality creation is composed of words, phrases and sentences. Humans’ communications are based on these features to describe an event, explain one’s emotions, needs, interests and fears etc. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world. In fact, definitions of words are linguistically, culturally and contextually bound. This is because words carry meanings that make sense to members of a shared social environment. Dispute resolution relies heavily on words (language). However, there is an underlying assumption in Nigeria that all these words should be in English – the second language. The researcher posits that if English is to be a conflict resolution tool in Nigeria. It must accommodate the diversity of culture and language usage. The paper therefore explores the challenges of English language in intercultural conflict resolution, and emphasizes the need to consider the different uses of the language in national and transnational conflict resolution.
A Comparative Study on the Aesthetics of Language and Structure in T.S. Eliot and Mahmoud Darwish’s Poetry (Published)
This paper explores the insights and inspirations Mahmoud Darwish has received from other poets. The thematic and structural analysis the study conducts on T. S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and Mahmoud Darwish’s “A Truce with the Mongols in the Forest of Oak” indicates that the two poems are narrated using a fragmented, ironic and symbolic language. Likewise, both purposefully repeat lexical items and syntactic structures, and abound with imageries and figures of speech.