Tag Archives: Language use

Conflicts and Conflict Resolutions Signals in Language Use among Leaders of Agitating Groups in Nigeria: A Case of Hate Speeches (Published)

Language and language use is not only a reflection of social realities but also acts as a recipe for shaping the social realities. Language use can make people perform a particular action, to make people think, say something in a particular way. Therefore, one can say that language can be used manipulatively by speakers to achieve their own self-interest and to influence the general interest of a social group who they represent. This paper was aimed at unraveling how these inherent potentials of the human language can be used to create inter-group conflict through hate speeches and stereotyping and how it can be effectively used to of checkmate conflict arising from hate speeches. Conflict arises when there are variations in these shared values of the two groups. This paper studied the manipulative use of language by leaders of various agitating groups in Nigeria like IPOB, Niger-Delta Avengers, and Boko Haram group. The paper x-rayed language use drawn from selected speeches of some social group actors with a view to analyzing its potentials to create a conflict situation or its resolution using the theoretical paradigm of speech acts theory and socio-cognitive approach of Critical Discourse Analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the social actors used their speeches manipulatively to portray the opposing group in the negative light with aim of influencing the way the group they represent view people outside their group. The study also revealed elements of stereotyping in social actor representations as witnessed in the speech acts of social actors, and also the deliberate attribution of negative actions to a group perceived to be a threat to the ideas of the group they represent. The researchers recommend that the study of language usages in the social media, novels, newspapers and other forms of text should be effectively applied in the study of other areas of research interest about social and national development issues. It’s also recommended that government should set up a regulatory body to censure comments in the text meant for public consumptions.

Keywords: Agitating Groups, Conflict Resolutions, Hate Speeches, Language use

Conflicts and Conflict Resolutions Signals in Language Use among Leaders of Agitating Groups in Nigeria (Published)

Language and language use is not only a reflection of social realities but also acts as a recipe for shaping the social realities. Language use can make people perform a particular action, to make people think, say something in a particular way. Therefore, one can say that language can be used manipulatively by speakers to achieve their own self-interest and to influence the general interest of a social group who they represent. This paper was aimed at unraveling how these inherent potentials of the human language can be used to create inter-group conflict through hate speeches and stereotyping and how it can be effectively used to of checkmate conflict arising from hate speeches. Conflict arises when there are variations in these shared values of the two groups. This paper studied the manipulative use of language by leaders of various agitating groups in Nigeria like IPOB, Niger-Delta Avengers, and Boko Haram group. The paper x-rayed language use drawn from selected speeches of some social group actors with a view to analyzing its potentials to create a conflict situation or its resolution using the theoretical paradigm of speech acts theory and socio-cognitive approach of Critical Discourse Analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the social actors used their speeches manipulatively to portray the opposing group in the negative light with aim of influencing the way the group they represent view people outside their group. The study also revealed elements of stereotyping in social actor representations as witnessed in the speech acts of social actors, and also the deliberate attribution of negative actions to a group perceived to be a threat to the ideas of the group they represent. The researchers recommend that the study of language usages in the social media, novels, newspapers and other forms of text should be effectively applied in the study of other areas of research interest about social and national development issues. It’s also recommended that government should set up a regulatory body to censure comments in the text meant for public consumptions.

Keywords: Agitating Groups, Conflict Resolutions, Hate Speeches, Language use

The Language of Prostitution in Contemporary Cameroon (Published)

This paper examines certain usage peculiar in the domain known as prostitution.  Like all other living languages, prostitution is one of the sectors in Cameroon whose language is slowly but steadily developing and impacting users and Cameroon in a not too minimal proportion. The study is inspired by the understanding that prostitution in Cameroon is a shady area reflected in its language partly because of lack of legality; though respect for African taboos. It is a practice endowed with virtue and ills; consequently cannot be extricated from human concerns. Rather than conceal its rich linguistic repertoire or permanently frown at, this study suggests that the domain could be accorded some recognition and opened up to humanity in order to dispel ignorance and encourage informed practice and generate conscience. The paper is, therefore, a lexico-semantic presentation of the language of prostitution as assuring signs of the multi-linguistic vibrancy of the Cameroonian linguistic paradigm. In order to achieve the objectives, a number of Tests were designed to ascertain the presence, acceptability and usage, growth, protection and sustainability then the merits and demerits of the language. Most importantly, this study is useful to the government in identifying a code used in this trade. At the end, it was realised among other findings that it is estimated in the distant future, the Language of prostitution may be on a horizontal scale with some Cameroonian Languages. Also, in the absence of a regulatory instrument, it is supposed that while prostitution is not practiced by everybody, speakers are all promoters and protectors of its language, therefore, assurance for sustainability and stability especially in the youths whose inquisitiveness and linguistic creativity is constantly on the rise. Irrespective of the repugnant nature of the language of prostitution, one would bear with us that a language remains a language no matter its characteristics. But if any one were to accord any inferiority to the language of prostitution in Cameroon, it would be because of its relatedness to sex for money and favour; a taboo. Otherwise, it communicates, directs, informs and educates as any other Language as famous as English Language; reasons its merits always override demerits.

Keywords: Context, Language use, Prostitution

A Longitudinal Analysis Study of Writing Errors Made by EFL Students at Al-Quds Open University (QOU) the Case of Language Use Course (Published)

Errors are considered by many educators to be an integral part of the teaching – learning process. The writing errors of English -major students, in particular, are considered to be significant and beneficial since they can be used to identify the pedagogical problems that might be the reasons of these errors, to predict some possible difficulties in student’s writing especially when they need to sit for exams in the literary courses and most importantly to prepare effective teaching materials and activities that take into account students’ needs and problems. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze a corpus of English texts written by students of a course entitled Language Use at Al-Quds Open University in Nablus in three years (2103 -2015). The objective of the study was to identify the possible types of errors, their frequency and possible causes so as to come up with some recommendations and suggestions that can help both instructors and students at QOU to minimize the frequency of these errors and their negative in the future courses especially when sitting for written exams and submitting assignments and reports. To achieve these objectives, frequencies, percentages and means of errors were calculated and tabulated .Results revealed that the most frequent error type was spelling which scored 39.60 % while relativization scored the least frequent type of errors, about 2.179 %.

Keywords: EFL, Error Analysis, Language use, QOU

Language Use and Language Maintenance in Ọ́lọ̀wà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated language use and language maintenance in Ọ́lòwà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria with a view to identifying the factors responsible for the use or non-use of the languages in contact, namely Ígálà, Bàssà-Ngé, and Bàssà-Kómǒ, and how the factors manifest across different socio-cultural groups in the community. Fishman’s theory on the relationship between micro- and macro-sociolinguistics, which centres around who speaks what language to whom and when, was used. One hundred respondents from each of the three language groups totaling three hundred respondents representing the different age groups, sexes, and socio-cultural classes were selected through random sampling. The data were analyzed using simple percentage to determine the extent of language use and language maintenance. The findings show that each respondent is proficient in his or her native language and in the dominant language, Ígálà. Factors responsible for this include ethnic identity consciousness, inter-ethnic relations such as marriage, economic, communal and other socio-cultural activities. Another factor is religion. This work adds to our existing knowledge of how the three languages used in the community have co-existed without any of them being endangered

Keywords: Language, Language use, Multilingualism, Proficiency, language maintenance

Language Use in Political Advertising- A Rhetorical Discourse on “See Who Wants to Be President of Nigeria” (Published)

Effective communication is essential in consensus building and public opinion. Language as the vehicle for thought expression generates feelings which are exploited for political gains in an electioneering campaign. It means that word choice and their purposes are explored in political communication to secure a berthe for asserting justifications in a political context. This discourse, therefore, analyses how “See who wants to be President of Nigeria,” was used, through political advertisement, to expose incompetence and ignorance as unacceptable in a decent and democratic society, like Nigeria. It is an exercise in political communication, using language and word choice as the becon for the rejection of a candidate in Nigeria’s presidential election of April, 2015.

Keywords: Advertising, Discourse, Language use, rhetoric