Tag Archives: land use

Atmospheric Aerosol Loading Over the Urban Canopy of Port Harcourt City, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the concentration of aerosols (Total Suspended Particulates-TSP) as influenced by both landuse and meteorological parameters of wind speed, relative humidity, ambient temperature and rainfall in Port Harcourt city. Air quality and meteorological data were measured at twelve stations: two each from the industrial, high and low density residential, commercial, transportation and surrounding rural areas. Data were collected for seven weeks during wet, transition and dry seasons. Analysis of data was done using ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression techniques. Findings indicated that TSP concentration was highest in the industrial (71.9%), transportation (17.3%), Low Density Residential (LDR) (12.31%); rural (12.9%), and commercial (24%) landuse areas during the dry season. The high Density Residential (HDR) (13.98%) contributed the highest concentration of TSP during the transition period. At the high density residential areas, only air temperature (r= -0.288) during the wet season correlated inversely to the concentration of TSP; other meteorological parameters and their correlation values are rainfall (r=0.133), wind speed (r=0.409) and relative humidity (r=0.095) which correlated directly to TSP concentration. The coefficient of determination values showed that the meteorological variables, jointly accounted for 19.90% and 11.50% of the variation in the concentration of TSP during the wet and dry seasons respectively. Residents who are sensitive to the effects of TSP especially those with chronic obstructive pulmonary or cardiovascular disease must not be allowed to inhabit and spend longer hours in Woji, Nkpogu, Nchia, Aleto, Akpojo, Alesa, Ogonigba, Okrika main land, and Elelenwo communities which are sandwiched between the Trans-Amadi and Eleme industrial areas that are located down-wind of the city. Specific air pollution and environmental standards ought to be more stringent targeting sources like factories, incineration and vehicle emissions.

Keywords: Port Harcourt, Respiration Infections, TSPs, Urban Canopy, land use

Land Use Land Cover Change and Hazard Occurrence along Coastline of Nigeria (Published)

The human modification and interference with landscape globally has increased incidence of hazards and disaster most especially in the coastal areas with particular reference to Nigeria. The aim of this study and how it trigger occurrence of hazards at the coastal areas of Nigeria between 2005 to 2015, using landsat 7 thermatic mapper from 1995 to 2005 and landsat 8 enhanced thematic mapper data from 2005 to 2015. From the study bare land and mangrove vegetation shrinked while coastal mud and water (ocean) increased in size. The study recommends mapping of hazard prone areas along the coast of Nigeria the coastal with a view to reduce human inference with Nigeria coastal landscape

Keywords: Land Cover, Land Hazard, Mapping of Hazard, Nigeria, land use

An Analysis of Urban Smart Growth Indictors (With an Emphasis on Compactness, Accessibility and Environment) Case Study: Piranshahr City, Iran (Published)

The concept of “smart growth” was become popular by Parris Nelson Glendening from 1994 to 2003. The main emphasis of smart growth is on mix land use and the design of compact buildings which produce high densities together with lower environmental effects. The current research aims at investigating urban smart growth indexes based on three indexes of compactness, environment and access to districts and neighborhoods of Piranshahr City, Urmia. The main research method is descriptive-analytical and it is dome through ANP, GIS and Heldren and Shannon’s Entropy Models. The finding of this research shows that the Piranshahr city is not of appropriate position in terms. From the point of physical growth this city has developed in term of  sprawl growth, in terms of the index of green space the standard of individual green space has not been observed, and finding in term of access to the public transportation this index do not cover the whole city.

Keywords: Piranshahr City., Planning, Smart Growth, land use

The Physical State Of Forest Cover and Land Use in Kenya: A Case of Nandi Hills Forests in Nandi County, Kenya (Published)

The Nandi Hills and Forests in the Nandi County are major water catchments for the Lake Victoria. However, these resources have faced significant decline and degradation in recent times, thereby impacting the hydrological quality and quantity in the Lake Victoria Basin. This study was informed by the observed degradation of the Nandi Hills and Nandi Forests, epitomized by the receding forest cover, drying up of previously permanent streams, instances of mudslides and rock falls, and downstream flooding. This paper sought to establish the state of and use of the Nandi Hills/Forests as water catchment area in Nandi County, Kenya. The study adopted a mixed methodological design which incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The mixed methodological approaches used in this study were the concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs. A four-tier analysis was carried out once all the data had been coded and grouped. The analysis covered three categories of the population in the study area; namely the households, institutions and community groups, and analysis of Landsat images for change detection. Analysis of the Landsat images revealed a grim state of the receding natural forest cover. However the uptake of on-farm forestry by the locals is seen as a potential remedy for the dwindling forest cover.

Keywords: Land Cover, Nandi Hills/ Forests, Water Catchment, Water towers., ecosystem services, land use

The Effect of Diminishing Urban Green Spaces on Environmental Quality in Kisumu City (Published)

Green spaces contribute to aesthetics and environmental quality of life in urban areas. Kisumu City, the study area, has been experiencing demographic, environmental, economic, socio-spatial and institutional challenges leading to loss of green spaces. The main problem addressed by the study was dysfunctional use of green spaces leading to their loss, aesthetic value and low environmental quality. The study objective was to determine the effect of spatial change of urban green spaces on environmental quality. Data were both qualitative and quantitative and were collected through observation, interviews, questionnaires, photography, remote sensing and Geographic Positioning System (GPS). Qualitative research focused on site-specific analysis of urban and peri-urban neighbourhoods in Milimani and Nyalenda, respectively, which were purposively sampled. Results showed that area under green in 2005 was 44.8% while in 2004 it was 24.87% showing  a decrease of 55.5%. However, in 2010, there was a temporary increase of green space of 51.82% due to demolitions to pave way for road expansion leading to decrease in carbon sink, resulting in increase in carbon footprint. This has led to low environmental quality. The study projects that by the year 2030, without proper planning interventions, the city will lose all its urban green cover. The research recommends the use of remote sensing for creating land-use inventory and monitoring systems. Citizen involvement in planning and management of urban green spaces is recommended because this will transform ecotourism in Kisumu City.

Keywords: Change Detection, Green Planning, Open Space, Quality of life, land use

Atmospheric Aerosol Loading over the Urban Canopy of Port Harcourt City and its implications for the incidence of obstructive pulmonary diseases (Published)

In view of the deaths arising from obstructive pulmonary diseases, this study examined the concentration of aerosols (Total Suspended Particulates-TSP) as influenced by both landuse and meteorological parameters of wind speed, relative humidity, ambient temperature and rainfall in Port Harcourt city. Air quality and meteorological data were measured at twelve stations: two each from the industrial, high and low density residential, commercial, transportation and surrounding rural areas. Data were collected for seven weeks during wet, transition and dry seasons. Analysis of data was done using ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression techniques. Findings indicated that TSP concentration was highest in the industrial (71.9%), transportation (17.3%), Low Density Residential (LDR) (12.31%); rural (12.9%), and commercial (24%) landuse areas during the dry season. The high Density Residential (HDR) (13.98%) contributed the highest concentration of TSP during the transition period. At the high density residential areas, only air temperature (r= -0.288) during the wet season correlated inversely to the concentration of TSP; other meteorological parameters and their correlation values are rainfall (r=0.133), wind speed (r=0.409) and relative humidity (r=0.095) which correlated directly to TSP concentration. The coefficient of determination values showed that the meteorological variables, jointly accounted for 19.90% and 11.50% of the variation in the concentration of TSP during the wet and dry seasons respectively. Residents who are sensitive to the effects of TSP especially those with chronic obstructive pulmonary or cardiovascular disease must not be allowed to inhabit and spend longer hours in Woji, Nkpogu, Nchia, Aleto, Akpojo, Alesa, Ogonigba, Okrika main land, and Elelenwo communities which are sandwiched between the Trans-Amadi and Eleme industrial areas that are located down-wind of the city. Specific air pollution and environmental standards ought to be more stringent targeting sources like factories, incineration and vehicle emissions

Keywords: Port Harcourt, Respiration Infections, TSPs, Urban Canopy, land use

THE PHYSICAL STATE OF FOREST COVER AND LAND USE IN KENYA- A CASE OF NANDI HILLS FORESTS IN NANDI COUNTY, KENYA (Published)

The Nandi Hills and Forests in the Nandi County are major water catchments for the Lake Victoria. However, these resources have faced significant decline and degradation in recent times, thereby impacting the hydrological quality and quantity in the Lake Victoria Basin. This study was informed by the observed degradation of the Nandi Hills and Nandi Forests, epitomized by the receding forest cover, drying up of previously permanent streams, instances of mudslides and rock falls, and downstream flooding. This paper sought to establish the state of and use of the Nandi Hills/Forests as water catchment area in Nandi County, Kenya. The study adopted a mixed methodological design which incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The mixed methodological approaches used in this study were the concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs. A four-tier analysis was carried out once all the data had been coded and grouped. The analysis covered three categories of the population in the study area; namely the households, institutions and community groups, and analysis of Landsat images for change detection. Analysis of the Landsat images revealed a grim state of the receding natural forest cover. However the uptake of on-farm forestry by the locals is seen as a potential remedy for the dwindling forest cover.

Keywords: Land Cover, Nandi Hills/ Forests, Water Catchment, Water towers., ecosystem services, land use

AN ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS THAT FACILITATE LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES IN ELDORET MUNICIPALITY, UASIN GISHU COUNTY, KENYA (Published)

Each land use and land cover type is found on a portion of the earth due to several influential factors. And it stands in a spatial relationship to the other land use and land cover types. The change to which these land use and land cover types is subjected is a function of a number of influential factors, namely, population increase, human behaviour and ideologies, infrastructural developments, planning modes and development values and patterns which ignore any of these factors encourage environmental degradation. Human beings have spread themselves in nearly every part of this planet and their activities are causing more than the extinction of just a few species (Seymour, 1966). The human role in changing the face of the earth is as old as history and yet it has persistently grown. This study is an analytical examination of factors that have facilitated land use and land cover changes using a Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications. The results are achieved through observation and analysis based on some industries formed within the period that the author deemed relevant. The study concludes that some of the influential factors include Boundary Extension, Inception of the Government’s Growth Centre Policy and Development Plans. The paper finally recommends that in order to enhance land use development, there is a need to improve on both the land information system and Geographic information systems, so that investors can have ready information on land availability and suitability.

Keywords: Facilitate, Factors, Geographic Information Systems’ (GSI), Land Cover Changes, Remote Sensing (RS), land use

SULPHATE SORPTIVITY IN RELATION TO LAND USE TYPES OF SOILS OF THE HUMID TROPICAL RAINFOREST, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA (Published)

Sorption phenomenon plays relevant role in the estimation of the solubility, availability, mobility and tendency of ion pollution of the environment. Sulphate sorptivity in relation to selected land use types of soils of the humid tropical rainforest, southeastern Nigeria was evaluated by equilibrating 2 g fine earth soil samples with 20 ml of 0.2 N ZnS04 containing graded (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg-1) concentrations of S in a 50 ml centrifuge tubes at 25oC for 2hrs. Sorption data was fitted and sorption parameters especially sorption maximum (b), affinity constant (k), maximum buffering capacity (MBC), distribution coefficient (kf), sorption intensity (n), native S (So), native sorbed S (kd) and equilibrium solution concentration (EPCo) calculated. Also thermodynamic parameters particularly the separation coefficient (KR), Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), enthalpy (ΔH0) and entropy (ΔS0) were determined. Equally the relationship between sorption parameters and soil properties were determined. The b, k, MBC, kf, n, So, kd and EPCo ranged from 10.64-20.75 and 11.49-17.04 mg kg-1, 1.11-5.07 and 0.33-6.46 L mg-1, 5.62-87.41 and 10.80-83.66 mg kg-1, 1.14-6.81 and 1.02-3.53 mg g-1, 0.28-4.51 and 0.38-1.20 mg g-1, 0.28-2.86 and 0.76-3.71L mg-1, 1.94-15.06 and 2.00-5.29 mg g-1 and 0.02-0.68 and 0.24-1.86 L mg-1in the top and sub soils respectively, with the former better than the later for all parameters except So and EPCo. Sulphate sorption capacity using the b decreased in the order fallow > cassava > rice > oil palm in the top and rice > fallow > cassava > oil palm in the sub soils. The KR, ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0 ranged from 0.216-0.267 and 0.212-0.373, -4752.92- -324.63 and -3124- -49.06 J mol-1k-1, -68.76- -4.70 and -45.21- -0.71 J mol-1k-1 and 1.07-15.72 and 0.16-10.33 Jmol-1 k-1in the top and sub soils respectively. Sorption parameters correlated with selected soil properties especially sand, silt, clay, OM, pH, ECEC, N and P. In general, sulphate sorption process was favourable, spontaneous, exothermic and controlled by dissociative mechanism

Keywords: Humid Tropics And Rainforest, Sorptivity, Sulphate, land use

ECOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF THE TOURISM RESORT OF WENGEN (SWITZERLAND) AND OBUDU (NIGERIA) (Published)

Both Wengen and Obudu Resorts are blossoming areas in tourism, and also share similar characteristics of togogeaphy and climate. A comparism of the ecological interactions between the two resorts will bring out the potentials and problems of each resort; which is useful in recommending sustainable practices to strengthen the resorts. Fields studies were carried out in both resorts on the Soils, Flora, Fauna and Human activities of land use, population and recreation. While the results of Wengen resort indicated a cautious use of the natural resources of soil, vegetation and wildlife, the Obudu Resort on the other’ hand records a negative trend in the exploitation of some resources. However, the study parameters of human population and land use were more favourable in Obudu with a population negative rate of 3.1 per annum against the growth rate of -2.6 in wengen resort. Similarly the land use in Obudu fall within the ratio of 3:1:2 for recreational, residential and agricultural respectively, as against 5:0:2 in Wengen resort. The study came out with recommendations for sustainable development of the two resorts

Keywords: Ecological, Obudu, Recreation, Resort, Tourism, Wengen, land use

IMPACT OF INDISCRIMINATE LANDUSES ON SPECIES ABUNDANCE:CASE STUDY OF SILK COTTON TREE CEIBA PETENDRA COLONY AT SOUTHERN SUBURB OF ZARIA CITY – NIGERIA (Published)

The case of silk cotton tree (Ceiba petendra ) that has colonized an area of more than 1,000 hectres at the southern suburb of Zaria city for almost 5 centuries’ is the subject of the study. It aims at documenting how indiscriminate human activities led to the gradual depletion of the vegetal cover. Landuse characterization, botanical and ecological parameters were focused and an alarming negative results were evident in such indices as species density, species ‘regeneration, surface cover, soil erosion and fertility status. This negative development is assiduously affecting not only the tree colony but also soil quality, crop yield and the water table of the entire city. Consequently, a re-reservation and the re-plantation of the colony was proposed as a panacea to the ever increasing deterioration of the fragile ecosystem

Keywords: Ecology, Flora, Silk-Cotton, Species, Zaria, land use