Tag Archives: L1

The language of Females in the city of Irbid in Jordan (Published)

Studies in language and gender are barely known in Jordan and the Arab-Islamic world at large. This paper highlights the empowering use that Irbid females make of the languages available to theme. The .importance of this use is enhanced by the fact that Jordanian is a multilingual country where languages do not have the same social and political status and where the choice and use of a language is part and parcel of negotiating the power related to gender-making and gender-creating in Jordanian society. Mono- or bilingual women use oral genres to help themselves and literate (often multilingual) women use code-switching for the same goal.

Keywords: Code Switching, L1, Sociolinguistics


Drawing on an ethnographic approach, this research aims at exploring how teachers use L1 in the primary classrooms in Kuwait government schools. It reports on the process of generating qualitative data, namely teacher interview to answer the research question. A brief background of the literature on the use of L1 in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom is presented first. Then a rationale for using teacher interview as a qualitative method is discussed. Data analysis and interpretation show how the data from the teacher interview resulted in the same views as that of the literature and research and new ones emerged from the interview that were not in the literature. Finally, it concludes with the researchers’ reflection on the whole process.

Keywords: Kuwait, L1, Primary Classrooms