Tag Archives: L1


The study aims to identify the difficulties encountered by EFL undergraduate students with their English-speaking skills in the English department at the College of Basic Education, Public Authority of Applied Education and Training (PAAET). The study was conducted using the descriptive approach which contained a questionnaire comprising 27 items applied to a sample of 420 female students. The results found that students encountered moderate difficulties among the five factors. Students ranked the factors according to which contributed to the development of their English-speaking skills the most in the following order: preference of native speakers as teachers, followed by English language proficiency, teaching methodologies, environmental influences, and emotional influences. The results also indicated that there is a significant relationship between the factors that influence the development of English-speaking skills and demographic variables such as year of study, major GPA, and grade in conversation class.

Keywords: Code Switching, Code-Mixing, L1, L2, Mother Tongue Interference

Verifying the Efficacy of Translation as a Teaching Technique from EFL Teachers’ Perspective (Published)

The present paper aimed to shed light on L2 teachers’ perspectives on the use of translation in English language teaching (TILT) as a technique in (FL) setting. The related literature reviewed gave evidence that translation has a dynamic role in the EFL setting, and it contributed effectively in reducing language obstacles, motivating better communication, and evolving linguistic competence. The statistical analysis of the questionnaire revealed that there was a higher tendency among the teachers to use translation as an effective tool in L2 teaching. The respondents highly appreciated the effective role of (TILT) in the L2 environment since it increases learners’ awareness of the FL, encourages them to overcome difficulties in the L2. Likewise, they admitted that (TILT) in (L2) setting is a supportive and effective technique and sometimes necessary but it should be used rationally to avoid its pitfalls.

Keywords: L1, L2, acquisition; EFL, teaching technique; teachers' perspective, translation

The language of Females in the city of Irbid in Jordan (Published)

Studies in language and gender are barely known in Jordan and the Arab-Islamic world at large. This paper highlights the empowering use that Irbid females make of the languages available to theme. The .importance of this use is enhanced by the fact that Jordanian is a multilingual country where languages do not have the same social and political status and where the choice and use of a language is part and parcel of negotiating the power related to gender-making and gender-creating in Jordanian society. Mono- or bilingual women use oral genres to help themselves and literate (often multilingual) women use code-switching for the same goal.

Keywords: Code Switching, L1, Sociolinguistics


Drawing on an ethnographic approach, this research aims at exploring how teachers use L1 in the primary classrooms in Kuwait government schools. It reports on the process of generating qualitative data, namely teacher interview to answer the research question. A brief background of the literature on the use of L1 in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom is presented first. Then a rationale for using teacher interview as a qualitative method is discussed. Data analysis and interpretation show how the data from the teacher interview resulted in the same views as that of the literature and research and new ones emerged from the interview that were not in the literature. Finally, it concludes with the researchers’ reflection on the whole process.

Keywords: Kuwait, L1, Primary Classrooms