Tag Archives: Knowledge

Knowledge and Attitude of Female Students of Tertiary Institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening (Published)

Cervical Cancer which is the second most common cancer in women is largely preventable when detected early. Premalignant form is the earliest stage of cervical cancer can be detected early through effective cervical cancer screening. This work was carried out to ascertain the knowledge and attitude of female students in four tertiary institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening. Self-administered closed end structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires were properly validated. Three hundred and ninety-eight female students in tertiary institutions who were of reproductive age between 16 – 45 years were used as respondents. All completed and returned their questionnaires. These were analysed using simple statistical methods. Result analysis showed that 350 (87.9%) have heard of cervical cancer while 265 (66.6%) have heard of cervical screening. One hundred and eighty-six (47%) were sexually active while 17(4.3%) have done the screening. Three hundred and seventy-two (93.5%) agreed that having multiple sexual partners was a risk factor. Three hundred and eighty-three (96.2%) of the population know that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the causative agent. The most prevalent reasons for not undertaking the screening were embarrassment 374 (94%) and fear 320 (80.4%). The study has revealed high knowledge of cervical cancer amongst the students but poor attitude towards its screening. Women of reproductive age including students in the tertiary institutions should be enlightened on the need of the routine screening for cervical cancer especially once they become sexually active. This is expected to increase rate of early detection and treatment thereby preventing the heavy economic cost of treating and managing full-blown cervical cancer.

Keywords: Imo State, Knowledge, attitude, cervical cancer, human papilloma virus

The Level of Awareness, Knowledge and Infringement on Copyright at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)

The encouragement of intellectual creation is one of the basic prerequisites for social, economic and cultural development of any nation. Copyright was instituted to inspire authors towards more creativity by enabling them to harness the full benefit of their works; however there are issues associated with the compliance on copyright rules. There is a dare need to stem the overwhelming tide of copyright infringement activities going on across the globe. This study examines the level of awareness, knowledge and infringement on copyright at the University of Ibadan. Questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The population used in the study comprises 150 academic and senior staff of University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study found that there is low level of awareness and knowledge on copyright matters, as many of the respondents were unfamiliar with matters relating to copyright. The study identified a high level of infringement on copyright in University of Ibadan. The study further advocated for intensive sensitization on copyright matters and enforcement of copyright law within University of Ibadan community in order to strengthen copyright protection.

Keywords: Knowledge, Nigeria, awareness, copyright, university of Ibadan

An Empirical study of Librarians and Libraries as drivers of access to Knowledge in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

The library from inception plays a very crucial role in the extension and modification of knowledge. The growing need for knowledge management has influenced every component and operation of a library. This is built on the fact that it is only by transmission of knowledge by each succeeding generation can civilization maintain itself and make advance upon the knowledge of the past. The individual and social meaning of education can only take place on the backdrop of beliefs and values of a particular social setting. In both, the library has a crucial role to play. The library we know is a social system that stores and disseminates information which is knowledge. This paper therefore is an empirical study of Librarians and libraries as drivers of access to knowledge using Ebonyi State, Nigeria as a case in point.    This researcher applied a descriptive study method with a sampled population of 138 randomly selected from the different libraries in the State.  The study investigated ways through which librarians and libraries operate as drivers of access to knowledge as well as the various challenges encountered by librarians that militate against their optimal performance as drivers of access to knowledge.  The study also identified ways of enhancing the role of Librarians and libraries as drivers of access to knowledge. The instrument for the study was structured according to the modified Likert scale on four point rating scale.    On this scale, the average mean cut off is 2.50.  To this end, an item is accepted if it is 2.50 and above and rejected if it is below 2.50.  Statistically, frequencies, percentages and mean scores were used to compute the data collected that led to the decision rule.

Keywords: Human development, Information and Communication Technology, Knowledge, Library, access to information, librarian

Knowledge on Prevention of Human Papiloma Viruses in Adolescents of the City of Mexico, 2020 (Published)

In the 2019, health is a mix of interactions between economic, biological, ethnographic, cultural and social processes, elements that have determined an integral development. Meanwhile, in the not health process it is been associated with multiple contributions related to the style, conditions and way of life of each individual and population. The prolongation of life is a consequence of global scientific development together with state, social and cultural measures that have allowed an increase in life expectancy. This investigation article is based on findings that were related to a group of adolescents and young people from Mexico City, which describe the little knowledge they have about the Human Papillomavirus and the development of Cervical Cancer, it was also identified that the population under study presents high risk behaviors, which highlights the importance of integrating effective prevention actions.

Keywords: Factors, Knowledge, Risk, Teenagers, human papillomavirus

Knowledge and Information and Communication Technologies: Its effect on the Innovation of the Mexican Small Medium Enterprises (Published)

The main purpose of the study is to analyze the relationship between knowledge and technological management and innovation practices in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The 412 companies that participate in the study are located in the Northwest region of Mexico and have 10 to 250 employees. The data collection was through a structured survey aimed at the managers of each SME. The field work was carried out during the months of May to November of the year 2017. For the analysis of the data and the verification of the hypotheses the Structural Equation Model (SEM) based on the variance was used through the Partial Least Square (PLS). The findings corroborate that the knowledge that exists within companies, is crucial to improve technology management and to increase innovation practices that are developed in the SME. In addition, we find that the Technological Management is contributing significantly in the consecution of greater practices of Innovation. Our study contributes to the development of the theory based on resources and capabilities (RBV).

Keywords: Innovation, Knowledge, Small and Medium-Enterprises (SMEs), external knowledge, internal knowledge, technological management

Effectiveness of in Service Teachers Training Programmes Offered by DSD at Primary Level in Punjab (Published)

The underlying purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training (ISTT) programmes conducted in Punjab by Directorate of Staff Development (DSD). It further evaluates the strength and weaknesses of the various executed training programmes by DSD within Punjab, Pakistan. The following Quantitative study intends to highlight the various variables which act as a comprehensive tool for the acquisition of expected or desired outcomes. It further states those variables involved which act as a catalyst to bring a significant change within the classroom premises, institutions or working places and the attitudes, methodology and teaching practices of teachers or professionals. For that purpose, surveys were conducted by using questionnaires in various areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using coding and SPSS-16. The conclusion drawn from the data analysis illustrates the positive influence of ISTT within the classroom as well as on individuals. It enables the teachers to identify their strengths and weaknesses as it has been proved as an efficient tool for self-evaluation, self learning and reflection. ISTT also bring change within in the classroom as it enables the teachers to understand the complexity of learning process more explicitly.

Keywords: DSD, Effectiveness, Evaluation, Knowledge, Practices, Skill, attitude, in-service teacher training (ISTT), professional development (PD)

Concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community, Akuku-toru Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was aimed at determining the concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community of Rivers State. A descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at the Family Planning Clinic of the community’s health center between July and December, 2017, among 76 persons, out of 96 married couples that attended the facility. The mean score for knowledge of infertility showed that 39(51.32%) respondents had good knowledge, while 37(48.68%) had poor knowledge. Also, 41(53.95%) had positive attitude towards infertility while 35(46.05%) had negative attitude. Semen abnormalities, assumed spiritual forces, unknown cause, undescended testes, erectile dysfunction, menstrual disorders, previous reproductive tract infections/STIs, age, improper/poor sexual practices and fallopian tube dysfunction were the main factors indicated to be associated with infertility. Infertility is a common reproductive problem, with about one-fifth of the world population affected. There is still low poor knowledge about the true factors associated with it, hence, a lot of misconceptions, such as beliefs that IUCDs and supernatural powers can cause infertility, thus, most affected persons seek treatment from faith or traditional healers. Alternative medicine remains a popular option for couples, when they are unsatisfied with orthodox medicine. There is also poor knowledge about treatment options available, with cultural and religious beliefs masking most of such, resulting in reduced acceptability of assisted reproductive technologies. Vigorous enlightenment, especially, of rural dwellers, is pertinent and will produce better results of acceptability and utilization of available options.

Keywords: Belief, Infertility, Knowledge, attitude, orthodox

Knowledge Integration and Service Delivery of Health Professionals in Public Hospitals in South-South Nigeria (Published)

The specific objective of the study was to ascertain the extent to which knowledge integration influences service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study employed a correlation design. A sample of 596 respondents were selected from twelve categorized public hospitals is South-South using Taro Yamani’s formula. 34 questions were formulated in the questionnaire in line with the stated objective of the study. A total of 596 copies of questionnaire were administered and 551 copies were collected showing 92 percent responses, 10 responses were rejected and 541 copies constituting 90 percent of the questionnaire were analyzed.  The results showed that there is positive significant relationship between knowledge integration and service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study concluded that the integration of knowledge management in service delivery is a vital aspect of learning in healthcare organization, as new discoveries and knowledge become available to professionals in their respective fields which have to acquire, transmit, retain and use the knowledge. The study therefore, recommends that organizations of various sizes should adequately integrate knowledge management enablers’ factors in their organizational culture and leadership to enhance organizational performance and provision of service quality. The integration of new knowledge in all the units within the healthcare institutions/organizations and adequate implementation of health policies and programmes will help to transform the healthcare delivery into a more cost effective error averse and accountable public resources. There should be an increasing individuals’ confidence in integrating useful knowledge with others. Knowledge integration can be enhanced by increasing employees’ self-efficacy through training. Organizations are expected to help shape and facilitate staff perceptions of knowledge ownership which have been found to enhance their knowledge integration because of internal satisfaction.


Keywords: Knowledge, Knowledge Integration., Nigeria, Public Hospitals, Service delivery, South-South, health professionals

A Relevance of the Implementation of Vocational School (VS) Towards the Needs of Industry and Workforce (Published)

This study explores the relevance of vocational school (VS) and industries to meet the needs of industries in order to get quality workers from VS. Therefore, the government of Indonesia stresses to strengthen vocational school (VS) through training both in school, company, or in technopark in order that the graduate of VS may have better competence and skill.  Quantitative and qualitative of the secondary data, the in-depth interview during the focus group discussion (FGD), and survey data was collected from 536 respondents from 36 VS in eight provinces. Analysis was the combination of qualitative and quantitative from both survey and document triangulated with interview of other related resource persons. The findings reveal that the relevance of training in school and the needs of the industries is 91,67% relevant, the relevance of knowledge and the needs of industries taught in school is 93.34% relevant, skill 93.34%, and attitude 97.5%. Teachers perceptions for the three aspects is 90.83%. Most of the VS school programs are in accordance to meet the needs of industries, which have been working collabotively with schools. Training in both industries and technopark has improved VS students and teachers’ competence and skill.  However, it is different with the reality that most of vocational school graduates have not been accepted by private sector or industries to work at their company due to the lack of several aspects, such as the skills which does not occur to the work of industries. 

Keywords: Knowledge, Relevance, Skill, attitude, kompetence, technopark, vocational school

Assessment of Knowledge of Drug and Dietary Regimen among Diabetic Client in Endocrinology Clinic at Federal Medical Centre Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria (Published)

The study focused on assessment of knowledge base on dietary and drug regimen in diabetes mellitus management among patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti in Ekiti State, Nigeria. It identified factors associated with poor adherence/compliance to treatment and relationship between demographic data and knowledge of drug and dietary regimen. Cross-sectional descriptive design was employed using a semi structured interviewer administered questionnaire to gather information from 120 clients. Simple random sampling technique (balloting type) was used to select clients. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and hypotheses tested using Chi-Square, while P value was set at <0.05. The results of the study showed that majority of the respondents were above age 40. The knowledge of clients on dietary and drug regimen was on the average (50% & 45.8% respectively). Factors that affected adherence to drug treatment were high cost of antidiabetic drugs and the idea of taking drugs for life. There was a significant relationship between gender and knowledge of drug but no significant relationship between gender and knowledge of dietary regimen. Conclusion was that clients had average knowledge of drug and diet regimen and high cost of drugs affected compliance/adherence. Therefore Nigerian government should subsidize antidiabetic agents, while nurses and other medical personnel should educate clients on treatment regimen. 

Keywords: Diabetic Mellitus, Diet Regimen, Drug, Knowledge

Knowledge of Available Health Care and Health Care Satisfaction among Inpatients in a Tertiary Hospital in Benin City Edo State (Published)

User’s health care satisfaction is an important determinant of repeat patronage of health care services and the sustenance of any health care facility. Since little is known about user’s knowledge of available health care services and health care satisfaction in tertiary hospital, this study represents an attempt to fill this lacuna in literature. This study investigated knowledge, perception of available health care services and user’s health care satisfaction in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Nigeria. Sick role model guided the study. The research design was descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted between January and April 2014 on a sample of 420 inpatients using Multi-stage sampling technique in the five units of the facility. A semi structured questionnaire was designed to elicit information on respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, level of knowledge of the available health care services using a 19 point knowledge scale and user’s health care satisfaction using 20 variables measured on a five point Likert scale. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the inpatients. Whereas the quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistics regression at P< 0.05, thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. The study found that there were variations in the levels of knowledge of available health care services. In general, the findings revealed that 90% of the respondents possessed high level of knowledge of the available health care services. Ninety-Five percent indicated a moderate level of health care satisfaction from the health care services received. Chi-square test (X2=22.400) revealed that a significant relationship existed between marital status and inpatient satisfaction with health care service. This study demonstrates the need for the provision of adequate health education on different aspects of available health care services from all providers of health care in the facility bearing in mind users’ prior knowledge so as to be able to address the desired health care satisfaction from the health care services during the period of accessing and utilization of such services in the hospital.

Keywords: Health Care, Knowledge, Satisfaction, Teaching Hospital

Knowledge and Practice of Hepatitis B Prevention among Health Care Workers in Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Osun State Nigeria (Published)

Background: Globally, health workers are at risk of contracting Hepatitis B infection if preventive measures are jeopardized. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of prevention of Hepatitis B, identified factors affecting practice of HBV prevention among health care workers (HCW) and assessed factors influencing vaccination against hepatitis B in Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria. Method: A descriptive cross sectional design was adopted. One hundred and ninety-two health care workers were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 Result: Findings showed that 99.5% of the respondents had good knowledge about HBV infection, 99% of the respondents had good knowledge on prevention of HBV infection. Knowledge was associated with academic qualification (P = 0.001).  Also, 60.9% had good practice of prevention of hepatitis. Years of experience was not associated with practice of prevention of HBV Infection (P = 0.056). Also, 85.4% of health workers had been tested for hepatitis virus before and less than three – quarter had received HBV vaccine. Also, (29.2%) had never received hepatitis B vaccine.  Barriers associated with HBV vaccination among HCW include: availability of hepatitis B vaccine in the hospital (87.5%), cost of the vaccine (76%) fear of needle prick during vaccination (50%). Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of the health care workers had good knowledge of Hepatitis B prevention but not all of them with good knowledge carried out good practices regarding to HBV infection prevention.

Keywords: HBV Infection Prevention, Health Care Workers, Knowledge

Assessment of Knowledge and Understanding of Laboratory Health Practices among Secondary School Students in North-Central, Nigeria (Published)

This research work was carried out to investigate the knowledge of laboratory health practices possessed by senior secondary school students in the North-Central geopolitical zone of Nigeria.  A total of 893 students were sampled in North-Central Nigeria by means of stratified random sampling using the Questionnaire as an instrument. Data acquired was analysed using comparison of means and t-test at 0.05 statistical level of significance. The result of the study showed that the knowledge of laboratory precautionary practices possessed by the students is fairly good. In terms of gender, school type and location: Female students expressed a better knowledge than their male counterparts, Also, students from private and urban schools performed significantly better than their counterparts in the public and rural schools respectively. The researchers recommended that Science teachers should emphasize familiarity and understanding of laboratory warning symbols among others.

Keywords: Hazard Symbols, Health Practices, Knowledge, Laboratory, north Central

The Influence of the Levels of Education and Knowledge on the Performance of Community Health Workers in Soy Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Community health workers (CHWs) the world over help to alleviate the shortages of health workers in the health sector. They are involved in the delivery of health services to the community and constitute the first point of contact on health-related issues in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The performance of CHWs is often hampered by various factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of CHWs in Soy Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of CHWs’ level of education and knowledge on their performance in Soy Sub-County. A correlation research design was used in the study with systematic sampling method being used to identify the respondents. In total, 98 respondents were given questionnaires to fill. Qualitative data was also collected from 7 heads of community health management team (CHMT) using key informant interviews. The collected data was then presented using frequency distribution tables while inferential statistics were computed using regression and correlation to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of community health workers. Qualitative data was analysed manually to generate trends, sub-themes and themes from which conclusions were inferred regarding the performance of CHWs. The research findings showed that there was a significant (p= .000; α = 0.05) relationship that exists between education and knowledge and CHWs’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a strategy should be developed to incorporate all the stakeholders that affect the performance of community health workers in coming up with a training programme for CHWs.  Moreover, there should be a policy shift in Kenya to encourage male CHW to scale up delivery of health services at community level. The findings of the study support decision-making on CHWs’ training programmes and also constitute the basis of transformation of implantation of community strategy in Soy Sub-County.

Keywords: Community Health Workers, Education, Influence, Kenya, Knowledge, Level, Performance, Soy Sub-County

Knowledge and Compliance of Parents with Planned Meal as an Influence on Pupils Performance in Early Childhood Development Centre, Ado- Ekiti (Published)

The study examined the knowledge and compliance of parents with planned meal as an indicator of pupils’ performance. It investigated knowledge of parents on planned meal and compliance of parents on the planned meal. The study is a descriptive research that employed a case study design. The research instrument was titled Knowledge and Compliance with Planned Meal (KCPM). The face and content validity was ascertained by Nutritionist and Tests and Measurement experts. A reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using split half method. The population for the study comprised of all parents of children attending Early Childhood Development Education Centre, Ado Ekiti. The sample comprised all the parents of pupils attending the primary school. One hypothesis was generated and tested using Pearson, Product Moment analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that parents demonstrated a good knowledge of quality diet of which majority of parents always complies with. It also revealed that quality diet had positive impacts on the performance of the milestone task by the child as all the children can perform expected milestone task appropriate for their age. It was recommended that Policies should be put in place that encourage or as appropriate mandate that all governments owned primary schools to have planned menu table for the pupils. Also, Varieties of home based nutritious and affordable meal should be included in the menu time table.

Keywords: Compliance, Knowledge, Planned Meal, Pupils Performance

Influence of Mass Media Campaigns on Breast Cancer Knowledge among Women in Enugu State (Published)

Breast cancer remains a major killer of women globally. Medical literature suggests that early detection could led to complete cure. Owing to the fact that early detection is dependent on women’s levels of awareness and knowledge, several media campaigns have been lunched. However, one wonders the effectiveness of these campaigns on the knowledge and behaviour of women in Enugu State. This study, therefore, set out to ascertain the contributions of mass media to breast cancer knowledge among women in Enugu State. Survey research method was employed with questionnaire and interview guide as the measuring instruments. Cochran sampling technique was used to determine the sample size which stood at 384 based on a population of 1,671,795 women in Enugu State. The sample was randomly selected while Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data collected. The findings showed a positive relationship between level of education and information seeking from the mass media about breast cancer. Radio was found to be the most predominant medium used by the women.  In this study, it is recommended that government should intensify media messages on breast cancer in the state, especially in the rural communities where most of the non-literate women reside. Future studies should focus on expanding the scope of this study to South – Eastern parts of Nigeria

Keywords: Breast cancer, Health, Knowledge, Media Campaigns, awareness

Perception and Experiences of Infection Control Practices among Professional Nurses in Secondary Health Facilities in South-South Nigeria. (Published)

Infection control practice is a fundamental operational guiding principle in the delivery of modern health care. However, there is minimal qualitative investigation into professional nurses’ perception of infection control practices and how the experiences affect compliance with recommended infection control procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe professional nurses’ impressions and experiences about infection control practices. A descriptive qualitative research design was used as the research framework. In-depth Interviews (IDI) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were completed with a sample of 54 nurses.  The findings highlight the importance of both individual and organisational factors in determining Nurses’ compliance with recommended workplace safety practices. Four major themes emerged from the data, namely knowledge, infection surveillance, safety practices, and workplace policy. The findings indicate individual and organisational factors associated with compliance which are useful in developing strategies to facilitate long-term compliance with infection control practices among nurses.

Keywords: Infection control, Knowledge, Policy, Safety Practices

Health Education and Its Relation with Health Knowledge among College Students in Kuwait (Published)

College is considered one of the important means for health education attainment. Thus, having a profound impact on student’s health, attitude, and behavior. In this study, we assesse and examine the relation of health education intervention with health knowledge and behavior, some these disruptive behaviors include smoking, drugs, injury, disease, individual abuse, stress, mental and emotional health among students of different colleges under PAAET (The Public Authority for Applied Education & training). These colleges are (college of Health Science’s, Nursing, Technological Studies, Basic Education, Business Studies). Besides these colleges, there are numbers of training institutes such as: (The higher Institute of Telecommunication and Navigation, Nursing institute, Secretarial and Office Administration Institute). We also want to inspect the relation between health education, health behavior, and attitude of college students regarding, their age, sex, and education level. Never the less, to elevate health knowledge of these students, in giving them a better healthy lifestyle for their coming future.

Keywords: Behavior, Health education, Knowledge, Students, attitude

Impact of an Educational Intervention of 40 Hours Training of Breast Feeding Promoting on the Knowledge and Attitude of a Sample of Health Professional Staff: A Study of A Pre and Post Evaluation (Published)

Health professionals have a crucial role in promotion, support and management of breastfeeding. To be effective in this effort, the clinician should focus on the issue from the preconception stage through pregnancy and delivery, and continue in subsequent infant care.  To assess the effectiveness of the UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training through the assess breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of the health profession staff before and after training course. Pre-posttest study with an intervention of an educational training course were conducted in Karbala maternity Hospital, during the period from May till July, 2016.A total of 90 participants arrange to reply to the invitation, Self-administered questionnaires were designed which include general demographic information, items related to the knowledge and attitude regarding the breast feeding. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS program (version 20) Results were presented as the frequencies and percentage in tables and figures. Chi-square test was used to determine any association found between these demographic variables and knowledge and attitudes. P value < 0.05 considered as cut off value for significance. The study revealed that the majority 48.9% of the participants achieved fair level score of knowledge regarding to breast feeding in pretest while the knowledge score improved as the majority 75.6% reported good knowledge in posttest.  There is improvement regarding the knowledge related to basic information, breast feeding problems management and hospital policies supporting breast feeding. This improvement was significant statistically regrading knowledge related to the basic information (sings of adequate breast feeding 77.8%, breast feeding with local anesthesia 82.2%, breast feeding benefit 97.8% and contraindication to breast feeding84.4% with p<0.05. There is an improvement in good attitude from pretest to posttest in each attitude questions except for Q 14 and Q 15 (Formula is as healthy for an infant as breast milk, Breast-feeding is more convenient. than formula-feeding) the attitude is slightly reversed in the posttest. Significant statistical association were reported regarding the effect of the course of breast feeding promotion training in certain aspects of attitude questions especially the breastfeeding benefit aspect. UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training was effective tool to assess the   breast feeding knowledge and attitudes among health profession staff that provide maternity care.   

Keywords: Assess, Attitudes, Breast Feeding Training, Effectiveness, Health Profession Staff, Knowledge, Pre and Posttest.

The Relationship between Ma’rifat and the Theory of Knowledge and Its Implication in Education (Published)

This article elaborates the knowledge achieved through fana’ process in accordance with Sufi experts. Hierarchically, fana’ stimulates “emotion” and awareness of the Oneness of God involving the existence of ratio. Unfortunately sensory and rational potentials do not function individually and are free from the emotion. Thus, people’s awareness often changes and the system of knowledge transforms as the result of impelementing muj­âhadah through maqâmât and hâl mechanism. The purposed knowledge here is not the direct knowledge achieved at the end of journey such as ladunni knowledge. This is a holistic knowledge combining rational, empirical, and intuitive knowledges, a model introduced by Sufi community through the concept of Ma’rifat. This concept is relevant with the needs of education field today. Without this concept, education is only a meaningless process of knowledge transformation.

Keywords: Al Îmân, Education, Knowledge, Ma’rifat, Soul Cleansing