Tag Archives: Kenya

Influence of Customer Emotions on Customer Loyalty among Star-Rated Hotels in North Rift, Kenya (Published)

With business competition becoming more intense, the most important issues that sellers face are on providing excellent quality products or services and keeping loyal customers to ensure long-term profit to their organizations. As such, the development and sustainability of customer loyalty is important in creating and maintaining competitive advantage. One way that organizations can enhance customer loyalty is by cultivating positive emotional connection through enhanced service experiences. The study sought to determine the relationship between customer emotions and consumer loyalty among star-rated hotels in North Rift, Kenya. The research adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population for the study was made of 1416 loyal customers from the fifteen (15) star-rated hotels in North Rift region of Kenya. The sample size was 455 guests obtained using a stratified random sampling method. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was applied with R-value being estimated to analyse and test hypotheses. The results of the study showed that customer emotions played a significant role in achieving customer loyalty among star-rated hotels in the study area (p < 0.05). Specifically, variables like felt comfortable, welcomed, contented, secure, important, entertained, relaxed, elegant, cool, excited, sophisticated and respected among others were found to enhance the loyalty of customers. On the other hand, negative emotions such as my request were nullified, felt displeased, ignored, angry, anxious, discontent, worried, sad, and ashamed among others were found to discourage customer loyalty. Therefore, the study recommends that hotels should pursue positive customer emotions in order to enhance the loyalty of their customers.

Keywords: Customer Emotions, Kenya, Loyalty, North Rift, star-rated hotels

Psychological Effects of Rape: Experiences from Survivors Attending Selected Post-Rape Care Centres in Kenya (Published)

Rape leads to long lasting physical, psychological, sexual and reproductive health effects on rape survivors which need to be addressed at post-rape care centres. Although there are studies conducted on the prevalence of rape in Kenya, there is limited information on the effectiveness of psychological interventions provided to rape survivors in the existing post-rape care centres. Therefore, the study sought to ascertain the psychological effect of rape on survivors in selected post-rape care centres in Nairobi and Uasin-Gishu Counties in Kenya. The study was guided by the Crisis theory by Caplan. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design. The target population were rape survivors aged between 10-45 years who had attended at least three psychological interventions while the key informants were the counsellors in these centres. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a sample of 44 rape survivors and 9 key informants from the two selected post-rape care centres. Consent forms were issued to the adult participants (18 years and above) to sign. The participants (10-17 years) were given assent forms after they were made to understand about the purpose of the research in the presence of their parents or guardians. The data was collected by use of structured questionnaires developed by the researcher. The researcher assisted the primary school children and illiterate participants through Swahili translation of items in the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed using simple descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of participants, 73%, were female while 27% were male. Moreover, 72.7% of the participants were aged between 10 and 17 years while 27.3% were above 18 years. The psychological effects experienced by all (100%) rape survivors were: sadness, anxiety, revengeful feelings, difficulty in sleeping, experiencing terrifying dreams, avoiding people, experiencing feelings of being re-raped, feelings of intense fear, feelings of stigma and bitterness. This study recommends that implementers should put emphasis on: adequate provision of legal services, follow-up, family counselling, outreach services, community sensitization, adequate financial support to create more post-rape care centres, expansion of the existing centres, hiring more skilled counsellors and enhancing continuous professional development.

Keywords: Kenya, Rape, post-rape care centres, psychological effects, survivors

Impact of Tuition on Students’ Performance in National Examinations: Views of Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Eldoret North, Kenya (Published)

In Kenya, the demand for good results and the ever-pressing need to complete the syllabus continues to drive schools to introduce holiday and private tuition. This is despite the government ban on tuition programmes. The aim of the study was to document the views of teachers and head teachers on the impact of holiday and private tuition on the performance of students in Eldoret Sub-County, Kenya. The study targeted 300 students, 60 teachers and 30 head teachers from a total of 30 secondary schools. Teachers and head teachers’ perceptions on holiday and private tuition were described, interpreted and analysed by use of descriptive statistics. The study used the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examination results for 2011 as a basis for analysis of students’ performance. The results were obtained from District Education Office and candidates mean grades from KNEC website. Purposive sampling was used to select schools that offered holiday tuition and Form Four students who had undergone holiday or private tuitions. Data was collected using document analysis and a questionnaire. The data was then analysed using descriptive statistics. Based on the results, the head teachers and teachers expressed support for holiday and private tuition in and out of schools. It was recommended that the Teachers’ Service Commission should introduce stringent work performance contracts for teachers every term to complete the termly syllabus within the time frame scheduled. All head teachers in both public and private schools should be compelled to sign a memorandum of understanding with the TSC/Ministry of Education guaranteeing that school facilities under their jurisdiction will never be used for the purposes of holiday and private tuition during holidays

Keywords: Effect, Eldoret North Constituency, Head Teachers, Kenya, National Examinations, Performance, Teachers, Tuition Secondary School Students

Effect of Academic-Related Stress on Student Indiscipline in Secondary Schools In Eldoret East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Many factors contribute to student indiscipline in schools. Some of these factors emanate from the school environment. In light of this fact, the study was designed to establish the key school environment contributors and solutions to rowdiness among secondary school students in Eldoret East Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper discusses the findings on the effect of academic stress on indiscipline practices among secondary schools students in Eldoret East Sub-County. The study was led by Social Control Theory. Ex-post facto research design was used in the study. The target populace of the research included 3480 form three students and 54 deputy principals in public secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub County. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to pick a sample of 346 students to take part in the study. Census approach method was considered in which all the 54 deputy principals took part in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedule were used as data collection instruments. Data collected was analysed in both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated in form of frequencies, percentages, average and standard variation. Analysis of Variance was used to examine the hypotheses. The study also established that academic stress (F [47, 273] = 2.001, p = .000) had an effect on indiscipline’s cases among secondary school students. The study concluded that academic stress had an effect on indiscipline cases among secondary school students. The study, therefore, recommended that the schools should reduce academic stress by providing adequate time for relaxation to help reduce cases of indiscipline cases in secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub-County.

Keywords: Academic Stress, Effect, Eldoret East, Indiscipline, Kenya, Secondary Schools, Students

Influence of Leadership as Strategy Implementation Practice on Performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County, Kenya (Published)

Organizations across the world have recognized the importance of strategy formulation in improving service delivery. Good practices in strategy formulation and implementation are among the key pillars of competitive advantage and organizational sustainability. Studies indicate that most managers rightly make effort to formulate strategies, but little investment is made to implement those strategies properly. Therefore, the study explored the effects of strategy implementation practices on performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County (Kenya). Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the research findings on leadership as one of the strategy implementation practices on organizational performance. The researcher anchored the study on cross sectional survey research design which emphasized on collection of data at a particular point in time rather than over a period of time. The target population of the study was one hundred and thirty two (132) top and middle-level management staff of Postal Corporation drawn from Kakamega, Lugari, Khwisero and Khayega branches. Stratified sampling method was used to sample ninety-nine (99) respondents. Structured questionnaires were then used to collect the data from the sampled managers to which only seventy-six (76) responded. The received questionnaires were sorted, classified; data was then coded and analysed by descriptive statistics (percentages, mean and standard deviation). Inferential analysis was done by multi regression analysis where the result of R square was 0.476 indicating that 47.6% of the performance could be predicted from the study variables. The study found that leadership significantly affected the performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County as indicated by a p value of 0.043, which was within p<0.05 level of significance. In light of the findings, the researchers recommended that a related study be conducted in a wider spectrum of both public and private institutions to determine the consistency of the results.

Keywords: Kakamega, Kenya, Leadership, Performance, Postal Corporation, Strategy Implementation

Constraints to Internet Use for Public Relations Functions by Selected Kenyan Organizations (Published)

Public Relations has gained increasing organizational importance in recent times, as it has been emphasized in various platforms. A review of current literature shows that the use of the Internet for PR in organizations has been empirically investigated mainly in other contexts – especially in Europe and America – but not in Africa. However, most of these investigations focused on specific components of Internet and not the holistic use of the Internet for PR. The study examined the constraints to the use of Internet as a PR platform in organizations. It adopted a relativist-interpretivist research paradigm and a qualitative approach utilizing the multiple case study method. A total of 45 participants was sampled comprising nine respondents each from a financial, telecommunications, insurance, PR Agency and online shopping business. In each category of business, one person in management, two PR and communications experts (or customer care services marketing and advertising in some organizations), one ICT expert and five key stakeholders (key publics-internal/external customers) was selected. The PR organizations involved in the study were sampled purposively. In-depth interviews, observation and document analysis were used to generate data. Data analysis was done thematically. Among the constraints of Internet as a PR platform in organizations were security and trust concerns, content mismanagement, lack of tools of monitoring and evaluation, ineffective utilization of the platforms, lack of expert knowledge, experience and poor role specification. Evidently, numerous constraints impair the utilization of Internet for PR functions in most organizations. As such, it was recommended that PR practitioners should develop internet plans to bolster interactivity and utilize social media services fully to produce effective messages to strengthen organisation-public relationships.

Keywords: Constraints, Internet Use, Kenya, Organizations, Public Relations Functions

The Effect of Non-Financial Motivators on Employee Performance: A Case Study of Baringo County Referral Hospital in Kenya (Published)

The research assessed the effects of non-financial motivators on employee performance, taking a case of Baringo County Referral Hospital. The specific objectives were to: document the non-financial motivators used; determine the role of work environment in employee motivation; assess the effect of effective communication on employee productivity, and determine the role of training on employee performance. The research gaps identified were lack of non-financial motivators in the institution to improve employees’ performance. The study was prompted by the frequent strikes in public hospitals in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The sample comprised 50 employees out of the 250 working in different departments within the Hospital. The sample was selected using the Central Limit Theorem. To collect data, questionnaires were used. The collected data was then analysed using study descriptive statistics to with the aid of computer software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). From the findings of the study, there were some non-financial motivators at the hospital, namely communication, training and working environment. Most of the respondents stated that there was inadequate use of non-financial motivators and only a few were of contrary opinion. It was found that the majority of the employees felt there was no free flow of information in the hospital. In conclusion it was found that there is no free flow of information and also there are communication barriers within the institution. Concerning working environment, the health and safety policy is in existence but most of the staff are not aware. The training committee should base their recommendations on training projections and the five day training policy so that it may enhance staff performance. In recommendations the institution should enhance free flow of information. On work environment the employees should sensitized on health and safety policy.  The researchers recognized the functionality of training committee. However, they should have a clear criterion of recommending employees for training to ensure equity achieved upon the staff.

Keywords: Baringo County Referral Hospital, Employee Performance, Kenya, Non-Financial Motivators

The Influence of the Levels of Education and Knowledge on the Performance of Community Health Workers in Soy Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Community health workers (CHWs) the world over help to alleviate the shortages of health workers in the health sector. They are involved in the delivery of health services to the community and constitute the first point of contact on health-related issues in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The performance of CHWs is often hampered by various factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of CHWs in Soy Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of CHWs’ level of education and knowledge on their performance in Soy Sub-County. A correlation research design was used in the study with systematic sampling method being used to identify the respondents. In total, 98 respondents were given questionnaires to fill. Qualitative data was also collected from 7 heads of community health management team (CHMT) using key informant interviews. The collected data was then presented using frequency distribution tables while inferential statistics were computed using regression and correlation to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of community health workers. Qualitative data was analysed manually to generate trends, sub-themes and themes from which conclusions were inferred regarding the performance of CHWs. The research findings showed that there was a significant (p= .000; α = 0.05) relationship that exists between education and knowledge and CHWs’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a strategy should be developed to incorporate all the stakeholders that affect the performance of community health workers in coming up with a training programme for CHWs.  Moreover, there should be a policy shift in Kenya to encourage male CHW to scale up delivery of health services at community level. The findings of the study support decision-making on CHWs’ training programmes and also constitute the basis of transformation of implantation of community strategy in Soy Sub-County.

Keywords: Community Health Workers, Education, Influence, Kenya, Knowledge, Level, Performance, Soy Sub-County

The Role of Sponsors in the Development of Infrastructure in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)

Sponsors have a great influence in the management of public schools in Kenya. This is why they were given the mandate in the Education Act prior to the free primary education of 2003 to oversee the general management of the schools they sponsored. The study sought to establish the influence of sponsors on the management of public primary schools in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Informed by the study, this paper examines the influence of sponsors in the development of infrastructure in public primary schools in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and was guided by the Systems theoretical approach. The target population comprised all schools, head teachers, all chairpersons, sponsors’ representatives and one District Quality Assurance Standards Officer in the Sub-County. A sample size of 115 respondents was selected, which comprised 38 head teachers, 38 chairpersons, 38 sponsor representatives and one officer from the District Education Officer’s office. The participants were sampled using quota, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Since the research was both quantitative and qualitative questionnaires, interviews and observation schedules were used to collect data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, specifically frequencies and percentages. The results of the study revealed that sponsors no longer participate in their initial role of developing and funding public primary schools. It emerged the introduction of free primary education has brought confusion over the role of sponsors with those of the head teacher. It was, therefore, recommended that the Ministry of Education needs to review the policy on sponsoring of schools, especially on the rules and rights of sponsors.

Keywords: Development, Infrastructure, Kenya, Public Primary Schools, Role, Sponsors

The Influence of Source of Funding on the Financial Sustainability of Non-Governmental Organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Financial sustainability is the ability of organizations to develop a diverse resource base. In Kenya, the number of NGOs has been increasing yearly; most of them depend on foreign donations. Therefore, the study sought to establish the relationship between donor funding and financial sustainability of non-governmental organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of sources of funding on the financial sustainability of NGOs. Correlation research design was used as the principal research methodology for the study.  The target population was 146 NGOs that were actively engaged in development projects in Uasin Gishu County. The respondents were NGO management and volunteers. Stratified sampling technique was used to identify non-governmental organizations to participate in the study. A sample size of 60 respondents was selected using Nassiuma’s 2000 model. Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Test re-test was done to establish the reliability of instruments results; 95% level of significance was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study showed that there was a positive correlation between donor funding and financial sustainability of the NGO’s in Uasin Gishu County. Improved financial sustainability could be achieved as a result of diversifying sources of funds, retaining qualified staff and improving governance practices and organizational capacity. Therefore, it was recommended that NGOs should limit over-dependence on donor funds and indeed focus on establishing income generating activities and venture into multiple sources of funds for their projects; this would improve their financial sustainability.

Keywords: Financial Sustainability, Funding, Influence, Kenya, Non-Governmental Organizations, Source, Uasin-Gishu County

Factors Influencing the Choice of Interpersonal Communication Forms Utilized In Promoting Maternal and Child Survival in West Pokot County, Kenya (Published)

Interpersonal communication is one of the most common methods used in campaigns to reduce high maternal and child mortality rate in West Pokot County, Kenya. The study sought to identify the factors that affect the choice of each form of interpersonal communication used in promoting maternal and child survival. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey research design. It also utilized a mixed research approach. The research sampled four hundred (400) respondents from the County. Cluster sampling, and purposive sampling techniques were used to identify respondents. Qualitative data was collected using four key informant interviews and focus group discussions and analysed thematically and then presented narratively. On the other hand, quantitative data from questionnaires were analysed using descriptive statistics, then presented using a combination of narrative explanations, tables and graphs. From the study findings, government policies, indicators, national campaigns and routine of the health workers were identified as the major factors that influenced the choice of interpersonal communication forms used. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the views of the all the stakeholders should be sought and incorporated into programmes aimed at enhancing maternal and child survival. Cultural aspects that encourage the upholding of proper upkeep of children and pregnant mothers should be identified and used during maternal and child survival campaigns.

Keywords: Child Survival, Choice, Factors, Influence, Interpersonal Communication Forms, Kenya, Maternal, Promotion, West Pokot County

Interpersonal Communication Forms Used To Convey Messages for Reducing Maternal and Child Mortality in West Pokot County, Kenya (Published)

The study investigated the use of interpersonal communication in promoting maternal and child survival in West Pokot County, Kenya. The level of success of this intervention approach has been much lower than in many Counties in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper examines the different forms of interpersonal communication used to convey messages aimed at reducing maternal and child mortality rate. The study adopted a mixed method research approach. A sample of four hundred (400) respondents was selected from the County. Cluster sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Qualitative data were collected using four key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The qualitative data was analysed thematically and then presented narratively. On the other hand, quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, then presented using a combination of narrative explanations, tables and graphs. The results from the research revealed that face-to-face interpersonal communication was the most popularly used form of interpersonal communication at 82%, while the use of mobile telephone was the least used with only 15%. The study recommends that the government should formulate a policy that incorporates software-based programs with mobile phone platforms to be used by Community Health Workers in prevention, management and monitoring of maternal and child health. This approach has proved successful in other developing countries to improve maternal and child survival.

Keywords: Convey Messages, Forms, Health Promoters, Interpersonal Communication, Kenya, Reducing Child and maternal Mortality, West Pokot County

Education for the Realization of the Preferential Option for the Poor: Catholic Church Activities in Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

The present world is largely characterized by people who live in two opposite extremes; the extremely poor and the extremely rich. The challenge of poverty remains a major concern to governments and non-governmental organizations alike. Faith communities respond to poverty by looking to the teachings of Scripture to establish structures and actions that can liberate and empower the poor. The Roman Catholic Church’s commitment to empowering the poor is expressed in its social teaching and practices. Social amenities offered by the church range from provision of food, clothing, shelter, medical care and affordable quality education. Despite such initiatives on the part of the church, poverty is rife. Therefore, based on a study conducted in Uasin-Gishu County in Kenya, this paper examines the activities of the Catholic Diocese of Eldoret in the realization of preferential option for poor students in secondary schools. The study adopted descriptive mixed methods cross-sectional design comprising qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The target population comprised pupils in all the fourteen Catholic-sponsored schools in the Diocese, their head teachers, as well as teachers offering guidance and counselling. A sample of 351 students, 9 head teachers, and 28 teachers were drawn from those schools. Purposive sampling was employed in selecting 24 key informants, 12 from Catholic Diocesan secretariat, 4 priests, 4 officials from the Ministry of Education in the County and 4 members of the management at Catholic University of Eastern Africa (Gaba Campus). Schools were selected using simple random sampling technique while teachers and diocesan education officials were purposively sampled. Kathuri and Pals formula was employed in sampling student population. Questionnaire and interview schedule were the main tools of data collection. Analysed data was presented using cumulative frequency tables, percentages and pie charts. The study established that there are activities that are organised from within the church. The Catholic Diocese of Eldoret manages five key programmes that support poor children in its sponsored schools. Most of them are donor-funded although efforts have been initiated to involve parishes in raising money to sustain them. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the Diocese should explore ways through which continuity is seen in terms of funding. The study found that some projects that were supported by missionaries experience great challenges when the same donors leave. The findings of the study highlight practical strategies that the Catholic Church uses to assist poor children get education.

Keywords: Activities, Catholic Church, Education, Kenya, Poor, Preferential Option, Uasin-Gishu County

Contributions of Various Kenyan Personalities in Communicating Change For Transformative Community (Published)

In spite of relatively stable governance and a hard working population, Kenya is rated among the countries with wide income disparities. Extreme and chronic poverty has not been eliminated even after fifty years of development efforts, that is, since the country gained its independence in 1963. In mitigating the adverse effects of these inequalities, communication is considered an essential tool for transformation through which essential thoughts in the minds of the people aimed at transformation are nurtured and shared. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributions made by various Kenyan personalities whose life experiences are shared in this paper, in communication change for a transformative society. The study displays how the select Kenyans engaged with the people and got them involved in transforming their community. A qualitative research design was adopted to select ten Kenyans to share their life experiences through in-depth interviews that were used by the author to gather data. Data analysis focused on the participants’ narratives on the aspect of their personal contributions and how they got the community working towards sustainable change. The study also recommends development of an African Communication Theory on what motivates communicative acts that lead to societal transformation.

Keywords: Change, Community, Contributions, Kenya, Transformation, communication

Influence of Employee Welfare Facilities on Their Performance at the Kenya Judiciary Systems in North Rift Kenya (Published)

The study examined the relationship between motivational factors and employee performance in the judiciary systems located in the North Rift Region of Kenya. Based on the study, this paper discusses the relationship between employee welfare practices and employee performance. The study employed a correlational survey design. The target population was all the 309 employees attached to the courts located in North Rift Region. Stratified random sampling was used to select 179 employees. A pilot test was done at the neighbouring Hamisi Law Courts to assess the reliability of the research instruments. The pilot study tested the face validity of the instrument which was found to be valid. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was used to determine internal reliability of the research instruments. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the research instruments was 0.842. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. Statistical significance of relationships among selected variables was determined using linear regression analysis. The study established that the motivational factors of employee welfare facilities influenced the performance of the judiciary employees. Evidence of improved performance included a reduction of case backlogs and expeditious determination of cases. Based on the findings from the study, it was recommended that the administration of the judiciary to design effective employee welfare facilities that are likely to stimulate employee efforts towards performance.

Keywords: Influence, Judiciary Employees, Kenya, Performance, Welfare Facilities

A Descriptive Analysis of the Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions On the Performance of SMEs in Kenya (Published)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the world economy. They contribute substantially to income output and employment. Indeed, they dominate the world business. In spite of this, studies have failed to identify and assess the corporate entrepreneurship dimensions that lead to good performance, especially in Kenya. As such, based on a study of SMEs in Kenya, this paper examines the relationships that obtain between Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) and firm performance among SMEs. Specifically, the study sought to find out the effect of entrepreneurial innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness on firm performance. The study was guided by the resource based view (RBV), contingency theory, theories of entrepreneurship and the marketing theory. It adopted explanatory research design using a census sample with the target population being all the top 536 medium sized firms between 2006 and 2013. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s bivariate correlation, multiple regression and moderated regression analysis. Results revealed that entrepreneurial innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness have a direct positive relationship with performance of SMEs. From the findings, the study recommended the need to intensify initiatives that encourage a better understanding of EO dimensions in boosting firms’ competitive positions and superior performance; firms should be more entrepreneurial in order to attain superior performance and survive the intensively competitive market environment. They should continuously innovate, especially through new product development, being first to enter the market with new products and in the use of creative new solutions that lead them to be recognized by competitors as leaders in innovation. SME owners/managers also need to enhance their risk-taking behaviour by encouraging staff to take risks with new ideas, make effective changes to their products and be willing to accept at least moderate levels of risk, engage in risky investments and have the courage to seize new opportunities, even if this may involve great financial risks

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions, Influence, Kenya, Performance, SMEs

The Influence of Entrepreneurial Innovativeness on Firm Performance among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Kenya (Published)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the world economy. They contribute substantially to income, output and employment. They dominate the world business stage. Empirical studies have identified the effects of Market Orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm performance; also on the moderating effect of MO on single EO constructs, yet studies have failed to identify the influence of Entrepreneurial Innovativeness on the relationship between corporate entrepreneurship dimensions and firm performance, especially in Kenya. Therefore, based on a study conducted to determine the moderating effect of MO on this relationship among mid-sized enterprises in Kenya this paper examines the effect of entrepreneurial innovativeness on firm performance and the moderating effect of MO in the relationship between entrepreneurial innovativeness and firm performance. The study was guided by the Resource Based View (RBV), Contingency Theory, theories of entrepreneurship and the marketing concept. It adopted explanatory research design using a survey of all the top 600 med-sized firms in Kenya between 2006 and 2013. Actual participating firms were 536 with responses obtained from 394 firms. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s bivariate correlation, multiple regression, and moderated regression analysis. Results revealed that entrepreneurial innovativeness has a direct positive relationship with performance of mid-sized firms. In addition, market orientation had no significant moderating effect on the relationship between entrepreneurial innovativeness and firm performance. From these results, the study recommends that firms should intensify initiatives to encourage better understanding of EO and MO in boosting firms’ competitive positions and superior performance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Innovativeness, Firm Performance, Kenya, Medium-Sized Enterprises, Small

Effect of Instructional Strategies on the Teaching and Acquisition of Listening Skills in Kiswahili Language (Published)

The research investigated the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language. Informed by the study, this paper explores how the instructional strategies used influence the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language in Kenyan secondary schools. The study used a sample of 13 secondary schools purposively selected from a total of 41 secondary schools in Wareng’ District, Kenya. Thirteen (13) teachers of Kiswahili and 130 Form Two learners of Kiswahili formed the respondents. The research was a descriptive survey since it set out to discover, describe and interpret existing conditions focusing on secondary school teachers of Kiswahili and Form Two learners. To collect data an interview schedule and an observation schedule were used. The 13 teachers were interviewed, the 130 learners participated in a Focus Group Discussion while 13 Kiswahili lessons were observed and tape-recorded. Analysed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, graphs and charts. The study found that poor teaching strategies used in the teaching of listening in Kiswahili language is one of the main causes of the poor levels of language acquisition. In view of the findings, this study recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should build into their classrooms listening activities that have as much of the characteristics of real life listening as possible. One of the research implication of this study is that a study should be conducted in teacher training institutions to determine the effectiveness of teacher education programs in preparing teachers of Kiswahili in the teaching of listening skills.

Keywords: Acquisition Listening Skills, Effect, Instructional Strategies, Kenya, Kiswahili language, Secondary Schools, Teaching

The Influence of Financial Support Services on the Financial Performance of Women-Owned Enterprises in Eldoret, Kenya (Published)

Micro-credit services target low income clients who lack access to banking and related services. The study sought to establish the influence of micro-credit services on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret. The financial performance measures were the net profit, current, inventory and times interest earned ratio. Based on the research, this paper discusses the influence of financial support services on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises which are funded through micro-credit. The study targeted a population of 1721 which constituted of women who owned enterprises and were registered with the county government of Uasin Gishu County. Study samples were drawn through purposive random sampling. A sample size of 313 was obtained using the Krejcie and Morgan formula. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present and analyse the data obtained. Data was then presented in form of tables, and explanations provided. There results showed that there was no significant influence of financial support services on financial performance of women-owned enterprise (p=0.00). From the study, it was observed that the financial performance of the women-owned enterprises in Eldoret improved due to the increase in the net profit, current, inventory turnover and times interest earned ratio. The study concluded that multiple loan products and favourable loan terms helps boost the financial performance of women owned enterprise. The study recommended that microfinance institutions should restructure the collateral and interest requirements by the women entrepreneurs by using credit scoring and business history as alternatives to asset-based security. This paper underscores the need to carry out more research on factors affecting women-owned enterprise in other areas of similar socio-economic patterns to ascertain whether or not financial support services have had a positive impact on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises. Moreover, a study should be conducted on the influence of micro-finance lending on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret town.

Keywords: Eldoret, Financial Performance, Financial Support Services, Influence, Kenya, Women-Owned Enterprises

The Influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio on the Financial Performance of Second-Tier Commercial Banks in Kenya (Published)

Performance of most mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya has been fluctuating over the past few years. Meanwhile, some of them continue to post impressive results as majority report losses and others merge in order to remain sustainable. This situation points to financial performance affecting the mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, introduced prudential regulations aimed at bringing sanity in the banking industry. This move led to closure of Dubai Bank and Imperial Bank while Chase Bank went under statutory management awaiting new investors. From this, an investigation was done on how Central Bank regulations influenced financial performance of second-tier commercial banks in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores how capital adequacy ratio influences financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was purely quantitative research and, therefore, correlation research design and descriptive research designs were used. The study was conducted in 14 second tier commercial banks in Kenya. It collected financial data from 2013 to 2016, considering that the regulations came into effect in 2013 from CBK and commercial banks websites. The data was sourced from Central Bank of Kenya after getting permission and approval from National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI). Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the study research hypothesis. Findings were presented through tabulations and graphical illustrations. Computed correlation showed that capital adequacy ratio had significant strong positive relationship (p<0.05) with financial performance of mid-tier commercial banks. In conclusion, it was found that capital adequacy ratio is among the main predictors of mid-tier commercial banks’ financial performance. It was therefore recommended that CBK needs to regularly monitor commercial banks by ensuring that they publish their quarterly results to the public. The investment regulators in the country such as the Capital Markets Authority (CMA), Kenya Banker Association (KBA) and Central bank of Kenya can use these study findings to understand the bottom line impact of bank regulatory requirements and in understanding banks decision on to its customers.

Keywords: Capital Adequacy Ratio, Commercial Banks, Financial Performance, Influence, Kenya