Tag Archives: L3 acquisition

Lexical sophistication measures and writing proficiency: The case of Indonesian learners of Japanese (Published)

The present study tests two measures of lexical sophistication in writing proficiency (moving-average morphological richness and moving-average mean size of paradigm for testing the lexical diversity) and mean word length for testing writing form (plain, humble, honorification). The findings suggest that the three metrics work reliably. Regarding lexical diversity, moving-average of morphological richness (MAMR) and moving-average mean size of paradigm (MAMSP) of Indonesian Japanese learners-written texts are close to native Japanese-written data. Lexical complexity measured by word length by Indonesian Japanese learners is characterised by slightly less richness than native Japanese data but remains very close. Word length-frequency relationship in the Indonesian-written data presents outstanding fitting results to nine models, including the Poisson Model families and Binomial Model families, with 0.9918 as the lowest and 0.9987 as the highest determination coefficient R2. It is hoped that this study’s outcome may help develop an automatic evaluation of the writing proficiency of agglutinative languages with diverse writing forms.

Keywords: L3 acquisition, dependency direction, mean dependency distance, word length

Acquisition of L3 writing proficiency in Hungarian Japanese learners (Published)

The present study investigates writing proficiency in Hungarian Japanese learners to examine how language closeness between the mother tongue and any language acquired later in life might affect the learning quality of the second language. Writing proficiency is measured at two levels: syntactic complexity based on dependency distance, and lexical complexity using moving-average morphological richness (MAMR) and moving-average mean size of paradigm (MAMSP) measures. Study findings suggests that in terms of essay writing (writing style: simple), both MAMR and MAMSP of Japanese written by Hungarians are extremely close to native Japanese writing. Regarding email writing, which requires both honorific and humble forms of language, both lexical and syntactic complexity of Hungarian Japanese learners are characterised by slightly reduced richness than those of native Japanese persons, but remain very close. These outcomes based on a lexical and syntactic examination of Hungarian Japanese learners indicate that the mother tongue (L1) affects the quality of later language acquisitions.

Citation: Wenchao Li (2022) Acquisition of L3 writing proficiency in Hungarian Japanese learners, British Journal of Education, Vol.10, Issue 10, pp.15-23


Keywords: Hungarian, Japanese, L3 acquisition, syntactic complexity, writing proficiency