Use of Collaborative Small Group Strategy on Standard Seven Learners’ Achievement In English Composition Writing In Public Primary Schools In Kisumu County, Kenya, (Published)
Differeciated learning is what the current systems of education require in order to carter for all learners .Collaborative teaching offers value creation as learners work in their small groups. Everyone in the group has a responsibility to perform and the facilitator supervise to ensure all learners are inclusive in the group activities. While small group strategy is used a lot of ideas are shared, thus a big task achieved. Small group is enormously worthwhile, both for facilitator and learners. This methodology is vital in teaching and learning of composition writing skill. Communication and collaboration is instilled in the learners thus enhancement of the writing of English composition. A ‘cognitive’ approach to small group teaching, building on the theories of Piaget, would propose that learning interactively in small groups is useful to learners since the procedure of debating, decisions, dealing with conflict, and integration different perspectives is a necessary part of how cognitive development takes place. This thought about cognition also underpins the notion of ‘cognitive elaboration (Dansereau, 1988), which points out that cognitive development is based on reformulating or elaborating existing knowledge into new forms – a sort of unlearning and relearning of knowledge. The study objective is : To examine the influence of small groups’ technique on learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. Drawn from Lev Vygotsky (1962; 1978) the vision of pedagogy is based on the idea of learning as an interactive, social process, within which the facilitator directs the transition of the learners into the Zone of proximal development in order to cultivate new knowledge in order to cultivate new knowledge. Pre-test Post-test nonequivalent groups research design was adopted, sample size of 292 was drawn from 6 teacher of English, 6 head teacher and standard seven pupils in public schools. Data were collected via questionnaire, observation schedule and check list. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The study found that for small group learning technique: revised strategy is moderately used (m= 3.80 with SD of 2.960) buzz strategy is moderately (m= 3.40 with SD of 2.106) used in teaching composition and three minutes strategy is highly used (M= 4.20 with SD of 2.269) in composition teaching. The computed z values for brainstorming technique elements revealed a z-statistic value higher than the z Critical value and P-value less than 0.05. Thus, the study rejected the entire five Null hypotheses as there was a statistically significant relationship between: individual group technique, whole class technique, small group technique, round robin technique and relay technique; and learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. The study recommended that similar studies to be carried out using inferential statistics, especially multiple regression analysis to assess how the individual strategies of brainstorming teaching technique contribute to overall learners learning achievements. Other researches can use the Humanist child development theory to carter for the concerns of a paradigm shift to the thinking about holistic development of the learners., the policy makers and implementers ministry of Education and Kenya National Examination Council, to address the use of inquiring-based learning in order to provoke critical-thinking in learners as the new (CBC) get rooted to curb the negative attitude of embracing change of teaching for life and not for exams.
Role of Media and ICT in Empowering Kenyan Rural Communities with Information on Development (Published)
Information is the key to democracy. Information technology measures social integration, participation and performance valuables in any development. Emerging digital techniques, new network alternatives including intelligent networks, high bandwidth communication technology and state-of-the-art software for network functions and services, are the new technology trends evident in the development of electronic communication systems. Yet most of world’s population remains untouched by this revolution. The paper discusses the need to focus on Kenyan rural communities to empower them to access information, knowledge and poverty alleviation among them by deploying the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Analyses the factors preventing rural communities from reaping the benefits of ICT s, Kenyan initiatives to overcome the factors, ways and means of poverty alleviation and sustainable development; identifies the bottlenecks and solutions, and lessons learned. The paper will analyze the integration of media and technology in pushing development agenda. Perhaps the inclination of ICT and media as an information resource will bring enormous and diversification in developmental models.
Social media are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration and enable deliberation across stakeholders. The study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools. The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which social media has influenced students’ discipline in schools based on the research. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County targeting a population of 19,000 Form 3 students. Scott Smith`s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended items. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse data. Social media was found to have influenced students’ discipline negatively in schools. The study recommended that parents, educational and political leaders should implement policies on limiting social media influence on students’ discipline. It is expected that the Kenya Ministry of Education and other education stakeholders will utilize the results of the study to manage the influence of the social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools.
The Effect of Relationship Quality on Customer Loyalty: Evidence from Selected Banks in Kenya (Published)
One of the key marketing strategies implored by Banks is to create emotional connectivity with its customers and ultimately build a strong base of loyal clients. Loyalty will enable the banks to woo new customers through referrals whilst retaining existing ones and thus maintain a huge customer base. The banking industry in Kenya has undergone a revolution such that most bank customers are multi banked and therefore, majority of them may not have allegiance to specific banks. Available literature indicates that relationship quality has a direct effect on customer loyalty. In light of this fact, this paper examines the effect of relationship quality on customer loyalty based on a study of selected banks in Kenya. The main objective of the research was to develop and test a model that examines effect of relationship quality on customer loyalty. The study adapted a positivist approach because of the use of quantitative data. The study further utilized explanatory research design. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 309 bank customers in Nairobi, Mombasa, Nakuru, Kisumu and Eldoret who maintained bank accounts in the Kenya Commercial Bank, Cooperative Bank, NIC Bank, Diamond Trust Bank, African Banking Corporation and K-Rep (renamed Sidian) Bank. Correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship among the variables. Multiple and moderated regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at α=.05 level of significance. Model effect size was measured using R-square. The results indicated that relationship quality and the dimensions in the study that is, commitment, communication and conflict handling, were significant in affecting customer loyalty, this is consistent with previous studies. Based on the findings it is imperative for the Banking industry to offer more personalised service, be more innovative, enhance the aspect of CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and embrace technology more at all service points as a tool to understand their customer’s holistically and provide timely information on the touch of a button. The study contributes to knowledge and theory through additional research in the field of relationship quality and customer loyalty.
Effect of Communication and Complaints Handling Strategies on Customer Loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited, Kenya (Published)
Competition in business has gained a whole new dimension due to global consumerism, rapidly changing consumer buying patterns and high technological innovation. Consequently, the market players have switched focus from customer attraction to customer retention than at any other time in the recent past. Communication and complaints handling has become an area of interest to scholars, marketers and organizations operating in various sectors of the economy from which customer satisfaction and loyalty can be secured. Therefore, customer complaint management and effective communication form the decisive test of organization’s customer focus that eventually affects customer satisfaction and loyalty. In spite of the vast literature on the effect of communication and complaint handling strategies on loyalty, exhaustive empirical research has not been directed towards the retail setting in the FMCG industry. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of communication and complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited (ABL) in Kenya. The study was guided by the following research questions: What is the effect of communication on customer loyalty at ABL? What is the effect of the complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at ABL? A survey research design was employed and the target population was the Coca-Cola retailers who sold through the company-owned Cold Drink Equipment (CDEs) for over a period of three years. The sample size was 369 respondents. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires and content validity of the instruments was achieved by incorporating the views and recommendations of marketing experts who assessed the research instruments. Data collected was analysed through quantitative statistics and presented in charts, graphs and frequency tables. The study adopted chi-square to test the hypotheses. The findings established that effective communication and satisfactory complaint-handling strategies are vital in developing and nurturing healthy business relationships that subsequently lead to loyalty. The study concludes that when an effective communication and complaints-handling oriented program is implemented correctly, an organization begins to focus more on managing its customers rather than its products. This enables companies to establish strong performance that lead to long-term profits and increased competitive edge as result of stable partnerships. Evidently, organizations are confronted with complaining customers and despite the precautionary measures taken by an organization to avoid conflict with customers; problems are bound to occur in the relationship. Therefore, the study recommends that companies should focus effective communication and proper complaints handling in order to keep the customers delighted. One implication of this study is that companies like ABL need to have in place proper mechanisms for registering and addressing customer complaints.
Student Council Members’ Management of Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
In Kenya, there has been increasing concern that acts of student indiscipline are on the rise in schools. In light of this view, this paper explores the extent to which student council members manage of students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by the Social Systems Theory, which states that an organization is a system that comprises of different units which are interrelated in carrying out activities. The study’s main research question was to what extent do student councils to meaningfully participate in management of students’ discipline in secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County? The study employed ex post facto research design. The target population was student councillors, deputy, head teachers and principals in public secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County. Stratified simple random sampling techniques were used to select the sample to participate in the study. Data collection was through use of a questionnaire and interview. Descriptive statistics such as means, percentages, frequencies, means and standard deviations were used to analyse and present the research data. To test hypotheses independent samples t-test and ANOVA were used. From the findings of the study, the research concluded that student council members were aware of the mission and vision of their schools. Majority of the participants were trained to follow rules and regulations. Problem solving strategies were also covered during training. Moreover, student council members were taught the importance of skills public speaking. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the Kenya Ministry of Education should come up with a proper school governance system that enables student councillors to participate in decision-making process and especially in matters that concern students through active involvement in various meetings. The Ministry should adopt a proper school governance system that enables student councillors to participate in decision-making process especially in matters that concern students through active involvement in various meetings.
Influence of Teaching Methods on Students’ Performance in Kiswahili Poetry in Secondary Schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
The 2002 revised curriculum for Kiswahili for secondary school education in Kenya incorporated content on poetry. Students have continually performed poor in Kiswahili paper 102/3 in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) with the poetry section being the most failed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of instructional methodology on students’ performance in poetry in Kiswahili in Kenyan secondary schools, taking a case of Lugari Sub-County. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the research findings on the methods and teaching resources used by teachers of Kiswahili in teaching poetry. The study was based on Dale’s cone of experience theory which states that learners retain more information by what they ‘’do’’ as opposed to what they ‘’hear’’, ‘’read’’ or ‘’observe.’’ The study adopted a survey research design. It targeted secondary schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kakamega County in Kenya. The researcher used stratified sampling to place schools into three strata; four schools per strata were sampled making a total of twelve schools with twelve teachers of Kiswahili from the sampled schools. Purposive sampling was used to sample Form Three students. Data were collected using two sets of questionnaires, observation checklist, and document analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the obtained data and findings placed under themes. It was found that oral questioning and lecture methods dominated poetry in Kiswahili lessons. Therefore, the research recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should explore a variety of interactive teaching methods to enhance students’ mastery of content.
Extent of Students’ Involvement in Sports Betting In Public Secondary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Effective curriculum implementation can be challenging in an environment where other factors are competing for the learners’ attention. One such factor in Kenya is sports betting. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students’ involvement in betting on learning process among secondary schools in Mumias-East Sub-County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the findings on the extent of students’ involvement in betting. A causal-comparative design was used in the study. Respondents included 369 students, 206 parents and 21 class teachers obtained by stratified random sampling. Data was obtained by use of questionnaires, and analysed using frequencies, means and percentages. The study found that 30.9% (n=369) of students were involved in sports betting. Therefore, there is high student involvement in betting, with more male students involved than female students. Most parents are not aware of whether or not their children engage in betting. Majority of students who bet own personal phones. Those who bet lose their bets more times than they win. Based on the results of the study, the Kenya government should review gambling regulations and legislation to include laws that prohibit school-going students from betting, since most students who bet are aged 18 years and above, meaning that they enjoy legal protection albeit being school students.
Influence of Customer Emotions on Customer Loyalty among Star-Rated Hotels in North Rift, Kenya (Published)
With business competition becoming more intense, the most important issues that sellers face are on providing excellent quality products or services and keeping loyal customers to ensure long-term profit to their organizations. As such, the development and sustainability of customer loyalty is important in creating and maintaining competitive advantage. One way that organizations can enhance customer loyalty is by cultivating positive emotional connection through enhanced service experiences. The study sought to determine the relationship between customer emotions and consumer loyalty among star-rated hotels in North Rift, Kenya. The research adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population for the study was made of 1416 loyal customers from the fifteen (15) star-rated hotels in North Rift region of Kenya. The sample size was 455 guests obtained using a stratified random sampling method. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was applied with R-value being estimated to analyse and test hypotheses. The results of the study showed that customer emotions played a significant role in achieving customer loyalty among star-rated hotels in the study area (p < 0.05). Specifically, variables like felt comfortable, welcomed, contented, secure, important, entertained, relaxed, elegant, cool, excited, sophisticated and respected among others were found to enhance the loyalty of customers. On the other hand, negative emotions such as my request were nullified, felt displeased, ignored, angry, anxious, discontent, worried, sad, and ashamed among others were found to discourage customer loyalty. Therefore, the study recommends that hotels should pursue positive customer emotions in order to enhance the loyalty of their customers.
Psychological Effects of Rape: Experiences from Survivors Attending Selected Post-Rape Care Centres in Kenya (Published)
Rape leads to long lasting physical, psychological, sexual and reproductive health effects on rape survivors which need to be addressed at post-rape care centres. Although there are studies conducted on the prevalence of rape in Kenya, there is limited information on the effectiveness of psychological interventions provided to rape survivors in the existing post-rape care centres. Therefore, the study sought to ascertain the psychological effect of rape on survivors in selected post-rape care centres in Nairobi and Uasin-Gishu Counties in Kenya. The study was guided by the Crisis theory by Caplan. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design. The target population were rape survivors aged between 10-45 years who had attended at least three psychological interventions while the key informants were the counsellors in these centres. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a sample of 44 rape survivors and 9 key informants from the two selected post-rape care centres. Consent forms were issued to the adult participants (18 years and above) to sign. The participants (10-17 years) were given assent forms after they were made to understand about the purpose of the research in the presence of their parents or guardians. The data was collected by use of structured questionnaires developed by the researcher. The researcher assisted the primary school children and illiterate participants through Swahili translation of items in the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed using simple descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of participants, 73%, were female while 27% were male. Moreover, 72.7% of the participants were aged between 10 and 17 years while 27.3% were above 18 years. The psychological effects experienced by all (100%) rape survivors were: sadness, anxiety, revengeful feelings, difficulty in sleeping, experiencing terrifying dreams, avoiding people, experiencing feelings of being re-raped, feelings of intense fear, feelings of stigma and bitterness. This study recommends that implementers should put emphasis on: adequate provision of legal services, follow-up, family counselling, outreach services, community sensitization, adequate financial support to create more post-rape care centres, expansion of the existing centres, hiring more skilled counsellors and enhancing continuous professional development.
Impact of Tuition on Students’ Performance in National Examinations: Views of Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Eldoret North, Kenya (Published)
In Kenya, the demand for good results and the ever-pressing need to complete the syllabus continues to drive schools to introduce holiday and private tuition. This is despite the government ban on tuition programmes. The aim of the study was to document the views of teachers and head teachers on the impact of holiday and private tuition on the performance of students in Eldoret Sub-County, Kenya. The study targeted 300 students, 60 teachers and 30 head teachers from a total of 30 secondary schools. Teachers and head teachers’ perceptions on holiday and private tuition were described, interpreted and analysed by use of descriptive statistics. The study used the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examination results for 2011 as a basis for analysis of students’ performance. The results were obtained from District Education Office and candidates mean grades from KNEC website. Purposive sampling was used to select schools that offered holiday tuition and Form Four students who had undergone holiday or private tuitions. Data was collected using document analysis and a questionnaire. The data was then analysed using descriptive statistics. Based on the results, the head teachers and teachers expressed support for holiday and private tuition in and out of schools. It was recommended that the Teachers’ Service Commission should introduce stringent work performance contracts for teachers every term to complete the termly syllabus within the time frame scheduled. All head teachers in both public and private schools should be compelled to sign a memorandum of understanding with the TSC/Ministry of Education guaranteeing that school facilities under their jurisdiction will never be used for the purposes of holiday and private tuition during holidays
Effect of Academic-Related Stress on Student Indiscipline in Secondary Schools In Eldoret East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Many factors contribute to student indiscipline in schools. Some of these factors emanate from the school environment. In light of this fact, the study was designed to establish the key school environment contributors and solutions to rowdiness among secondary school students in Eldoret East Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper discusses the findings on the effect of academic stress on indiscipline practices among secondary schools students in Eldoret East Sub-County. The study was led by Social Control Theory. Ex-post facto research design was used in the study. The target populace of the research included 3480 form three students and 54 deputy principals in public secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub County. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to pick a sample of 346 students to take part in the study. Census approach method was considered in which all the 54 deputy principals took part in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedule were used as data collection instruments. Data collected was analysed in both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated in form of frequencies, percentages, average and standard variation. Analysis of Variance was used to examine the hypotheses. The study also established that academic stress (F [47, 273] = 2.001, p = .000) had an effect on indiscipline’s cases among secondary school students. The study concluded that academic stress had an effect on indiscipline cases among secondary school students. The study, therefore, recommended that the schools should reduce academic stress by providing adequate time for relaxation to help reduce cases of indiscipline cases in secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub-County.
Influence of Leadership as Strategy Implementation Practice on Performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County, Kenya (Published)
Organizations across the world have recognized the importance of strategy formulation in improving service delivery. Good practices in strategy formulation and implementation are among the key pillars of competitive advantage and organizational sustainability. Studies indicate that most managers rightly make effort to formulate strategies, but little investment is made to implement those strategies properly. Therefore, the study explored the effects of strategy implementation practices on performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County (Kenya). Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the research findings on leadership as one of the strategy implementation practices on organizational performance. The researcher anchored the study on cross sectional survey research design which emphasized on collection of data at a particular point in time rather than over a period of time. The target population of the study was one hundred and thirty two (132) top and middle-level management staff of Postal Corporation drawn from Kakamega, Lugari, Khwisero and Khayega branches. Stratified sampling method was used to sample ninety-nine (99) respondents. Structured questionnaires were then used to collect the data from the sampled managers to which only seventy-six (76) responded. The received questionnaires were sorted, classified; data was then coded and analysed by descriptive statistics (percentages, mean and standard deviation). Inferential analysis was done by multi regression analysis where the result of R square was 0.476 indicating that 47.6% of the performance could be predicted from the study variables. The study found that leadership significantly affected the performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County as indicated by a p value of 0.043, which was within p<0.05 level of significance. In light of the findings, the researchers recommended that a related study be conducted in a wider spectrum of both public and private institutions to determine the consistency of the results.
Constraints to Internet Use for Public Relations Functions by Selected Kenyan Organizations (Published)
Public Relations has gained increasing organizational importance in recent times, as it has been emphasized in various platforms. A review of current literature shows that the use of the Internet for PR in organizations has been empirically investigated mainly in other contexts – especially in Europe and America – but not in Africa. However, most of these investigations focused on specific components of Internet and not the holistic use of the Internet for PR. The study examined the constraints to the use of Internet as a PR platform in organizations. It adopted a relativist-interpretivist research paradigm and a qualitative approach utilizing the multiple case study method. A total of 45 participants was sampled comprising nine respondents each from a financial, telecommunications, insurance, PR Agency and online shopping business. In each category of business, one person in management, two PR and communications experts (or customer care services marketing and advertising in some organizations), one ICT expert and five key stakeholders (key publics-internal/external customers) was selected. The PR organizations involved in the study were sampled purposively. In-depth interviews, observation and document analysis were used to generate data. Data analysis was done thematically. Among the constraints of Internet as a PR platform in organizations were security and trust concerns, content mismanagement, lack of tools of monitoring and evaluation, ineffective utilization of the platforms, lack of expert knowledge, experience and poor role specification. Evidently, numerous constraints impair the utilization of Internet for PR functions in most organizations. As such, it was recommended that PR practitioners should develop internet plans to bolster interactivity and utilize social media services fully to produce effective messages to strengthen organisation-public relationships.
The Effect of Non-Financial Motivators on Employee Performance: A Case Study of Baringo County Referral Hospital in Kenya (Published)
The research assessed the effects of non-financial motivators on employee performance, taking a case of Baringo County Referral Hospital. The specific objectives were to: document the non-financial motivators used; determine the role of work environment in employee motivation; assess the effect of effective communication on employee productivity, and determine the role of training on employee performance. The research gaps identified were lack of non-financial motivators in the institution to improve employees’ performance. The study was prompted by the frequent strikes in public hospitals in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The sample comprised 50 employees out of the 250 working in different departments within the Hospital. The sample was selected using the Central Limit Theorem. To collect data, questionnaires were used. The collected data was then analysed using study descriptive statistics to with the aid of computer software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). From the findings of the study, there were some non-financial motivators at the hospital, namely communication, training and working environment. Most of the respondents stated that there was inadequate use of non-financial motivators and only a few were of contrary opinion. It was found that the majority of the employees felt there was no free flow of information in the hospital. In conclusion it was found that there is no free flow of information and also there are communication barriers within the institution. Concerning working environment, the health and safety policy is in existence but most of the staff are not aware. The training committee should base their recommendations on training projections and the five day training policy so that it may enhance staff performance. In recommendations the institution should enhance free flow of information. On work environment the employees should sensitized on health and safety policy. The researchers recognized the functionality of training committee. However, they should have a clear criterion of recommending employees for training to ensure equity achieved upon the staff.
The Influence of the Levels of Education and Knowledge on the Performance of Community Health Workers in Soy Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Community health workers (CHWs) the world over help to alleviate the shortages of health workers in the health sector. They are involved in the delivery of health services to the community and constitute the first point of contact on health-related issues in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The performance of CHWs is often hampered by various factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of CHWs in Soy Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of CHWs’ level of education and knowledge on their performance in Soy Sub-County. A correlation research design was used in the study with systematic sampling method being used to identify the respondents. In total, 98 respondents were given questionnaires to fill. Qualitative data was also collected from 7 heads of community health management team (CHMT) using key informant interviews. The collected data was then presented using frequency distribution tables while inferential statistics were computed using regression and correlation to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of community health workers. Qualitative data was analysed manually to generate trends, sub-themes and themes from which conclusions were inferred regarding the performance of CHWs. The research findings showed that there was a significant (p= .000; α = 0.05) relationship that exists between education and knowledge and CHWs’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a strategy should be developed to incorporate all the stakeholders that affect the performance of community health workers in coming up with a training programme for CHWs. Moreover, there should be a policy shift in Kenya to encourage male CHW to scale up delivery of health services at community level. The findings of the study support decision-making on CHWs’ training programmes and also constitute the basis of transformation of implantation of community strategy in Soy Sub-County.
The Role of Sponsors in the Development of Infrastructure in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)
Sponsors have a great influence in the management of public schools in Kenya. This is why they were given the mandate in the Education Act prior to the free primary education of 2003 to oversee the general management of the schools they sponsored. The study sought to establish the influence of sponsors on the management of public primary schools in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Informed by the study, this paper examines the influence of sponsors in the development of infrastructure in public primary schools in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and was guided by the Systems theoretical approach. The target population comprised all schools, head teachers, all chairpersons, sponsors’ representatives and one District Quality Assurance Standards Officer in the Sub-County. A sample size of 115 respondents was selected, which comprised 38 head teachers, 38 chairpersons, 38 sponsor representatives and one officer from the District Education Officer’s office. The participants were sampled using quota, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Since the research was both quantitative and qualitative questionnaires, interviews and observation schedules were used to collect data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, specifically frequencies and percentages. The results of the study revealed that sponsors no longer participate in their initial role of developing and funding public primary schools. It emerged the introduction of free primary education has brought confusion over the role of sponsors with those of the head teacher. It was, therefore, recommended that the Ministry of Education needs to review the policy on sponsoring of schools, especially on the rules and rights of sponsors.
The Influence of Source of Funding on the Financial Sustainability of Non-Governmental Organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)
Financial sustainability is the ability of organizations to develop a diverse resource base. In Kenya, the number of NGOs has been increasing yearly; most of them depend on foreign donations. Therefore, the study sought to establish the relationship between donor funding and financial sustainability of non-governmental organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of sources of funding on the financial sustainability of NGOs. Correlation research design was used as the principal research methodology for the study. The target population was 146 NGOs that were actively engaged in development projects in Uasin Gishu County. The respondents were NGO management and volunteers. Stratified sampling technique was used to identify non-governmental organizations to participate in the study. A sample size of 60 respondents was selected using Nassiuma’s 2000 model. Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Test re-test was done to establish the reliability of instruments results; 95% level of significance was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study showed that there was a positive correlation between donor funding and financial sustainability of the NGO’s in Uasin Gishu County. Improved financial sustainability could be achieved as a result of diversifying sources of funds, retaining qualified staff and improving governance practices and organizational capacity. Therefore, it was recommended that NGOs should limit over-dependence on donor funds and indeed focus on establishing income generating activities and venture into multiple sources of funds for their projects; this would improve their financial sustainability.
Factors Influencing the Choice of Interpersonal Communication Forms Utilized In Promoting Maternal and Child Survival in West Pokot County, Kenya (Published)
Interpersonal communication is one of the most common methods used in campaigns to reduce high maternal and child mortality rate in West Pokot County, Kenya. The study sought to identify the factors that affect the choice of each form of interpersonal communication used in promoting maternal and child survival. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey research design. It also utilized a mixed research approach. The research sampled four hundred (400) respondents from the County. Cluster sampling, and purposive sampling techniques were used to identify respondents. Qualitative data was collected using four key informant interviews and focus group discussions and analysed thematically and then presented narratively. On the other hand, quantitative data from questionnaires were analysed using descriptive statistics, then presented using a combination of narrative explanations, tables and graphs. From the study findings, government policies, indicators, national campaigns and routine of the health workers were identified as the major factors that influenced the choice of interpersonal communication forms used. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the views of the all the stakeholders should be sought and incorporated into programmes aimed at enhancing maternal and child survival. Cultural aspects that encourage the upholding of proper upkeep of children and pregnant mothers should be identified and used during maternal and child survival campaigns.
Interpersonal Communication Forms Used To Convey Messages for Reducing Maternal and Child Mortality in West Pokot County, Kenya (Published)
The study investigated the use of interpersonal communication in promoting maternal and child survival in West Pokot County, Kenya. The level of success of this intervention approach has been much lower than in many Counties in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper examines the different forms of interpersonal communication used to convey messages aimed at reducing maternal and child mortality rate. The study adopted a mixed method research approach. A sample of four hundred (400) respondents was selected from the County. Cluster sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Qualitative data were collected using four key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The qualitative data was analysed thematically and then presented narratively. On the other hand, quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, then presented using a combination of narrative explanations, tables and graphs. The results from the research revealed that face-to-face interpersonal communication was the most popularly used form of interpersonal communication at 82%, while the use of mobile telephone was the least used with only 15%. The study recommends that the government should formulate a policy that incorporates software-based programs with mobile phone platforms to be used by Community Health Workers in prevention, management and monitoring of maternal and child health. This approach has proved successful in other developing countries to improve maternal and child survival.