A Histomorphometric study was conducted on the kidney of seventeen (17) fetuses of the Yankasa sheep (Ovis aries) collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of one month at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the fetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. Out of the seventeen (17) fetuses at different gestational age used for the study, 7 (48%) were females while 10 (52%) were males. 6(35%) fetuses belong to first trimester, 5(30%) belong to second trimester and 6(35%) belong to third trimesters of pregnancy respectively. The mean crown vertebrate-rump length (CVRL) ranged from 12.47 ± 1.80 cm at first trimester to 33.79 ±1.52 cm at third trimester. Histological observation shows that the kidney appeared to have two zones via cortex and medulla right from first to third trimester. The development of renal tissues were found to be in succession, from the stage of mesenchyme cells, developing glomerulus and finally to fully developed glomerulus with advancement of gestational age among the three groups. The duct system also followed the same trend of development from immature to matured duct system. The cortex of the first trimester kidney was found to have numerous mesenchymal cells and connective tissues with few developing glomerulus. At second trimester few fully developed glomerulus were found, moderate number of mesenchyme cells and immature developing duct system. Numerous developed glomerulus and matured duct system with moderate developing glomerulus and connective tissue were seen at third trimester. The medulla at first trimester shows only various types of connective tissue (collagen, reticular and elastic) fibers and mesenchyme cells. At second trimester the medulla was found to have numerous developing collecting ducts, few developed collecting ducts and few mesenchyme cells. Developed collecting ducts were predominant in the medulla at third trimester with few mesenchyme cells. The histological differentiation of the Yankasa sheep kidney is similar to that of ovine, bovine, equine, Llama, and guanaco but differs from that of the feline, canine and porcine. Mean while, considering the histological features observed in the study, the Yankasa sheep kidney may become fully matured and functional at post-natal age.
The Effect of Camel Milk in the Tissue Changes to the Kidneys of Laboratory Male Rats Treated By Cadmium (Published)
The study was carried out on 72 mature male laboratory white rats. The males were randomly divided into forth equal groups, each group consist of 12 rats. The first group was intrapertoneally treated with 0.2ml normal 0.9% NaCl physiological saline solution as the control group. The second group was orally given 1ml of camel’s milk . The third group was intrapertoneally injected 0.2ml Cadmium chloride (1, mg/kg body weight). The fourth groups was also intrapertoneally injected 0.2ml with Cadmium chloride (1, mg /kg body weight) intrapertoneally then orally given 1mlof camel’s milk. The study continue for 30successive days and the animals weight was measured at the end of each week .The end of the experimental period , sixth animals from each group were sacrificed. The histopathological study revealed negative symptoms in kidney tissue such as hyperplasia , hyper pigmentation ,increasing in thickness of connective tissue, hemorrhage, necrosis , degeneration, splitting among tubules , On the other hand, the treatment with camel’s milk improved the histopathological changes in kidney.
Assessment of Selected Heavy Metal Residues in the Kidney, Liver, Muscle and Gizzard of Chickens Raised Within Enugu Metropolis (Published)
Studies were carried out for possible bioaccumulation of the following heavy metals; Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, V and Cu in the internal parts (kidney, liver, gizzard and muscle) of twenty seven (27) local and exotic chickens raised within Enugu metropolis after wet digestion of samples and subsequent use of atomic absorption spectrometer. All the selected heavy metals were found to be present in the studied parts of the chickens although at concentrations within their respective established permissible limits for meats consumption. The internal organs of experimental chickens accumulated heavy metals in the following increasing order: liver > kidney > gizzard > muscle. Except vanadium, the concentrations of all other metals in the studied parts of the chickens showed significance at p < 0.05 from the anova analysis. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg were very much higher in the kidney and liver the chickens than other studied metals. The experimental chickens accumulated heavy metals in the following increasing order: local chicken > layer chicken > broiler chickens.