Tag Archives: Labour

Changes in Blood C-Reactive Protein in Pregnancy and Labour Among Apparently Healthy Pregnant Women in Benin City (Published)

C-reactive protein (CRP), a very sensitive marker, has recently been associated with inflammatory conditions and their management. Pregnancy is a pro-inflammatory state associated with changes in CRP values. Proper interpretation of CRP levels in inflammatory conditions requires good knowledge of these changes. However, most studies and reference values obtained on serum CRP in pregnancy were done in developed western countries. Regional differences in the level of CRP have been reported. It was imperative, therefore, to determine local reference values for CRP in apparently healthy pregnant women in our setting to serve as nomograms. Methods:  Longitudinal case-control study with 160 women who met the criteria recruited. These were divided into two arms comprising of study and control, each consisting of 80 women. Maternal serum CRP was measured with competitive immunoassay in the first and second half of pregnancy and labour as women were followed up. Specimens were also obtained for CRP from the control group. Data obtained were analysed using the SPSS version 17 and GraphPad instant 3 software. Categorical variables were expressed as absolute numbers, and percentages and the differences in proportion were analysed using the Chi-square test or Fisher exact test, while continuous variables were presented as means with standard deviations and the differences were analysed with the t-test where appropriate. The level of significance was set as p<0.05. Result: Revealed a progressive increase in the C reactive protein concentration as pregnancy advanced. The rise however attained maximum level during labour. Statistical significance noted for that of labour against non-pregnant as control (p<0.05). Conclusion: C-reactive protein levels may serve as a marker for disease severity, though non-specific. The study shows that serum concentration of C-reactive protein in normal pregnancy for women in our environment should be 82.62 ± 32.19 ng/ml. Also, levels of concentration are increased during labour compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with a mean value of 93.46 ± 24.00 ng/ml. Therefore, it could be of prognostic value in some pregnancy-associated complications such as preterm labour, premature rupture of membrane, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia and diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, Labour, pregnancy

Settler- Indigene Relations in Nigeria, 1920- 2014 (Published)

This study highlights the interaction between settler migrant farmers and their host societies in the Western cocoa producing areas and some food producing areas of central part of Nigeria between the 1920s and ­­­­2014. The choice of date is informed by the time of the introduction of commercial cocoa production in Western Nigeria while 2014 is the year in which the dislocation of the peace in the food producing area, occasioned by the Chibok girls kidnap saga began. Using extant literature and field data in the study areas, the paper asserts that contrary to popular generalisations in some literature that ethnicity, economic interest, cultural and religious differences have engendered conflicts among indigene-settler relations, the people in our study area have coexisted peacefully. The paper examined the geo-economic imbalance in the distribution of resources which necessitated migration; the common need for capital formation to exploit the resources; use of non-economic methods like kinship ties, ethnic affiliations, and some customary obligations have remained important indicators in the rural social and economic life. It is the observation of this paper that the rural farming societies of our investigation, though an agglomeration of different ethnic nationalities, yet maintained a symbiotic economic and social cooperation in a system-devised method of absorbing the shocks and sometimes strained relationship among them, in a participatory way.

Keywords: Farmers, Indigene, Labour, Migration, Rural, Settler

Effectiveness of Innovative Policies to Enhance University-Industry Collaboration in Developing Countries. Towards Technical University-Industry Links in Ghana (Published)

In today’s global world, generating new knowledge and turning it into new products and services is a complex process that involves a broad range of actors. Transforming the results of scientific research into new commercial products is a shared challenge between researchers and industry to maximize the social and economic benefits of new ideas. Such partnerships contribute positively to address innovation market failures and help to realize the full social returns of research and development(R & D) investments. In recent times, the rise in global knowledge and technology has intensified the need for universities and industry to forge strategic partnership that goes beyond the traditional funding of research projects. World-class research universities are at the forefront of championing such partnerships to hone the competitiveness and competence of their institutions and the partnering companies to help address social challenges and drive economic growth. This study explores the priorities and scope of university–industry collaboration indeveloped and developing economies, motivation to form such collaborations and barriers to such cooperation. Finally, the study examines the effectiveness of these innovative policies to promote university-industry collaboration in developing countries.

Keywords: Collaboration, Employable, Industry, Labour, University

Empirical Investigation of Assessment of Influence of Reward System on Health Worker Job Performance (Published)

This study is examines the influence of reward on worker job performance using health sector as a reference. It is a research based on primary data collected using a structured questionnaire. The influence of reward system on worker performance was analyzed using Ordinary Least Square Regression Analysis Method. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between reward and worker performance. The study recommended that (1) the employer of labour need to constantly review the reward packages to their employee and allow it to reflect their contribution to the organization. (2) The economic situation of Nigeria has changed drastically in recent time such that cost of living has shut up drastically, employer is expected to pay a reward that reflect changes in economic situation in Nigeria (3) With the present global economic trend, most employers of labour need to realize that for their organizations to compete favourably, employee performance is a key factor and their wellbeing must be of paramount important to them.

Keywords: Health Sector, Job, Labour, Performance, Reward, workers

Speech Acts and Welfarist Ideology in Governor Aregbesola’s May 1, 2013 address (Published)

Politicians make use of language for the purpose of achieving desired goals. In political utterances, many acts are performed as politicians through their speeches try to manipulate the listeners by the way they use language. This study investigates the deployment of speech acts and welfarist ideology in Governor Aregbesola’s address to the Osun State workers in commemoration of year 2013 “Workers’ Day”. The speech is selected for analysis to bring out Aregbesola’s language use and to highlight the welfarist ideology of the government of Osun State of Nigeria. The speech titled “Productivity is the key to Wealth” is analysed within the framework of J.R. Searle’s Speech Acts to bring out the illocutionary force in it. The analysis reveals Aregbesola’s language use in performing certain actions with a view to changing the attitudes of workers and also to project the government as welfarist in its programmes.

Keywords: Labour, Language, Politics, Rauf Aregbesola., Speech Acts., Welfarist Ideology


Good land management strategies are known to play an important role in improving agricultural production. There lacks empirical studies that have evaluated the contribution of fence as a productive investment in Kenya. Fencing was treated as a productive input in the production function alongside capital, labour and land. Cross-sectional primary data is used to achieve the objectives of the study. The Cobb-Douglas (CD) specification was used in measuring the contribution of fence to production and in measuring its role in the marginal productivity of labour, land and capital in semi arid Kenya. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results indicated that fencing improves agricultural production and that it improves the marginal productivity of land. The policy implication is that since fence has led to a series of positive benefits, there is need for the government to recognize the positive impact of fence and empower those communities who would wish to fence their land.

Keywords: ASAL regions, Kenya, Labour, fencing, land and capital, marginal productivity


In response to gender gap and hardship due to heavy production and domestic tasks of women smallholder farmers in developing countries, this study was conducted under the auspices of the Gates Foundation with an original goal of formulating labour saving strategies and innovations for the rural women in Vietnam. The first five steps of a systems-based Evolutionary Learning Laboratory (ELLab) framework together with other management tools were employed in the first phase of the project during April 2013 to April 2014. The project has identified actual challenges and needs of the target group using appropriate systems approaches, including a flexible use of stakeholder analysis and engagement, and a log-frame approach for evaluation. Interestingly, saving labour was not identified as the highest priority for the women and was ranked second after the need for increasing their income. The outcomes of the study served as feedback and a rationale for reframing the project goal and objectives to address the ‘real issues’, ‘real needs’ and thus appropriate intervention strategies to address the identified challenges of the women farmers in the research area. Process steps of issue identification, rethinking and reframing of the project approach, goals and objectives are discussed and analyzed to prove the value and validity of the unique ELLab processes as an appropriate framework to deal with complex problems in the context of interconnected economic, environmental, social and cultural factors. The findings have not only brought about practical solutions for the women, but also formulated context-based recommendations for funding agencies and local governments.

Keywords: Collaboration, Decision processes, Labour, Participation, Stakeholders, Women smallholder farmers.

The Building Industry in the Housing Programme: Technology, Materials and Labour Towards Adressing Housing Shortage in Nigeria (Published)

The building industry is a sector of national economy engaged in preparation of land and construction, alteration, and repair of buildings, structures, and other real property. More agents, institutions and intermediaries have become involved in the various stages of housing construction as a means of producing more housing for human shelter. Building Industry work involves the construction of a new or existing commercial, industrial or domestic buildings or structure. The major form of urban land use is housing construction, and also the pattern of urban land use largely determines the pattern of urban growth and development. (Agbola, 2002). However, this paper examined the essential link between the building industry, technology, materials and labour in relations to housing programme. And its goal is to critically examine the roles of building industry in the housing programme since housing programme as immensely contributed to the development of building construction industry in Nigeria. The paper shows some of the functions of building industry in housing programme, the materials to be use , technology employed and the labour used in the construction process and highlights the need for government to encourage both the private and public building industry to provide quality and affordable housing for human consumption as this will be part of the housing programme organized to alleviate the problem of inadequate housing in most developing countries.

Keywords: Building Industry, Housing Programme, Housing Shortage, Labour, Materials, Technology