Tag Archives: Knowledge

Paddy farmers’ knowledge, perception, and satisfaction on the use of farm machinery in Nepal (Published)

Agricultural mechanization refers to the use of different power sources as well as enhanced farm tools and equipment to decrease human and draught animal labor, improve cropping intensity, precision, and timeliness of crop input usage, and reduce losses at various phases of crop production. This research tried to assess paddy farmers’ knowledge, views, and contentment with the use of agricultural machinery in the districts of Jhapa, Kapilbastu, and Kailali using a multistage purposive sample technique. The survey research method was used for the investigation. Descriptive statistics and properly constructed scales were used to analyze the data. According to the findings, respondents had only a hazy understanding (0.50) of the critical roles of agricultural machinery in rice production. The total amount of machinery on hand is moderate (0.43). The most frequent piece of machinery possessed by respondents was a tractor (0.65), followed by a knapsack sprayer (0.61). Over one fourth of the respondents (0.28) had a good image of agricultural machinery and were satisfied with its use (0.4). While respondents indicated a high amount of restriction (0.7) when it came to utilizing agricultural machinery. As a result, adopting a varied range of farm machinery should be seen positively in order to increase the commercialization of paddy farming. Farmers would be more inclined to use farm machinery if farm machinery information and skills were spread, as well as supported with grants.

Keywords: Adoption, Agriculture, Knowledge, Perception, Satisfaction, farm machinery, paddy

Knowledge and Perception of Students About Premarital Genetic Counselling in University of Medical Sciences, Ondo State (Published)

The study examined the knowledge and perception of the University of Medical Sciences students about premarital genetic counselling. The study specifically assessed the knowledge of premarital genetic counseling and examined the perception of the University of Medical Sciences students about premarital genetic counseling. The research design employed in this study was descriptive survey design. The research study was carried out among students of University of Medical Sciences, Ondo.  The target population for this research study was UNIMED students between the of age 20-35years. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 175 Nursing students in the University. The data was collected through the use of questionnaires design by the researcher to elicit the responses on the knowledge and perception towards premarital genetic counselling. The questionnaire was carefully formulated and was given to experts to review in order to ascertain face and content validity. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by test re-test method which yielded reliability coefficient value of 0.816. The validated questionnaire was administered on the respondents and data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that respondents have strong level of knowledge about premarital genetic counselling and is likely to influence their choice of marital partner if test reveals incompatibility. However, majority of them identified only sickle cell anaemia as the consequence of genetic factor. It was recommended among others that there is need to be consistent in creating awareness about premarital genetic counselling to the youth through the mass media and online programmes.

Citation: Cecilia Olusolape Adeyemo,  Oluwatosin Esther Ogunmuyiwa , Ajibade, Olapeju Oke (2022) Knowledge and Perception of Students About Premarital Genetic Counselling in University of Medical Sciences, Ondo State, International Journal of Micro Biology, Genetics and Monocular Biology Research, Vol.6, No.1, pp.1-9

Keywords: Knowledge, Perception, Students, premarital genetic counselling

Consumers Knowledge of Symbolic Names and Meanings of Ghanaian Fabrics (Published)

Generally, Ghanaian fabrics are unique and authentic, with each bearing traditional riches that express more pride in their national history, physical, material or symbolic gestures to benefit the indigenous Ghanaians. The fabrics have symbolic names and meanings, based upon which this study investigated consumers’ knowledge of symbolic names and meanings of Ghanaian fabrics and their impact on consumer purchase intentions. A quantitative research design was adopted for the study with a targeted population of 3,490,030  that visit the various clothing and textile shops in the Kumasi Central Business District (KCBD). The sample size for the study was 385 participants. Purposive and convenience sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents. A questionnaire was used as an instrument to gather information from the respondents. The returned questionnaires were coded and keyed into SPSS-23.0. The data gathered were analysed using descriptive statistics in the form of frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. The study revealed that the customers have little knowledge about Ghanaian fabrics’ symbolic names and meanings. It was concluded that Ghanaian fabrics had symbolic value, with names and meanings attached and consumers had little knowledge about the Ghanaian fabrics they use. The study recommended that manufacturers could embark on social, cultural and traditional events as part of their promotional programmes to educate and remind consumers to appreciate their rich culture and the symbolic value of the Ghanaian fabrics.

Keywords: Consumers, Ghanaian fabrics, Knowledge, names and meanings, symbolic value

Effect of Health Education Interventions on Knowledge Of Malaria Prevention Among Pregnant Women In Selected Hospitals In Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined the effect of health education interventions on knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women in selected hospitals in Oyo State, Nigeria. The research design adopted for this study was the quasi-experimental design. The population of this study was pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in the selected health care facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. The sample size formula was used to derive 80 respondents. A multi stage sampling procedure was used to select the respondents for the study. The instrument used for the pre and post-intervention was a structured questionnaire. The face and content validity of the instrument was ensured by experts in Public Health. The collection of data was done in three phases: the baseline or pre-intervention phase which was for one week; the immediate post-intervention was for eight weeks (intervention was between the 3rd to 10th week), and the third phase which was the outcome evaluation at the 12th week follow up. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data computation. The result revealed that respondents’ knowledge on malaria prevention among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in selected hospitals was low at the pre-intervention stage for both the experimental group and the control group. However, the knowledge increased significantly at the immediate post intervention and at the 12th week follow-up for the experimental group while the control group remained the same. It was recommended among others that nurses should regularly organise health education on malaria prevention for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics.

Citation: Adeniji, Oluwakemi I.  and Akinboye, Dora O. (2022)   Effect of Health Education Interventions on Knowledge Of Malaria Prevention Among Pregnant Women In Selected Hospitals In Oyo State, Nigeria, International Journal of Public Health, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 7, No.2, pp.9-18



Keywords: Health Education Intervention, Knowledge, Pregnant Women, malaria prevention

Sociological Analysis of Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitude, Compliance and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nigeria: Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis, (Published)

Citation: Faruk U. Abubakar, Muhammad Anka Nasiru (2022) Sociological Analysis of Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitude, Compliance and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nigeria: Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis, International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research, Vol.8, No.1 pp.24-39


Abstract: COVID-19 has spread with frightening speed, affecting millions of people globally. In reaction to the fight against Covid-19, Nigeria’s government has witnessed lockdown on some significant social and economic activities. However, the lockdown has been less effective in controlling the spread of the disease, perhaps due to negative attitude, low level of Knowledge, and poor compliance to prevention and control measures among the populace, which invariably resulted in a destructive spill-over effect on the realization of sustainable development goals (SDGs). Therefore, this study’s objective was to conduct data screening and preliminary analysis of the selected sociological study’s constructs. This study used a cross-sectional survey design and a web-based questionnaire and collected 312 productive questionnaires. The data was screened and cleaned to satisfy the underlying assumptions of multivariate analysis. Specifically, this study conducted data screening by examining response rates, missing values, outliers, normality, multicollinearity, and non-response bias. The result of the study indicated that the dataset had satisfied all the requirements for further multivariate analysis.

Keywords: Compliance, Knowledge, Sustainable Development Goals, attitude, data screening, sociological analysis

Knowledge and Attitude towards Violence against Women among Male Health Workers in Akure South Local Government Area, Akure, Ondo-State (Published)

Citation: Mayowa Opeyemi Adekola, Joseph Oyeniyi Aina, Mary Ayodeji Gbenga-Epebinu  (2022) Knowledge and Attitude towards Violence against Women among Male Health Workers in Akure South Local Government Area, Akure, Ondo-State, International Journal of Health and Psychology Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp.1-17

Abstract: The research examined of knowledge and attitude towards violence against women among male health workers in Akure South Local Government Area, Akure, Ondo State. The study adopted a quantitative descriptive research design. A sample size of 191 respondents was determined using Cochran formula. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 191 respondents from the population. A validated questionnaire was used with a Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency ranging from 0.75 to 0.78 respectively. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 27 to generate summaries of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics at p=0.01.  Findings from the research show that 59% of the respondents have poor knowledge of violence against women while 41% of them have good knowledge. Result also revealed that 51% of the respondents have negative attitude towards VAW, while 49% have good knowledge of VAW.  It is concluded that there was poor knowledge and negative attitude towards violence against women among male health workers in Akure south Local Government Area. The implication of this is high tendency for men to perpetrate the act of violence against women. It is therefore recommended among others that Nurses should put up measures such as; enlightenment programmes to ensure men are well oriented about issues related to violence against women, this creates positive influence on the knowledge and attitude of men towards violence against women.

Keywords: Education, Knowledge, Violence, Women, attitude, religious belief

Knowledge and Help Seeking Behaviors for Menopausal Symptoms among Female Staff Working in a Selected University in Ogun State (Published)

Citation: Eunice Abimbola Ojo, Oluwatosin. O. Ope-Babadele,  Mary Ayodeji  Gbenga-Epebinu, Rachel Omolara Aina and   Jolayemi Oluwaseyi Damilola  (2022) Knowledge and Help Seeking Behaviors for Menopausal Symptoms among Female Staff Working in a Selected University in Ogun State, International Journal of Public Health, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 7, No.1, pp.14-28,

The menopausal years is a very important phase in a woman’s life and it is of good benefit to the women who engage in help seeking behaviors so as to be able to cope well with the phase. The purpose of this study was to see the knowledge and help seeking behaviors among female staffs working in the hall of residence at a selected university in Ogun state. This cross – sectional study was conducted in Babcock University on 102 female staffs who worked in the halls of residence. Total enumeration was used and purposive sampling method was used to select participants. A self-designed questionnaire was used for data collection. The research instrument was validated by experts of Nursing Science and Tests & Measurement. Reliability of the instrument was ascertained through test re-test and it was found to be reliable. Descriptive statistics were used to answer the research questions while inferential statistics of chi-square and correlation were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding revealed 35% of the women had low knowledge while 65% of them had very high knowledge of menopause. Also, it was discovered that 82% of the respondents have low help seeking behavior while only 18% had high help seeking behavior. This could be as a result of the response of the respondents where 71% of the respondents reported that they do not believe in seeking help as Menopause is a natural aging process. Many of the respondents, about 74% had low effect of menopause on daily activities while only 26% had high effects on daily activity. Mostly the women whose menopause symptoms do affect their daily activities do so with their families and homes. The study also showed that there is no significant association between knowledge and help seeking behavior (r = -0.093, p>0.05) and there is no significant association between knowledge and the effects of menopause on daily activities (Chi (2.196), p>0.05). (r =0.148, p>0.05). It was recommended among others that health organizations and health workers need to improve their awareness efforts to include mainstream media and social media to help women have a better understanding of menopause symptoms.

Keywords: Knowledge, female staff, help-seeking behaviors, menopausal symptoms

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Toward’s Child Adoption Amongst Women in Calabar, Cross River State (Published)

Having a child is important among married women in Calabar. Among married women, infertility is the main factor causing childlessness. Child adoption provides an alternative for married women to have children. Thus, the purpose of the study was to explore the perceived barriers of child adoption among women with infertility. The objective is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of women of reproductive age towards child adoption in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used an exploratory qualitative and quantitative approach to understand the knowledge, attitude and practices towards possible child adoption in the study area. The study was conducted among 200 women attending fertility clinic in General hospital, Calabar in Cross River state. Semi structured interview questionnaire was administeredto 200 consecutive infertile female patients (between February and September,2018) at the General Hospital Calabar who agreed to participate in the study after counseling. Participants were purposively recruited and data collected by individual face-to-face in-depth interviews. The data generated was analyzed by simple percentages, descriptive statistics and simple correlation analysis at 5% probability level. Knowledge of child adoption was relatively very high (92.6%) but out of which only 2.0% of the respondents had adopted a child while 34.5% were willing to adopt in the near future if their condition of childlessness persist.T he correlation coefficient for child adoption was significantly higher, positive and strong in patients are childless and who had suffered infertility for more than 6 years (r=0.92, P<0.001), those with secondary/ tertiary education (r=0.90, P<0.001) and in those with no living child (r=0.89, P<0.001) compared to the non-significant correlation coefficient of those whose aim of adoption was to satisfy their need for domestic chores (r – 0.21;P>0.001) and those whose need a child for errand (r –0.32; P>0.001).Majority of the respondents(77.3%) were not willing to adopt a child and their main reason was that child adoption would not allow them fulfill their conception role as women in addition to the long procedures involve in child adoption. Knowledge of child adoption was high among the respondents but the willingness to adopt a child was low due to the fact that it would not allow them fulfill their conception role as women. There is need to educate and encourageour infertile patients to utilize this cheaper and available option of managinginfertility.There is also the need for public education and special counselling session for husbands and other family members on child adoption as an alternative solution for infertility and childlessness. The success of marriages has largely been premeditated on child bearing in most African society and oftentimes women are at the receiving end of childlessness with possible psychological and physical trauma.


Keywords: Calabar, Cross River State, Knowledge, Women, attitude, child adoption, practice

Rudolf Steiner’s Philosophy of Freedom as A Panacea to the Nigerian Social and Political Settings: An Analytic Approach (Published)

The question of human freedom is a perennial one that has occupied the philosophical enterprise. Many questions have been asked: can humans think freely? Can they act freely? Are there circumstances that limit human beings? Can one control his/her thoughts and actions? Many philosophers have engaged these questions from varieties of perspectives through different approaches and methods. This work, “An Appraisal of Rudolf Steiner’s Concept of Freedom,” provides the pivot for our philosophical inquiry. It seeks to interpret the epistemological and ethical significances of freedom.  Freedom is not only theoretical but it is also practical. To thoroughly tackle the question of freedom, it is also important to incorporate the views of some other philosophers in this area of specialization. This work finds that human beings can achieve freedom through pure individualized thinking by transcending the compulsive impulses of nature and culture. It makes use of hermeneutical and analytical methods, to interpret and analyse critically the philosophical positions of Steiner, its significance, potentials and shortcomings.

Keywords: Freedom, Knowledge, Political, Social, thinking

Knowledge and Hygiene Practice among Traders towards Eradication of Lassa fever in Lapai Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was designed to investigate the knowledge and hygiene practice among the traders in Lapai local government of Niger State. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Instrument for the study was structured questionnaire developed to carry out the investigation on knowledge and hygiene practice of the traders towards eradication of the virus. The population of the study comprised 250 respondents (traders) sampled from all the daily markets and shops in the Lapai local government. The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, simple percentage and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). It was established that 52.8% of traders had good knowledge of Lassa fever; however, findings revealed that hygienic practice and behaviours was negative among 71.6% of traders. Education level was found to be the only socio-economic factor associated with hygienic practice among traders towards eradication of Lassa fever (F = 28.701; p < 0.05). Recommendations were made amongst others that traders should be educated on the risk of exposure to rats inducing Lassa fever. Good personal hygiene must be maintained, all the fruits seller must keep all their fruits from the reach of the rat, same vain to all the people selling drinks in Can. Garri and other food items must be well protected with rodent proof and keep away from the reach of rats. Moreover, all hands must be on deck for the eradication of rats from the community.

Keywords: Knowledge, Traders, hygiene practice, lassafever, multimammate rat

Knowledge, Behaviour and Perception of the Traders Toward’s Receiving Covid-19 Vaccine in Lapai Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria (Published)

This study sought to find out the knowledge, behaviour and perception of traders towards receiving Covid-19 vaccine in Lapai local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Accidental sampling was used to sample 200 respondents in Lapai daily markets. A self-developed questionnaire was used as research instrument to sample 200 respondents. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages and mean were used to analyse the research questions. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The majority of traders had adequate knowledge of Covid-19 (c2= 122.280; p <0.05), and conformed moderately to Covid-19 guideline protocol (c2= 18.320; p <0.05). Findings further revealed that there was negative perception of traders in embracing Covid-19 vaccine (c2= 45.880; p <0.05).The perceptions of traders generally were negative and not conforming with Covid-19 guideline protocols and they were not welcoming the vaccine, as they believed it may have side effect after receiving it. Traders concluded that only same vaccine received by the president of Nigeria will be accepted by them. The study recommends amongst others that traders must be enlightened to have adequate knowledge on the virus in other to change their negative behaviours to conform to COVID-19 guideline protocols. The importance of vaccination to the traders and its long time benefits must be emphasized to have Covid-19 free country.

Keywords: Behaviour, COVID-19, Knowledge, Perception, vaccine

Assessment of Farmer’s Usage of Pesticides on Cocoa Farms at Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region of Ghana (Published)

Cocoa is the most important agricultural export crop in Ghana, and the country has an enviable reputation of producing high quality cocoa. Pests of cocoa are mostly controlled by the application of conventional insecticides. The study investigated farmers’ knowledge, pesticide use pattern and practices along the cocoa production chain. Descriptive survey design was used for the study since the researchers wanted to find out farmers opinion on the use of pesticides at Sefwi Wiawso in the Western Region.  Purposive sampling technique was used because it captures the area which was relevant to the study. Questionnaires were administered to 84 cocoa farmers. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the farmers had indepth knowledge and skills in all aspect of farming since cocoa farming is their main vocation. Cocoa farming is their main source of income, hence are not able to follow the recommended pesticide usage regulation before harvesting. Consequently, it could lead to higher pesticide residue levels of the cocoa beans. With regard to the recommendation, there should be a lot of training programme for the farmers which should be organized by Ghana Cocoa Board and CODAPEC programme should be restored to regulate the use of pesticide by farmers.  This is to ensure that the pesticides residue levels in the country’s cocoa beans are within the permissible levels to avoid the rejection of beans from Ghana with its associated international sanctions and loss of substantial revenue.

Keywords: Cocoa, Knowledge, maximum residue levels, permissible levels, pesticides

A community-based prediabetes knowledge assessment among Saudi adults in Al-Ahsa region, 2018 (Published)

Diabetes is a major growing public health issue and prediabetes has been considered to be a reversible condition. The purpose of the present study was to assess knowledge of prediabetes and its risk factors for the community in the Al-Ahsa region. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in the Al-Ahsa region from mid-to-late December, 2018. Of the 812 respondents who gave consent to participate in the interview; 13.2% of the respondents reported that they had diabetes. Among the respondents, 87.1% had a high level of knowledge of prediabetes, while 12.9% had low-to moderate knowledge. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between age and prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 5.006, 𝑝 = 0.025). Occupation also showed a significant statistical association with prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 9.85, 𝑝 = 0.02). People in Al-Ahsa demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding some risk factors for prediabetes. However, there were a number of deficiencies in the knowledge of prediabetes risk factors and preventive measures as well as in general knowledge of prediabetes, which may lead to a high prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes.

Keywords: Al-Ahsa, Community, Knowledge, Prediabetes, Saudi Arabia

Of Impressions, Ideas and Veracity of Memory: A Review of the Humean Epistemological Project (Published)

David Hume’s epistemological project reinvigorates the British Empiricist tradition. His theory of knowledge thrives on the very idea that through impressions, the human mind mirrors reality and from there creates simple and complex ideas of our knowledge claims. It also forecloses the possibility of the apriori by elevating experience as the source through which man encounters and retracts knowledge of the external world. In its propositions, the Humean epistemological project regurgitates and retains the indubitability of sense data as fundamental to knowing. This paper therefore investigates the propriety David Hume’s claims. It identified and reviewed three fundamental premises of the theory of knowledge and submits that like other empiricists before him, his theory of knowledge is refutable primarily because, David Hume holds an overwhelming confidence in the viability of the senses without giving minimal cognition to its fallibility.

Keywords: Knowledge, Memory., apriori, ideas, impressions, sense data

Self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation as determinant to exercise behaviour by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the University College Hospital, Ibadan (Published)

This study examined self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation as determinant to exercise behaviour by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was used to collect data from respondents. The sample comprised 250 respondents who were selected from the antenatal Clinic in University College Hospital Ibadan. The results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation are determinants of exercise behaviour among the pregnant women. It is therefore recommended that more efforts should be made towards educating pregnant women especially those who are not yet participating in physical activities during pregnancy.

Keywords: Belief, Efficacy, Knowledge, antenatal

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preventive Measures towards COVID-19 among Pregnant Women Attending Selected Primary Health Centre’s in Osogbo, Osun State (Published)

Background: COVID-19 is a new viral disease, and health researchers are currently evaluating its effects on pregnant women and their unborn children. There is dearth of research available to support the argument that pregnant women are at greater risk of COVID-19 disease.Methods: This study used an exploratory research design to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19 among pregnant women in Osogbo, Osun state. 382 subjects were selected using a simple random technique. Self-developed questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and the results were presented using tables and percentages. Six null hypotheses were tested using chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Result of this study shows that nearly half of the respondents are within 18-25 (45.0%) years of age, 79(63.6%) are Muslims and 358(93.7%) are from the Yoruba tribe. This study also reveals that the respondents do have significant knowledge on the novel Coronavirus disease and a good attitude towards the prevention of COVID-19 as they practice frequent hand washing, sanitizer use and maintenance of social distancing. From the hypothesis tested, there is significant association between the education level of the respondents and their knowledge and attitude of preventive measures towards COVID-19 and no association between the age of the pregnant women and practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19. Conclusion: From the study, there seems to be a moderate level of awareness on the preventive measures towards COVID-19 among pregnant women in Osogbo but increase in the level of awareness and educational program can be done by the government and health workers in order have a very good attitude and awareness which will eventually improve the rate of adherence and compliance towards COVID-19 preventive measures.


Keywords: COVID-19, Knowledge, Preventive, attitude, pregnancy

Elements and Principles of Design in Garment Production among Small Scale Producers of Berekum Municipal in Ghana (Published)

The study was to investigate whether small scale garment producers in Berekum apply the elements and principles of design in garment manufacturing (since some produced garments had colours not well blended, fabric with lines not meeting at seam joints, motifs not well arranged, and some garment styles not looking good on clients’ figures because their figure types were not considered before designing) and to unearth strategies to improve their clothing designing skills to meet current market standards. The study used a descriptive survey research design. The snow ball and convenience sampling techniques in selecting one hundred small scale garment producers for the study. The main instrument was a questionnaire and observation checklist, analysed to generate frequencies, percentages and mean, and presented in tables. It was revealed that the garment producers had a fair knowledge in the application of the elements and principles of design and about 85% appreciated their importance. However, they failed to practice because of Clients’ demand. Findings from workshop organized revealed the need for using smart phones and has aided in the provision of an easy access to information which has sort to promote the use of data and real-world applications to enhance their productivity. The respondents therefore suggested that frequent in- service training and workshops should be organized for them by their Tailors and Dressmakers Association and Ghana National Association of Tailors and Dressmakers (GNATD) in order to meet current market demands and competition since majority of them went through apprenticeship training where there was no standard syllabus for them to learn from.

Keywords: Design, Knowledge, Skills, competency, elements and principles of design, garment

Rosseau on Education (Published)

There is a long tradition of delivering and getting the formal education, especially from Greek era. But, apart from it, around one million years ago when man raised himself from Homo-erectus to Homo-Sapien, Homo-Sapien Sapien, has been learning to know about Nature. He developed language, which also came to him from external atmosphere. Can we refuse that people made tools from stones, bronze and iron? This shows that, as many interacted with Nature. It also whispered in their mind its secrets. So, we can say that learning is not the phenomena of today. But, when eventually knowledge got its formal shape, it’s considered, that man’s heritage is stored in language, both written and oral. In many countries, still people orally recite legends. Written word was formed in Egypt in the shape hieroglyphics. Even, Herodotus admired Egyptian architecture. Eventually formal education started in Greece, and the first philosopher was Thales of Miletus who was a materialist. The ideas under discussion and in form of treatises were diverse. If we can sweepingly say, the source of human knowledge, in its earliest way, started from Greeks, and until now knowledge and education have their roots in Grecian thoughts. Greeks enriched every field of Knowledge.  In historical context we still have to look back to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, but this tradition didn’t stop and has led to superior intelligence in the mind, which is making inventions and developing theories, day after day.In the history of philosophy, as its source is conjoined with Greeks, but in West, several philosophers have carried out this tradition, like Rosseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Sartre, Wittgenstein and Alfred North White Head. We don’t indulge ourselves in the game of the greatest, or major or minor philosophers, but everyone has contributed according to his own capacity, to the collective body of human Knowledge.Knowledge can be easily equated with education. Knowledge and education go side by side. We seek knowledge and then after digesting it we become educated. But, it should be kept in mind, the body of knowledge is so large, that our mind is limited and can’t attain everything and every type of education.This article is based specifically on the views of education by Rosseau, which are perpetually modern. Rosseau was the major figure, as an intellectual, behind French Revolution of 1789.Rosseau also was among the most persecuted philosophers due to his adventurous and rebellious, but diverse ideas. He wrote, ‘Emile’, which is known as the best book on education. It can also help the chaotic conditions of this post-modern world to exigize from it the true meanings of education, and resolve its problems. This book when reached to ‘Kant’ he was overjoyed. Moreover, ‘Confessions’ by Rosseau is a book which has no match, as a true autobiography.This article explores the modern creed of education and attempts to correlate it with high pitch ideas of Rosseau present in “Emile”.

Keywords: Education, Knowledge, Rosseau, modern education.

Knowledge and Attitude of Female Students of Tertiary Institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening (Published)

Cervical Cancer which is the second most common cancer in women is largely preventable when detected early. Premalignant form is the earliest stage of cervical cancer can be detected early through effective cervical cancer screening. This work was carried out to ascertain the knowledge and attitude of female students in four tertiary institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening. Self-administered closed end structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires were properly validated. Three hundred and ninety-eight female students in tertiary institutions who were of reproductive age between 16 – 45 years were used as respondents. All completed and returned their questionnaires. These were analysed using simple statistical methods. Result analysis showed that 350 (87.9%) have heard of cervical cancer while 265 (66.6%) have heard of cervical screening. One hundred and eighty-six (47%) were sexually active while 17(4.3%) have done the screening. Three hundred and seventy-two (93.5%) agreed that having multiple sexual partners was a risk factor. Three hundred and eighty-three (96.2%) of the population know that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the causative agent. The most prevalent reasons for not undertaking the screening were embarrassment 374 (94%) and fear 320 (80.4%). The study has revealed high knowledge of cervical cancer amongst the students but poor attitude towards its screening. Women of reproductive age including students in the tertiary institutions should be enlightened on the need of the routine screening for cervical cancer especially once they become sexually active. This is expected to increase rate of early detection and treatment thereby preventing the heavy economic cost of treating and managing full-blown cervical cancer.

Keywords: Imo State, Knowledge, attitude, cervical cancer, human papilloma virus

The Level of Awareness, Knowledge and Infringement on Copyright at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)

The encouragement of intellectual creation is one of the basic prerequisites for social, economic and cultural development of any nation. Copyright was instituted to inspire authors towards more creativity by enabling them to harness the full benefit of their works; however there are issues associated with the compliance on copyright rules. There is a dare need to stem the overwhelming tide of copyright infringement activities going on across the globe. This study examines the level of awareness, knowledge and infringement on copyright at the University of Ibadan. Questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The population used in the study comprises 150 academic and senior staff of University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study found that there is low level of awareness and knowledge on copyright matters, as many of the respondents were unfamiliar with matters relating to copyright. The study identified a high level of infringement on copyright in University of Ibadan. The study further advocated for intensive sensitization on copyright matters and enforcement of copyright law within University of Ibadan community in order to strengthen copyright protection.

Keywords: Knowledge, Nigeria, awareness, copyright, university of Ibadan