Assessment of Farmer’s Usage of Pesticides on Cocoa Farms at Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region of Ghana (Published)
Cocoa is the most important agricultural export crop in Ghana, and the country has an enviable reputation of producing high quality cocoa. Pests of cocoa are mostly controlled by the application of conventional insecticides. The study investigated farmers’ knowledge, pesticide use pattern and practices along the cocoa production chain. Descriptive survey design was used for the study since the researchers wanted to find out farmers opinion on the use of pesticides at Sefwi Wiawso in the Western Region. Purposive sampling technique was used because it captures the area which was relevant to the study. Questionnaires were administered to 84 cocoa farmers. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the farmers had indepth knowledge and skills in all aspect of farming since cocoa farming is their main vocation. Cocoa farming is their main source of income, hence are not able to follow the recommended pesticide usage regulation before harvesting. Consequently, it could lead to higher pesticide residue levels of the cocoa beans. With regard to the recommendation, there should be a lot of training programme for the farmers which should be organized by Ghana Cocoa Board and CODAPEC programme should be restored to regulate the use of pesticide by farmers. This is to ensure that the pesticides residue levels in the country’s cocoa beans are within the permissible levels to avoid the rejection of beans from Ghana with its associated international sanctions and loss of substantial revenue.
A community-based prediabetes knowledge assessment among Saudi adults in Al-Ahsa region, 2018 (Published)
Diabetes is a major growing public health issue and prediabetes has been considered to be a reversible condition. The purpose of the present study was to assess knowledge of prediabetes and its risk factors for the community in the Al-Ahsa region. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in the Al-Ahsa region from mid-to-late December, 2018. Of the 812 respondents who gave consent to participate in the interview; 13.2% of the respondents reported that they had diabetes. Among the respondents, 87.1% had a high level of knowledge of prediabetes, while 12.9% had low-to moderate knowledge. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between age and prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 5.006, 𝑝 = 0.025). Occupation also showed a significant statistical association with prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 9.85, 𝑝 = 0.02). People in Al-Ahsa demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding some risk factors for prediabetes. However, there were a number of deficiencies in the knowledge of prediabetes risk factors and preventive measures as well as in general knowledge of prediabetes, which may lead to a high prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes.
Of Impressions, Ideas and Veracity of Memory: A Review of the Humean Epistemological Project (Published)
David Hume’s epistemological project reinvigorates the British Empiricist tradition. His theory of knowledge thrives on the very idea that through impressions, the human mind mirrors reality and from there creates simple and complex ideas of our knowledge claims. It also forecloses the possibility of the apriori by elevating experience as the source through which man encounters and retracts knowledge of the external world. In its propositions, the Humean epistemological project regurgitates and retains the indubitability of sense data as fundamental to knowing. This paper therefore investigates the propriety David Hume’s claims. It identified and reviewed three fundamental premises of the theory of knowledge and submits that like other empiricists before him, his theory of knowledge is refutable primarily because, David Hume holds an overwhelming confidence in the viability of the senses without giving minimal cognition to its fallibility.
Self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation as determinant to exercise behaviour by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the University College Hospital, Ibadan (Published)
This study examined self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation as determinant to exercise behaviour by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was used to collect data from respondents. The sample comprised 250 respondents who were selected from the antenatal Clinic in University College Hospital Ibadan. The results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation are determinants of exercise behaviour among the pregnant women. It is therefore recommended that more efforts should be made towards educating pregnant women especially those who are not yet participating in physical activities during pregnancy.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preventive Measures towards COVID-19 among Pregnant Women Attending Selected Primary Health Centre’s in Osogbo, Osun State (Published)
Background: COVID-19 is a new viral disease, and health researchers are currently evaluating its effects on pregnant women and their unborn children. There is dearth of research available to support the argument that pregnant women are at greater risk of COVID-19 disease.Methods: This study used an exploratory research design to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19 among pregnant women in Osogbo, Osun state. 382 subjects were selected using a simple random technique. Self-developed questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and the results were presented using tables and percentages. Six null hypotheses were tested using chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Result of this study shows that nearly half of the respondents are within 18-25 (45.0%) years of age, 79(63.6%) are Muslims and 358(93.7%) are from the Yoruba tribe. This study also reveals that the respondents do have significant knowledge on the novel Coronavirus disease and a good attitude towards the prevention of COVID-19 as they practice frequent hand washing, sanitizer use and maintenance of social distancing. From the hypothesis tested, there is significant association between the education level of the respondents and their knowledge and attitude of preventive measures towards COVID-19 and no association between the age of the pregnant women and practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19. Conclusion: From the study, there seems to be a moderate level of awareness on the preventive measures towards COVID-19 among pregnant women in Osogbo but increase in the level of awareness and educational program can be done by the government and health workers in order have a very good attitude and awareness which will eventually improve the rate of adherence and compliance towards COVID-19 preventive measures.
Elements and Principles of Design in Garment Production among Small Scale Producers of Berekum Municipal in Ghana (Published)
The study was to investigate whether small scale garment producers in Berekum apply the elements and principles of design in garment manufacturing (since some produced garments had colours not well blended, fabric with lines not meeting at seam joints, motifs not well arranged, and some garment styles not looking good on clients’ figures because their figure types were not considered before designing) and to unearth strategies to improve their clothing designing skills to meet current market standards. The study used a descriptive survey research design. The snow ball and convenience sampling techniques in selecting one hundred small scale garment producers for the study. The main instrument was a questionnaire and observation checklist, analysed to generate frequencies, percentages and mean, and presented in tables. It was revealed that the garment producers had a fair knowledge in the application of the elements and principles of design and about 85% appreciated their importance. However, they failed to practice because of Clients’ demand. Findings from workshop organized revealed the need for using smart phones and has aided in the provision of an easy access to information which has sort to promote the use of data and real-world applications to enhance their productivity. The respondents therefore suggested that frequent in- service training and workshops should be organized for them by their Tailors and Dressmakers Association and Ghana National Association of Tailors and Dressmakers (GNATD) in order to meet current market demands and competition since majority of them went through apprenticeship training where there was no standard syllabus for them to learn from.
Rosseau on Education (Published)
There is a long tradition of delivering and getting the formal education, especially from Greek era. But, apart from it, around one million years ago when man raised himself from Homo-erectus to Homo-Sapien, Homo-Sapien Sapien, has been learning to know about Nature. He developed language, which also came to him from external atmosphere. Can we refuse that people made tools from stones, bronze and iron? This shows that, as many interacted with Nature. It also whispered in their mind its secrets. So, we can say that learning is not the phenomena of today. But, when eventually knowledge got its formal shape, it’s considered, that man’s heritage is stored in language, both written and oral. In many countries, still people orally recite legends. Written word was formed in Egypt in the shape hieroglyphics. Even, Herodotus admired Egyptian architecture. Eventually formal education started in Greece, and the first philosopher was Thales of Miletus who was a materialist. The ideas under discussion and in form of treatises were diverse. If we can sweepingly say, the source of human knowledge, in its earliest way, started from Greeks, and until now knowledge and education have their roots in Grecian thoughts. Greeks enriched every field of Knowledge. In historical context we still have to look back to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, but this tradition didn’t stop and has led to superior intelligence in the mind, which is making inventions and developing theories, day after day.In the history of philosophy, as its source is conjoined with Greeks, but in West, several philosophers have carried out this tradition, like Rosseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Sartre, Wittgenstein and Alfred North White Head. We don’t indulge ourselves in the game of the greatest, or major or minor philosophers, but everyone has contributed according to his own capacity, to the collective body of human Knowledge.Knowledge can be easily equated with education. Knowledge and education go side by side. We seek knowledge and then after digesting it we become educated. But, it should be kept in mind, the body of knowledge is so large, that our mind is limited and can’t attain everything and every type of education.This article is based specifically on the views of education by Rosseau, which are perpetually modern. Rosseau was the major figure, as an intellectual, behind French Revolution of 1789.Rosseau also was among the most persecuted philosophers due to his adventurous and rebellious, but diverse ideas. He wrote, ‘Emile’, which is known as the best book on education. It can also help the chaotic conditions of this post-modern world to exigize from it the true meanings of education, and resolve its problems. This book when reached to ‘Kant’ he was overjoyed. Moreover, ‘Confessions’ by Rosseau is a book which has no match, as a true autobiography.This article explores the modern creed of education and attempts to correlate it with high pitch ideas of Rosseau present in “Emile”.
Knowledge and Attitude of Female Students of Tertiary Institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening (Published)
Cervical Cancer which is the second most common cancer in women is largely preventable when detected early. Premalignant form is the earliest stage of cervical cancer can be detected early through effective cervical cancer screening. This work was carried out to ascertain the knowledge and attitude of female students in four tertiary institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening. Self-administered closed end structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires were properly validated. Three hundred and ninety-eight female students in tertiary institutions who were of reproductive age between 16 – 45 years were used as respondents. All completed and returned their questionnaires. These were analysed using simple statistical methods. Result analysis showed that 350 (87.9%) have heard of cervical cancer while 265 (66.6%) have heard of cervical screening. One hundred and eighty-six (47%) were sexually active while 17(4.3%) have done the screening. Three hundred and seventy-two (93.5%) agreed that having multiple sexual partners was a risk factor. Three hundred and eighty-three (96.2%) of the population know that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the causative agent. The most prevalent reasons for not undertaking the screening were embarrassment 374 (94%) and fear 320 (80.4%). The study has revealed high knowledge of cervical cancer amongst the students but poor attitude towards its screening. Women of reproductive age including students in the tertiary institutions should be enlightened on the need of the routine screening for cervical cancer especially once they become sexually active. This is expected to increase rate of early detection and treatment thereby preventing the heavy economic cost of treating and managing full-blown cervical cancer.
The Level of Awareness, Knowledge and Infringement on Copyright at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)
The encouragement of intellectual creation is one of the basic prerequisites for social, economic and cultural development of any nation. Copyright was instituted to inspire authors towards more creativity by enabling them to harness the full benefit of their works; however there are issues associated with the compliance on copyright rules. There is a dare need to stem the overwhelming tide of copyright infringement activities going on across the globe. This study examines the level of awareness, knowledge and infringement on copyright at the University of Ibadan. Questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The population used in the study comprises 150 academic and senior staff of University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study found that there is low level of awareness and knowledge on copyright matters, as many of the respondents were unfamiliar with matters relating to copyright. The study identified a high level of infringement on copyright in University of Ibadan. The study further advocated for intensive sensitization on copyright matters and enforcement of copyright law within University of Ibadan community in order to strengthen copyright protection.
An Empirical study of Librarians and Libraries as drivers of access to Knowledge in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)
The library from inception plays a very crucial role in the extension and modification of knowledge. The growing need for knowledge management has influenced every component and operation of a library. This is built on the fact that it is only by transmission of knowledge by each succeeding generation can civilization maintain itself and make advance upon the knowledge of the past. The individual and social meaning of education can only take place on the backdrop of beliefs and values of a particular social setting. In both, the library has a crucial role to play. The library we know is a social system that stores and disseminates information which is knowledge. This paper therefore is an empirical study of Librarians and libraries as drivers of access to knowledge using Ebonyi State, Nigeria as a case in point. This researcher applied a descriptive study method with a sampled population of 138 randomly selected from the different libraries in the State. The study investigated ways through which librarians and libraries operate as drivers of access to knowledge as well as the various challenges encountered by librarians that militate against their optimal performance as drivers of access to knowledge. The study also identified ways of enhancing the role of Librarians and libraries as drivers of access to knowledge. The instrument for the study was structured according to the modified Likert scale on four point rating scale. On this scale, the average mean cut off is 2.50. To this end, an item is accepted if it is 2.50 and above and rejected if it is below 2.50. Statistically, frequencies, percentages and mean scores were used to compute the data collected that led to the decision rule.
Knowledge on Prevention of Human Papiloma Viruses in Adolescents of the City of Mexico, 2020 (Published)
In the 2019, health is a mix of interactions between economic, biological, ethnographic, cultural and social processes, elements that have determined an integral development. Meanwhile, in the not health process it is been associated with multiple contributions related to the style, conditions and way of life of each individual and population. The prolongation of life is a consequence of global scientific development together with state, social and cultural measures that have allowed an increase in life expectancy. This investigation article is based on findings that were related to a group of adolescents and young people from Mexico City, which describe the little knowledge they have about the Human Papillomavirus and the development of Cervical Cancer, it was also identified that the population under study presents high risk behaviors, which highlights the importance of integrating effective prevention actions.
Knowledge and Information and Communication Technologies: Its effect on the Innovation of the Mexican Small Medium Enterprises (Published)
The main purpose of the study is to analyze the relationship between knowledge and technological management and innovation practices in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The 412 companies that participate in the study are located in the Northwest region of Mexico and have 10 to 250 employees. The data collection was through a structured survey aimed at the managers of each SME. The field work was carried out during the months of May to November of the year 2017. For the analysis of the data and the verification of the hypotheses the Structural Equation Model (SEM) based on the variance was used through the Partial Least Square (PLS). The findings corroborate that the knowledge that exists within companies, is crucial to improve technology management and to increase innovation practices that are developed in the SME. In addition, we find that the Technological Management is contributing significantly in the consecution of greater practices of Innovation. Our study contributes to the development of the theory based on resources and capabilities (RBV).
Effectiveness of in Service Teachers Training Programmes Offered by DSD at Primary Level in Punjab (Published)
The underlying purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training (ISTT) programmes conducted in Punjab by Directorate of Staff Development (DSD). It further evaluates the strength and weaknesses of the various executed training programmes by DSD within Punjab, Pakistan. The following Quantitative study intends to highlight the various variables which act as a comprehensive tool for the acquisition of expected or desired outcomes. It further states those variables involved which act as a catalyst to bring a significant change within the classroom premises, institutions or working places and the attitudes, methodology and teaching practices of teachers or professionals. For that purpose, surveys were conducted by using questionnaires in various areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using coding and SPSS-16. The conclusion drawn from the data analysis illustrates the positive influence of ISTT within the classroom as well as on individuals. It enables the teachers to identify their strengths and weaknesses as it has been proved as an efficient tool for self-evaluation, self learning and reflection. ISTT also bring change within in the classroom as it enables the teachers to understand the complexity of learning process more explicitly.
Concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community, Akuku-toru Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
The study was aimed at determining the concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community of Rivers State. A descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at the Family Planning Clinic of the community’s health center between July and December, 2017, among 76 persons, out of 96 married couples that attended the facility. The mean score for knowledge of infertility showed that 39(51.32%) respondents had good knowledge, while 37(48.68%) had poor knowledge. Also, 41(53.95%) had positive attitude towards infertility while 35(46.05%) had negative attitude. Semen abnormalities, assumed spiritual forces, unknown cause, undescended testes, erectile dysfunction, menstrual disorders, previous reproductive tract infections/STIs, age, improper/poor sexual practices and fallopian tube dysfunction were the main factors indicated to be associated with infertility. Infertility is a common reproductive problem, with about one-fifth of the world population affected. There is still low poor knowledge about the true factors associated with it, hence, a lot of misconceptions, such as beliefs that IUCDs and supernatural powers can cause infertility, thus, most affected persons seek treatment from faith or traditional healers. Alternative medicine remains a popular option for couples, when they are unsatisfied with orthodox medicine. There is also poor knowledge about treatment options available, with cultural and religious beliefs masking most of such, resulting in reduced acceptability of assisted reproductive technologies. Vigorous enlightenment, especially, of rural dwellers, is pertinent and will produce better results of acceptability and utilization of available options.
Knowledge Integration and Service Delivery of Health Professionals in Public Hospitals in South-South Nigeria (Published)
The specific objective of the study was to ascertain the extent to which knowledge integration influences service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study employed a correlation design. A sample of 596 respondents were selected from twelve categorized public hospitals is South-South using Taro Yamani’s formula. 34 questions were formulated in the questionnaire in line with the stated objective of the study. A total of 596 copies of questionnaire were administered and 551 copies were collected showing 92 percent responses, 10 responses were rejected and 541 copies constituting 90 percent of the questionnaire were analyzed. The results showed that there is positive significant relationship between knowledge integration and service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study concluded that the integration of knowledge management in service delivery is a vital aspect of learning in healthcare organization, as new discoveries and knowledge become available to professionals in their respective fields which have to acquire, transmit, retain and use the knowledge. The study therefore, recommends that organizations of various sizes should adequately integrate knowledge management enablers’ factors in their organizational culture and leadership to enhance organizational performance and provision of service quality. The integration of new knowledge in all the units within the healthcare institutions/organizations and adequate implementation of health policies and programmes will help to transform the healthcare delivery into a more cost effective error averse and accountable public resources. There should be an increasing individuals’ confidence in integrating useful knowledge with others. Knowledge integration can be enhanced by increasing employees’ self-efficacy through training. Organizations are expected to help shape and facilitate staff perceptions of knowledge ownership which have been found to enhance their knowledge integration because of internal satisfaction.
A Relevance of the Implementation of Vocational School (VS) Towards the Needs of Industry and Workforce (Published)
This study explores the relevance of vocational school (VS) and industries to meet the needs of industries in order to get quality workers from VS. Therefore, the government of Indonesia stresses to strengthen vocational school (VS) through training both in school, company, or in technopark in order that the graduate of VS may have better competence and skill. Quantitative and qualitative of the secondary data, the in-depth interview during the focus group discussion (FGD), and survey data was collected from 536 respondents from 36 VS in eight provinces. Analysis was the combination of qualitative and quantitative from both survey and document triangulated with interview of other related resource persons. The findings reveal that the relevance of training in school and the needs of the industries is 91,67% relevant, the relevance of knowledge and the needs of industries taught in school is 93.34% relevant, skill 93.34%, and attitude 97.5%. Teachers perceptions for the three aspects is 90.83%. Most of the VS school programs are in accordance to meet the needs of industries, which have been working collabotively with schools. Training in both industries and technopark has improved VS students and teachers’ competence and skill. However, it is different with the reality that most of vocational school graduates have not been accepted by private sector or industries to work at their company due to the lack of several aspects, such as the skills which does not occur to the work of industries.
Assessment of Knowledge of Drug and Dietary Regimen among Diabetic Client in Endocrinology Clinic at Federal Medical Centre Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria (Published)
The study focused on assessment of knowledge base on dietary and drug regimen in diabetes mellitus management among patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti in Ekiti State, Nigeria. It identified factors associated with poor adherence/compliance to treatment and relationship between demographic data and knowledge of drug and dietary regimen. Cross-sectional descriptive design was employed using a semi structured interviewer administered questionnaire to gather information from 120 clients. Simple random sampling technique (balloting type) was used to select clients. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and hypotheses tested using Chi-Square, while P value was set at <0.05. The results of the study showed that majority of the respondents were above age 40. The knowledge of clients on dietary and drug regimen was on the average (50% & 45.8% respectively). Factors that affected adherence to drug treatment were high cost of antidiabetic drugs and the idea of taking drugs for life. There was a significant relationship between gender and knowledge of drug but no significant relationship between gender and knowledge of dietary regimen. Conclusion was that clients had average knowledge of drug and diet regimen and high cost of drugs affected compliance/adherence. Therefore Nigerian government should subsidize antidiabetic agents, while nurses and other medical personnel should educate clients on treatment regimen.
Knowledge of Available Health Care and Health Care Satisfaction among Inpatients in a Tertiary Hospital in Benin City Edo State (Published)
User’s health care satisfaction is an important determinant of repeat patronage of health care services and the sustenance of any health care facility. Since little is known about user’s knowledge of available health care services and health care satisfaction in tertiary hospital, this study represents an attempt to fill this lacuna in literature. This study investigated knowledge, perception of available health care services and user’s health care satisfaction in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Nigeria. Sick role model guided the study. The research design was descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted between January and April 2014 on a sample of 420 inpatients using Multi-stage sampling technique in the five units of the facility. A semi structured questionnaire was designed to elicit information on respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, level of knowledge of the available health care services using a 19 point knowledge scale and user’s health care satisfaction using 20 variables measured on a five point Likert scale. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the inpatients. Whereas the quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistics regression at P< 0.05, thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. The study found that there were variations in the levels of knowledge of available health care services. In general, the findings revealed that 90% of the respondents possessed high level of knowledge of the available health care services. Ninety-Five percent indicated a moderate level of health care satisfaction from the health care services received. Chi-square test (X2=22.400) revealed that a significant relationship existed between marital status and inpatient satisfaction with health care service. This study demonstrates the need for the provision of adequate health education on different aspects of available health care services from all providers of health care in the facility bearing in mind users’ prior knowledge so as to be able to address the desired health care satisfaction from the health care services during the period of accessing and utilization of such services in the hospital.
Knowledge and Practice of Hepatitis B Prevention among Health Care Workers in Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Osun State Nigeria (Published)
Background: Globally, health workers are at risk of contracting Hepatitis B infection if preventive measures are jeopardized. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of prevention of Hepatitis B, identified factors affecting practice of HBV prevention among health care workers (HCW) and assessed factors influencing vaccination against hepatitis B in Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria. Method: A descriptive cross sectional design was adopted. One hundred and ninety-two health care workers were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 Result: Findings showed that 99.5% of the respondents had good knowledge about HBV infection, 99% of the respondents had good knowledge on prevention of HBV infection. Knowledge was associated with academic qualification (P = 0.001). Also, 60.9% had good practice of prevention of hepatitis. Years of experience was not associated with practice of prevention of HBV Infection (P = 0.056). Also, 85.4% of health workers had been tested for hepatitis virus before and less than three – quarter had received HBV vaccine. Also, (29.2%) had never received hepatitis B vaccine. Barriers associated with HBV vaccination among HCW include: availability of hepatitis B vaccine in the hospital (87.5%), cost of the vaccine (76%) fear of needle prick during vaccination (50%). Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of the health care workers had good knowledge of Hepatitis B prevention but not all of them with good knowledge carried out good practices regarding to HBV infection prevention.
Assessment of Knowledge and Understanding of Laboratory Health Practices among Secondary School Students in North-Central, Nigeria (Published)
This research work was carried out to investigate the knowledge of laboratory health practices possessed by senior secondary school students in the North-Central geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A total of 893 students were sampled in North-Central Nigeria by means of stratified random sampling using the Questionnaire as an instrument. Data acquired was analysed using comparison of means and t-test at 0.05 statistical level of significance. The result of the study showed that the knowledge of laboratory precautionary practices possessed by the students is fairly good. In terms of gender, school type and location: Female students expressed a better knowledge than their male counterparts, Also, students from private and urban schools performed significantly better than their counterparts in the public and rural schools respectively. The researchers recommended that Science teachers should emphasize familiarity and understanding of laboratory warning symbols among others.