Language is one of those natural endowments bequeathed to man by nature to empower him and adequately position him to be the lord and master of his environment. Thus, it is unimaginable or even absurd to conceive of any human endeavour where language does not play a prominent role. But given the prevailing attitude in developing world, Africa in general and Nigeria in particular, it would appear much attention is not usually paid to language when the theme of discourse is governance. In fact, if the factors that enhance governance were to be highlighted, language may be the last or not even mentioned at all. In view of this erroneous attitude and impression, this paper sets out to establish that a symbiotic relationship exists between language and governance, that is to say that the two phenomena are unarguably intertwined that none can maximize its potentialities in the absence of the other. The paper further reviews the lapses noticed in the Nigerian language policies, which have retarded language development in Nigeria. The paper, therefore calls on the actors in the theatre of governance to come up with feasible language policy as well as language planning in order to create enabling environment for the development of the existing languages in Nigeria.
Globalization in recent times has impacted positively on various aspects of life and advanced new opportunities for international co-operation, yet it has led to multifaceted social, economic, political and environmental challenges across the globe. Several developmental trajectories have been advanced towards addressing the dynamism of the developmental needs of countries by world leaders -from the 21st century Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs)to the Education for all Goals (EFA)and more recently, the Sustainable development goals(SDGs) in their declaration of the anticipated future for global transformation ,come 2030.The United Nations identified seventeen (17)sustainable developmental goals that will help world transformation ,if achieved; but little attention was given to the societal organs/medium that will assist the realization of these goal such as language. This work therefore tries to fill this gap, using a qualitative research based on Sapir-Whorfian theory of language, with Leech’s five characteristics of language- informative, expressive, directive, aesthetic and phatic. The study seeks to assess the role of language in the attainment of the Sustainable development goals ,bearing in mind that the world is peopled with nations of diversified languages whose aims are to achieve collaborative partnership for world’s transformation ,by the year 2030.It was discovered that language plays a significant role in the achievement of virtually all the Sustainable development goals (SDGs)- from quality education to healthy living, promotion of peace and inclusive societies, industrialization and innovations ,implementation and revitalization of global partnership and others for the purpose of world transformation.
This paper analyses the language used in the portrayal of the characters of Chinua Achebe’s novels. This is the language used by the characters in discourse, and the narrators in the novels. The study reveals that the protagonists start off as heroes and eventually end up as antiheroes on account of high-handedness, dishonesty, corruption, violence, sexual promiscuity, ill temperament, vindictiveness, and murder. The study applies the theory of deconstruction in the assessment of the characters and reveals that the protagonists are antiheroes rather than heroes: Okonkwo in Things Fall Apart (1958), Obi Okonkwo in No Longer at Ease (1960), Ezeulu in Arrow of God (1964), Odili Samalu in A Man of the People (1966), and Sam in Anthills of the Savannah (1988). In deconstructing the protagonists, the five primary texts are read the first time and they reveal the protagonists as heroes. This first reading forms the basis for the second deconstructive “critical reading” which unveils the heroes as antiheroes. The publications and the themes of the novels of Achebe span over pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial Nigeria. Subsequently, the paper concludes that as antiheroes, the protagonists are barbaric and are not good exemplary African leaders. The characters therefore present the novels they appear in as colonialist, rather than anti-colonialist literature. This paper therefore recommends that Achebe’s novels should be seen as colonialist literature.
Conscious and unconscious speech (Published)
A native speaker fluently speaks the language which is ungrammatical; the native speaker has a nation that he can speak his mother tongue without mistake. The confidence he gets because it is his mother tongue which he take it for granted. The research I have made in my mother tongue is that when someone unconsciously utters a sentence that /doctor kan jo/ /go to the doctor/ when the person uttered the incomplete sentence what was the situation? What was reason? Why she/he uttered? Is not known but the context may be someone might have expressed his/her health condition. What was his/her condition? Where was she/he? All these questions arose in my mind which I thought of these broken sentences and I understand the meaning of the utterance.
Pragma-Stylistic Manifestations in Sport Discourse from Selected Radio Stations in Ibadan Metropolis (Published)
Language is a complex human-specific system of communication. It is the only means by which people in a speech community communicate among themselves. Pragma-stylistic is one of the types of context-oriented stylistics that has to do with speech act stylistics. Its contributions to the field of stylistics have made the study of language an interesting one. The need to ascertain whether sport presenters on the radio employ speech acts in their conversation motivates this study. A pragma-stylistic model of literary analysis is presented and applied to analyse the sport discourse from selected radio stations in Ibadan metropolis. The conversations are analysed as a cohesive chunk so as to examine the direct and indirect illocutionary acts, the perlocutionary effects, the various contexts and competencies that are inherent in the sport discourse. The major results of the analyses indicate that the participants engage in conversation so as to do things with words.
Stylistic Analysis of President Buhari’s Addresses of Nigerians in the Face of Covid-19 Pandemic (Published)
The role of language in any speech event cannot be overemphasized. Language is the vehicle through which political speeches are carried out. This study investigated two speeches of President Muhammadu Buhari during the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic to ascertain how he has employed language, the linguistic elements used and the stylistic and pragmatic imports. Using the theoretical framework of stylistics, the researcher found out that Buhari tactfully used words to address Nigerians on Covid-19 and stressed the measures to be taken to contain the spread of the virus. To achieve the pragmatic effect of his speeches, he used lexical devices such as transitional makers, repetition, alliteration, assonance, pronouns to project the theme/subject matter of the language discourse. It was found out that the speaker used coordination to denote relationship of grammatical units, show contrast and as a re-statement of what he said earlier. The speaker repeatedly used coordination in his speeches and this is commendable since in language, identical items may be conjoined in an indefinite number of times. The analysis revealed that president is committed in combating the coronavirus pandemic that is ravaging his nation.
Trends in historical evolution indicate that the nation-state of Nigeria came into existence since 1914. Her territorial boundaries were fixed with prejudicial colonial interests without considering the interests and aspirations of the traditional ethnic groups involved. Since then, the nation has been governed and exploited by the feudal-bourgeosie, privileged to inherit the nation from the colonial masters. Worst still, the various machineries at different periods and republics charged with the responsibility of ruling the nation has proved anti-social, adopting in their distribution of values, formulas detrimental to the general welfare of the citizenry. Thus, we are left with a fragile nation, drifting apart and her people resorting to communal and individual self-definition. The persistent call for national conference among the various ethnic groups to resolve the national question gives credence to the deduction that the nation was founded upon vested colonial interest, without consulting the component ethnic groups. The issue of national integration has become a re-assessment of the pre-requisite for Federalism towards the continued existence of the sovereign nation state in Nigeria. Thus, the focus of this paper is how to adopt a paradigm shift from the previous abortive methods that have been employed so far, to the pragmatic resolve of using language and culture in attaining the long elusive national integration in Nigeria.
A way to analyse the tenets of English Language in terms of learning and teaching and process of developing skills in English Language to the non- native speakers (Published)
Language is just like an effluent river. It is a medium of communication which needs to have some approaches in both learning and teaching procedure , which are the combination of so many components and factors. Actually, a language comes through evolution which is adapted through different sorts of changes and changeling over the years. After coming into certain structure, language may be a bit stable and then , the way of learning and teaching becomes volatile due the cultural variation , its wide use and different usage as a tool of connecting language and increasing popularity across the world . Likewise , English language has come across a long way through its wide use and acceptance around the world . But the acquisition of Language to the non -native English speaking is variable due to level of accomplishment in the aforesaid language. In this article a focus is given on the utility and efficacy of approaches , methods and techniques in accordance with decisive factors under the aegis of ambience to improve the skills in English language. The article also describes some internal linguistic ways and means to learn a language with the function of the intrinsic and extrinsic faculties which is to be experimented and justified to have a greater accomplishment in the projected language
Language, Music and Dance as Tools for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development among the Igala People of Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)
The paper examines the Igala language, music and dance as veritable tools to provide credible platforms for proffering solutions to the problems of humanity. The main objective is to appraise the contributions of language, music and dance to poverty reduction through employment generation, carrier development and job opportunity. Content analysis was adopted which made use of secondary data as the only source of data generation. Findings revealed that the Igala people have very rich culture and traditions which are expressed in language, music and dance. Also, the Igala culture has the ability to communicate instructions to the audience without spoken words and the ability of the hearer to also understand inwardly. The study recommends among others that the art of communicating verbally in language music and dance should be harnessed for carrier development, job creation, employment opportunity in order to reduce poverty scourge in the society.
Investigating the Instructional Effect of TBLT on Business Students’ English Language Performance (Published)
The aim of this research paper was to explore the instructional impact of Task-Based Language Teaching on English language attainments among 81 second-year university business studies students. The participants were studying a private university located in the surrounding areas of Bangkok, and were introduced to a TBLT learning environment for the duration of one English course (16 weeks). To test the effectiveness of TBLT, t-tests analyses (0.05) were utilised to compare resulting end-of-term performances with prior achievements attained under the conventional form of instruction. Overall, the findings indicated that TBTL positively influenced English language performances when compared to conventional methodologies (TBLT: 60.9 = Grade C+; CONV: 54.93 = Grade C; p [0.0195] = sig <0.05). Nevertheless, the bulk of progress was concentrated in speaking skills (p = sig <0.05), as no significant difference was noted in formal comprehensive examinations. Furthermore, variability analyses highlighted that upper-quartile students showed significant improvements in both major sets of assessments (speaking and formal examinations); while speaking scores for the lower-quartile remained stagnant, and formal examination scores exacerbated altogether. This led to the unequivocal conclusion that learners’ response to TBLT is governed by linguistic potential.
In East Asia, particularly China, under the deep-rooted influence of Confucianism, many women have been living in a subordinate manner, either consciously or unconsciously. Even when the proportion of girl students at college is almost as half as the total population in higher education, researches show a different narrative in their mindset. As for this study, the focus is on gender and other socio-cultural issues in mobile-based language learning through a learning management system (Blackboard) in a MBA program at Shenzhen University, China. The participants are 138 students (68 male, 70 female) who were enrolled in Fall 2018. In line with Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, this study explored the gender and other socio-cultural factors in mobile-based language learning and tried to set up a mechanism for an effective learning mode, where tasks/projects are designed in such a way that woman students may become aware of their conscious/unconscious mentality of being subordinate, and hopefully enhance their self-esteem to be aspiring in their future career.
This research set out to investigate the extent to which the language of agricultural inputs (chemicals) sold in Cameroon markets is intelligible and reliable to farmers, most especially the rural farmers. The South West, North West, West and Far North Regions were taken as case studies. Data was collected from inscriptions on inputs, farmers’ questionnaires, interviews with input sellers, agricultural experts and farmers, as well as personal observation of the researchers. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively following Swales (1990) and Bhatia’s (1993) approaches to genre analysis. The findings from questionnaires and interviews revealed that the language of agricultural input products use in Cameroon is less intelligible to rural farmers. This is because of the scientific nature, the formulae and abbreviations used which are difficult for a non- agricultural expert to understand and the fact that most rural farmers have low educational levels. Moreover, some chemicals sold in Cameroon markets do not have labeling and the language of withdrawal period. In addition, the result from questionnaires, interviews and personal experiences revealed that the language of most inputs like fungicide and herbicide are unreliable. Those who respect the application as prescribed on the chemicals fail in their farms and those who violate succeed. This unreliability and absence of instructional language have negative impacts on agricultural output and human health.
Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy at face value is a historical fictional work that recreates the murky opium trade between British India and China which culminates into a full blown war between England and China. However, the three novels Sea of Poppies, River of Smoke and Flood of Fire also explores political, social, commercial and linguistic intricacies of the early colonial period. This article examines how Amitav Ghosh throughout over-1600 pages of his much acclaimed trilogy experimented with at least 23 other languages and dialects, at the backdrop of the vast seascape of the Indian Ocean, from Cape Town to Hong Kong the Opium War between the British Empire and China in 1839.
This paper investigated the utilization of language by the Nigerian media to propagate peace, security and national development. Radio news has the ability to influence public opinion in diverse ways. The study adopted a critical discourse analysis of some selected messages which were relayed at the middle of the radio news texts of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation, Nigeria. Twenty mid-news messages were purposively selected for analysis based on the information conveyed in them in order to reveal the inherent and embedded messages in them. The data were grouped and analysed using four major headings – Government and politics; Education, health and religion; Socioeconomic and cultural issues; and National peace, crime and security. For our analysis, the theoretical frameworks adopted are Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) which emphasizes the form/function relationship in language. The linguistic features embedded in the messages and the contributory ideological effects on the listeners were analysed. The study revealed that the mid-news messages were useful for public enlightenment, social mobilization and they also served as facilitators for development and growth by enhancing the public orientation towards national integration, economic empowerment, educational awareness, political discourse, sociocultural issues and poverty alleviation. The paper, therefore, brings to the fore the significance of radio mid-news messages in sensitizing members of the audience towards actions needed to be taken as the situation demands.
The aim of the research is to develop a vision for the professional work of the workers in the tourism sector and highlight their problems with tourists. A number of controls work to regulate the behavior of workers in the tourism sector, taking into account the traditions and customs of the profession. Some negative behaviors may occur from some workers in the tourism sector due to some misconduct of some tourists The study is conducted on the employees of tourism, and distributed 150 questionnaires, of which (130) returned a questionnaire It was excluded (30) questionnaires, so relied on (100). The study found a number of results, the most important of which are problems between the workers in tourism and tourists due to the gender variable, and there are problems between the workers in tourism and tourists due to the variable age. The study recommended the following: To spread tourism awareness among the tourism workers with the importance of developing a language and career development by organizing lectures, seminars, conferences, institutions, governmental and non-governmental bodies. Providing tourist training courses for all employees in tourism and giving them courses in different languages in cooperation with colleges and institutes of tourism and hotels
Language Use and Style, as a Depiction of African Literature: An Example of Niyi Osundare’s The State Visit (Published)
The continued domination of English language in the African world especially in literary field has caused various doubts on what could be termed the African Literature. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine, how African writers have used language and style of writing to depict their continental identity in works of art. Researchers have established that the some parts of Africa had their literatures (either oral and or written) long before some parts of Europe. Therefore, the advent of English language is not the genesis of literature in Africa. The research, having examined this paramount discourse from Niyi Osundare’s The State Visit has concluded that language use and style are very significant beacons of African Literature.
Language is particularly significant in law because it is through it that law finds expression. From formulation to interpretation and enforcement, law exclusively depends on language. Legal contract is notorious for formalities and unchanging nature, especially with the use of archaic words and formulaic expressions is an important genre of legal English. Although the formalities afford lawyers opportunity to achieve “precision”, they constitute a serious challenge for the layman. This study examined the frequency, structure, and meaning of archaisms to argue that the elements are operational tools in legal contracts. The data for the study were derived from ten purposively sampled legal contracts (scanned and converted to electronic-version) of about 7116 words of the Akure Judicial Division of Ondo State Nigeria. With corpus linguistics methodologies, using register analysis within the purview of Systemic Functional Grammar, the study adopted the content analysis methodology to identify archaisms in the legal contracts, and to quantitatively and qualitatively analysis the data. The study found 20 archaisms of 4 categories occurring 187 times (2.6%) of the total number of words to justify the claim that archaisms, which are no more found in general English usage, are still very much in use in legal documents, especially contracts. This study concluded that archaisms which according to lawyers, are used to lend a touch of formality and precision to legal language, should give way to modern words which can serve both lawyers’ and non-lawyers’ needs.
Decoding the Underpinning Assumptions of Linguistic Theories: The Lens on Structural Linguistics (Published)
Linguistic theories are frameworks about language and language use. Linguistic theories seek to outline the parameters of operations in any given language. They are developed by linguists who study language over a period to arrive at specific assumptions about the nature of human communication. Among others, the most prominent linguistic theories today include generative linguistics, systemic functional linguistics and structural linguistics. This paper dwells on the inherent assumptions of structural linguistics as a theory. Structural linguistics is defined as a study of language based on the theory that language is a structured system of formal units such as sentences and syntax. An example of structural linguistics is phonetics. It is also defined as a language study based on the assumptions that a language is a coherent system of formal units and that the task of linguistic study is to inquire into the nature of those units and their peculiar systematic arrangement, without reference to historical antecedents or comparison with other languages (Chomsky 1972).
Language Use and Language Maintenance in Ọ́lọ̀wà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated language use and language maintenance in Ọ́lòwà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria with a view to identifying the factors responsible for the use or non-use of the languages in contact, namely Ígálà, Bàssà-Ngé, and Bàssà-Kómǒ, and how the factors manifest across different socio-cultural groups in the community. Fishman’s theory on the relationship between micro- and macro-sociolinguistics, which centres around who speaks what language to whom and when, was used. One hundred respondents from each of the three language groups totaling three hundred respondents representing the different age groups, sexes, and socio-cultural classes were selected through random sampling. The data were analyzed using simple percentage to determine the extent of language use and language maintenance. The findings show that each respondent is proficient in his or her native language and in the dominant language, Ígálà. Factors responsible for this include ethnic identity consciousness, inter-ethnic relations such as marriage, economic, communal and other socio-cultural activities. Another factor is religion. This work adds to our existing knowledge of how the three languages used in the community have co-existed without any of them being endangered
Language cannot be separated from the society. It is the unifying instrument among the members of any given society. Languages are used in situations. If the situation is not given, there is nothing the language use could be marched with. It is on this note that this paper examined language and situation with particular reference to English language in Nigeria context. Various crucial aspects of language were examined. Some English lexical items were also discussed in various situations. The paper concluded that the choice of lexical items used in communication is determined by certain factors in situational context. It was therefore recommended that every language speaker should study and understand the situation in which he/she finds himself/herself before selecting lexical items. A good knowledge of register is also expected of every speaker and writer of English. This will go a long way in assisting the speaker’s/writer’s choice of appropriate lexical items as situation demands.