Tag Archives: Kenya

Employee Humility as a Catalyst for Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Kenya’s Universities (Published)

This paper is purposed to provide a deeper understanding to the current concept of humility and its role in higher education as far as knowledge dissemination is concerned. Since humility has become increasingly important in latest years, and is recognized as a critical asset for universities particularly due to the growing complexity of dynamic knowledge base environments and the further advancement of regulatory frameworks for competitive advantage. Humility in institutions of higher learning is an idea whose time has come. In light of anticipated challenges and changes that continue to unfold in the 21st century, scholars in public and private universities have suggested a greater need for organizational members to have the humility to acknowledge areas of ignorance and inexperience and to foster the learning and adaptation that will be required to succeed in an increasingly unpredictable workplace. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis have been conducted to explore and validate the factor of humility as a construct of emotional intelligence. The paper is based on an explanatory study that targeted a population of 6,423 academic staff employees in Kenya from 49 selected universities. A sample size of 378 employees was systematically selected and data collected using a structured questionnaire anchored on a five-point Likert scale. The instrument was evaluated for internal consistency and subjected to principal component analysis to explore extant dimensions. Though humility awareness by academic staff of universities is widely known, morinsights needs to be drawn to expound more from the benefit of knowledge sharing behaviour. The regression results indicated that Humility has a positive and significant effect on knowledge sharing behavior (β = 0.30, p<0.05). Universities in Kenya should be encouraged to focus on humility in order to improve on knowledge sharing behaviours of academic staff since it was evident that whenever academic staff had greater humility in the university, they would inspire and influence universities competitive advantage through knowledge and emotional intelligence. It is treating all people regardless of who they are, with respect, gentleness, kindness, and forgiveness. A person who is humble shares knowledge without measure of superiority, arrogance, and haughtiness of a person towards other people and understands what drives their behaviour, as well as the effects that it has on others as the most common trademarks of intelligence that value the enhancement of  knowledge sharing behavior in modern universities as revealed by the study. Humility awareness as a catalyst in universities in Kenya have relatively been downplayed by institutions of higher learning, University management and scholars especially in harnessing knowledge

Keywords: Catalyst, Kenya, Universities, and competitive advantage., humility, knowledge sharing behaviour

Effect of corporate training on performance of international non-governmental organisations in Kenya (Published)

The need for corporate training is growing day by day as technology advances. Organizations have not realised the need to incorporate corporate training into their system hence leading to stunted firms’ performance. Other factors such as increased cost associated with corporate training, lack of management commitment have been among common challenges in non-governmental organizations. The aim of this study was to the effect of corporate training on firms’ performance in international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) in Kenya. The study sought to identify the effect of corporate coaching and management training on performance of international non- governmental organizations in Kenya. The study literature was based on identical element theory and trans-theoretical model of behaviour change which stipulates how training results to employee behaviourchange hence resulting to employee performance. The paper adopted descriptive research design targeting all the over 35 International NGOs. The sample size was the 84 the top, middle and lower level management staff drawn using a stratified random sampling design from 11 INGOs willing to participate in the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences where descriptive and inferential statistics and diagnostic test such as correlation, linear regression, sensitivity and specificity were carried out. The results showed there is relationship between corporate coaching and firms’ performance, managerial training and firms’ performance at Sig P <0.05. The paper recommended that INGOs should review their policies to address corporate training, engage various stakeholders and set specific measurable attainable realistic and time frame objectives.

Citation:Hiram Mungai  and  Brigitte Wabuyabo-Okonga .  (2021) Effect of corporate training on performance of international non-governmental organisations in Kenya, International Journal of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Essays , Vol.4, No 1, pp. 5-31

Keywords: Kenya, Performance, corporate training, non-governmental organisations

Interventions to Enhance Effective Use of Innovative Instructional Methods in Public Health Programmes Implementation in Kenya (Published)

Innovative instructional methods comprise a combination of approaches to teaching and learning that embrace modern technologies and are adaptable to different contexts. Since 1998, the College of Health Sciences of Moi University has embraced these innovative instructional methods to respond to 21st century challenges and trends in health professions’ training and education. Nevertheless, to date, students and lecturers’ experiences on the effectiveness of these methods have not been investigated. Therefore, the study sought the views of students and lecturers on the possible interventions in implementation of innovative instructional methods in Public Health Programme of Moi University. Mixed methods approach was used in this study involving the use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies. This was aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the research problem. The quantitative strategy (cross-sectional survey research) was used to gather numeric descriptions of level of knowledge of innovative instructional methods among a sample of lecturers. The qualitative strategy (phenomenological research) was used to identify students and lecturers’ experiences about determinants of use of innovative instructional methods. Pre-tested structured and unstructured sets of questionnaire were administered to students and lecturers of the school of Public Health. Structured interview was conducted among a sample of members of the management team including the Dean School of Public Health and Heads of Various Departments. An observational checklist was used to assess the adequacy of infrastructure and availability of instructional materials. From the study results, all the students and lecturers believe that there are interventions that need to be put in place to improve the use of innovative instructional methods in the implementation of the Public Health Programmes. Therefore, various interventions need to be put in place as suggested by the students and lecturers. These include training workshops to enhance capacity building for the staff and students and a closer follow-up on the implementation of innovative instructional methods. The main reason as to why the interventions were necessary was to help address shortcomings faced in using innovative instructional methods. From the study, it was emphasized that the interventions should be implemented as part of university policy on teaching and learning. It was thus recommended that the government, through the Ministry of Education, should supply schools with adequate resource materials to enable teachers and learners to play their roles satisfactorily in the curriculum implementation process. The study of interventions needed to enhance implementation, specially from the perspectives of the students and lecturers, was essential to understand the true picture of what needs to be done to improve the health education programme outcomes.

Keywords: Implementation, Kenya, Use, innovative instructional methods, interventions, public health programmes

Counter-Terrorism Security Interventions in Kenya: Effect of Public Security Screening On Social Relations in Nairobi County (Published)

Public security screening is a counter-terrorism strategy that involves searches and personal checks on people who seek to access buildings and other premises. The aim of the study was to establish the nature of counter-terrorism security intervention strategies and their influence on social relations in Nairobi County Kenya. Based on the study, this paper examines the influence of public security screening strategy on social relations. The study was informed by structural functionalism theory, balance scorecard theory and social identity theory. Mixed methods research design by use of concurrent triangulation technique was adopted. The study used a sample size of 384 respondents. Of these, 361 were heads of households, 15 were members of Nairobi County Security Board and 8 were survivors of terrorism acts. Convenient sampling technique was used to select heads of the households, purposive sampling techniques to identify members of Nairobi County Security Board and snowball sampling to identify terror survivors. Key informants interview schedule as well as interview schedule were employed as methods of data collection. The data collected was subsequently analysed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results of the study indicated that public security screening in business buildings and other premises exist with the intention of securing public safety and permission to enter the building thus suspicion of individuals. The strategy relies on the cooperation of the public. The strategy presumes that every person seeking access to such spaces is a potential perpetrator and or victim of terrorism. Initially, the introduction of screening attracted mixed views. Some thought screening implied that one was a terror suspected. Screening has also affected social relations by rousing and increasing suspicion among citizens. In some cases, screening has been reported to compromise on the privacy of people. Consequently, to enhance its effectiveness, governments should enhance the laws on public security screening to elicit a sense of respect for privacy and subsequent cooperation among the public in its utilization.

Keywords: Effect, Kenya, Nairobi County, counter-terrorism security interventions, public security screening, social relations

Gender Factor in Public Secondary School Teacher’s Job Satisfaction in Nakuru County, Kenya (Published)

The teaching profession in Kenya has witnessed various manifestations of teacher dissatisfaction more specifically in the last ten years. These include industrial disharmony, teacher turnover and disciplinary cases relating to teacher absenteeism and desertion of duty. Teachers’ job satisfaction has a direct impact on students’ achievement and their future careers. This implies that, while a satisfied teacher is less likely to desert his/her teaching responsibilities, a dissatisfied one has higher chances of being less committed to his/her students thereby minimizing their chances of making positive learning gains among learners. In view of the importance of teacher job satisfaction, this study investigated the influence of gender on job satisfaction among public secondary school teachers in Nakuru County, Kenya. Using ex-post facto research design, data was collected from 341 teachers through a self-delivered questionnaire. Validity of the research instrument was ascertained through a pilot study carried out in the neighbouring Nyandarua County. The internal and external reliability coefficients for the teachers’ questionnaire as estimated through Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and split-half technique stood at r= .945 and r= .905 respectively. Data was analyzed using t-test. The study found that gender had a statistically significant influence (p<.05) on teacher satisfaction, with the male teachers recording a higher satisfaction than their female counterparts. The study offers useful insights to the teacher managers in Kenya, specifically the Teacher Service Commission (TSC) and Boards of Management (BoMs) in secondary schools on how to address the needs of female teachers. This will go a long way in enhancing their level of job satisfaction.

Keywords: Gender, Job Satisfaction, Kenya, Nakuru County, Teachers

Income Smoothing and Financial Performance of Tier 11 Commercial Banks in Kenya (Published)

The most commonly used Income smoothing practices are attributed to bad corporate governance. Bank managers and bank accountants use strategies that seek to erode profit mechanisms that amount to severe consequences for the entire banking and finance industry. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of income smoothing practices on financial performance of Tier II commercial banks in Kenya. The study was based on information theory, agency theory and positive accounting theory. This study adopted an exploratory research design in explaining the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The target population for the study included10 CBK licensed tier II commercial banks in Kenya where 40 respondents were included:  purposive sampling technique was used to select Finance managers, internal auditors and accountants. The researcher obtained sample from all the 10 tier II commercial banks in their head offices in Nairobi, Kenya. Primary data was collected using a structured Questionnaire while complimentary data was collected from published financial statements from CBK Supervisory reports. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20, by use of both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study results revealed that Income Smoothing had an insignificant coefficient of 0.296 with the Financial Performance of tier II commercial banks in Kenya.. According to the findings, exclusion of liabilities activities are the source of funds for the banks. Based on these findings, the study recommended that watchdogs of the accounting practices need to exercise strict oversight on the extent to which Commercial bank adopt income smoothing issues. The study findings would form a timely and solid foundation that the banking industry pundits and policy makers would base most of their policy priorities in responding to the volatile accounting situation in Kenya today. 

Keywords: Financial Performance, Income Smoothing, Kenya, tier ii commercial banks

Effect of Recruitment and Selection Practices on Job Satisfaction of Security Personnel in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo County, Kenya (Published)

Security officers are part of the non-teaching staff in schools and school managers expect them to be productive, dedicated, disciplined and committed to their work. Studies carried out in other countries have revealed that human resource management practices have profound effects on the job satisfaction of security personnel. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of human resource management practices on the job satisfaction of security personnel in public secondary schools in Baringo County, Kenya. This paper presents and discusses the research findings on the effect of recruitment and selection practices on job satisfaction of security personnel in public secondary schools in Baringo County. It targeted 508 security personnel and 169 principals in public secondary schools in Baringo County. Slovin’s formula was used to get the sample of 224 security personnel. Random sampling technique was used to select 10% of the school principals to participate in the study. A questionnaire and an interview guide were used to collect data. These research tools were validated and then tested for reliability. Cronbach Alpha was used to test reliability. The reliability of the instrument was 0.788, which was above the 0.70 threshold of acceptable reliability. Qualitative data was analysed thematically based on the objectives. Quantitative data was collected and analysed by use of both descriptive (means, percentages as well as frequencies) and inferential statistics. The inferential statistics comprised Pearson product moment correlation and multiple linear regression. The results from the research revealed that recruitment and selection practices (β2=0.322, p<0.05) had significant effect on security personnel’s job satisfaction. Therefore, recruitment and selection practices were found to be major predictors of job satisfaction. The researcher concluded that the Recruitment and selection practices were significant determinants of security personnel’s job satisfaction. It is therefore recommended that school Boards of Management should clarify the requisite skills and qualification for security personnel. They should advertise vacancies for security jobs and avoid recruiting personnel only from the school neighbourhood. They should ensure they select the right candidates for the right job.

Keywords: Baringo County, Effect, Job Satisfaction, Kenya, Public Secondary Schools, Recruitment, security personnel, selection practices

Use of Collaborative Small Group Strategy on Standard Seven Learners’ Achievement In English Composition Writing In Public Primary Schools In Kisumu County, Kenya, (Published)

Differeciated learning is what the current systems of education require in order to carter for all learners .Collaborative teaching offers value creation as learners work in their small groups. Everyone in the group has a responsibility to perform and the facilitator supervise to ensure all learners are inclusive in the group activities. While small group strategy is used a lot of ideas are shared, thus a big task achieved. Small group is enormously worthwhile, both for facilitator and learners. This methodology is vital in teaching and learning of composition writing skill. Communication and collaboration is instilled in the learners thus enhancement of the writing of English composition.  A ‘cognitive’ approach to small group teaching, building on the theories of Piaget, would propose that learning interactively in small groups is useful to learners since the procedure of debating, decisions, dealing with conflict, and integration different perspectives is a necessary part of how cognitive development takes place. This thought about cognition also underpins the notion of ‘cognitive elaboration (Dansereau, 1988), which points out that cognitive development is based on reformulating or elaborating existing knowledge into new forms – a sort of unlearning and relearning of knowledge.  The  study objective is : To examine the influence of small groups’ technique on learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. Drawn from Lev Vygotsky (1962; 1978) the vision of pedagogy is based on the idea of learning as an interactive, social process, within which the facilitator directs the transition of the learners into the Zone of proximal development in order to cultivate new knowledge in order to cultivate new knowledge. Pre-test Post-test nonequivalent groups research design was adopted, sample size of 292  was drawn from 6 teacher of English,  6 head teacher and standard seven pupils in public schools. Data were collected via questionnaire, observation schedule and check list. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The study found that for small group learning technique: revised strategy is moderately used (m= 3.80 with SD of 2.960) buzz strategy is moderately (m= 3.40 with SD of 2.106) used in teaching composition and three minutes strategy is highly used (M= 4.20 with SD of 2.269) in composition teaching. The computed z values for brainstorming technique elements revealed a z-statistic value higher than the z Critical value and P-value less than 0.05. Thus, the study rejected the entire five Null hypotheses as there was a statistically significant relationship between: individual group technique, whole class technique, small group technique, round robin technique and relay technique; and learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. The study recommended  that similar studies to be carried out using inferential statistics, especially multiple regression analysis to assess how the individual strategies of brainstorming teaching technique contribute  to  overall  learners  learning achievements. Other researches can use the Humanist child development theory to carter for the concerns of a paradigm shift to the thinking about holistic development of the learners., the policy makers and implementers ministry of Education and Kenya National Examination Council, to address the use of inquiring-based learning in order to provoke critical-thinking in learners as the new (CBC) get rooted to curb the negative attitude of embracing change of teaching for life and not for exams.

Keywords: English, Kenya, Kisumu, Primary schools., Standard, collaborative, composition writing, public, seven learners’ achievement, small group strategy

Role of Media and ICT in Empowering Kenyan Rural Communities with Information on Development (Published)

Information is the key to democracy. Information technology measures social integration, participation and performance valuables in any development. Emerging digital techniques, new network alternatives including intelligent networks, high bandwidth communication technology and state-of-the-art software for network functions and services, are the new technology trends evident in the development of electronic communication systems. Yet most of world’s population remains untouched by this revolution. The paper discusses the need to focus on Kenyan rural communities to empower them to access information, knowledge and poverty alleviation among them by deploying the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Analyses the factors preventing rural communities from reaping the benefits of ICT s, Kenyan initiatives to overcome the factors, ways and means of poverty alleviation and sustainable development; identifies the bottlenecks and solutions, and lessons learned. The paper will analyze the integration of media and technology in pushing development agenda. Perhaps the inclination of ICT and media as an information resource will bring enormous and diversification in developmental models.

Keywords: Development, ICT, Kenya, Media, Rural

Influence of Social Media on Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kenya (Published)

Social media are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration and enable deliberation across stakeholders. The study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools. The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which social media has influenced students’ discipline in schools based on the research. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County targeting a population of 19,000 Form 3 students. Scott Smith`s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended items. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse data. Social media was found to have influenced students’ discipline negatively in schools.  The study recommended that parents, educational and political leaders should implement policies on limiting social media influence on students’ discipline. It is expected that the Kenya Ministry of Education and other education stakeholders will utilize the results of the study to manage the influence of the social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools.

Keywords: Discipline, Influence, Kenya, Secondary Schools, Social media, Students

The Effect of Relationship Quality on Customer Loyalty: Evidence from Selected Banks in Kenya (Published)

One of the key marketing strategies implored by Banks is to create emotional connectivity with its customers and ultimately build a strong base of loyal clients. Loyalty will enable the banks to woo new customers through referrals whilst retaining existing ones and thus maintain a huge customer base. The banking industry in Kenya has undergone a revolution such that most bank customers are multi banked and therefore, majority of them may not have allegiance to specific banks. Available literature indicates that relationship quality has a direct effect on customer loyalty. In light of this fact, this paper examines the effect of relationship quality on customer loyalty based on a study of selected banks in Kenya. The main objective of the research was to develop and test a model that examines effect of relationship quality on customer loyalty. The study adapted a positivist approach because of the use of quantitative data. The study further utilized explanatory research design. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 309 bank customers in Nairobi, Mombasa, Nakuru, Kisumu and Eldoret who maintained bank accounts in the Kenya Commercial Bank, Cooperative Bank, NIC Bank, Diamond Trust Bank, African Banking Corporation and K-Rep (renamed Sidian) Bank. Correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship among the variables. Multiple and moderated regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at α=.05 level of significance. Model effect size was measured using R-square. The results indicated that relationship quality and the dimensions in the study that is, commitment, communication and conflict handling, were significant in affecting customer loyalty, this is consistent with previous studies. Based on the findings it is imperative for the Banking industry to offer more personalised service, be more innovative, enhance the aspect of CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and embrace technology more at all service points as a tool to understand their customer’s holistically and provide timely information on the touch of a button. The study contributes to knowledge and theory through additional research in the field of relationship quality and customer loyalty.

Keywords: Banks’, Customer loyalty, Kenya, Relationship quality

Effect of Communication and Complaints Handling Strategies on Customer Loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited, Kenya (Published)

Competition in business has gained a whole new dimension due to global consumerism, rapidly changing consumer buying patterns and high technological innovation. Consequently, the market players have switched focus from customer attraction to customer retention than at any other time in the recent past. Communication and complaints handling has become an area of interest to scholars, marketers and organizations operating in various sectors of the economy from which customer satisfaction and loyalty can be secured. Therefore, customer complaint management and effective communication form the decisive test of organization’s customer focus that eventually affects customer satisfaction and loyalty. In spite of the vast literature on the effect of communication and complaint handling strategies on loyalty, exhaustive empirical research has not been directed towards the retail setting in the FMCG industry. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of communication and complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited (ABL) in Kenya. The study was guided by the following research questions: What is the effect of communication on customer loyalty at ABL? What is the effect of the complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at ABL? A survey research design was employed and the target population was the Coca-Cola retailers who sold through the company-owned Cold Drink Equipment (CDEs) for over a period of three years. The sample size was 369 respondents. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires and content validity of the instruments was achieved by incorporating the views and recommendations of marketing experts who assessed the research instruments. Data collected was analysed through quantitative statistics and presented in charts, graphs and frequency tables. The study adopted chi-square to test the hypotheses. The findings established that effective communication and satisfactory complaint-handling strategies are vital in developing and nurturing healthy business relationships that subsequently lead to loyalty. The study concludes that when an effective communication and complaints-handling oriented program is implemented correctly, an organization begins to focus more on managing its customers rather than its products. This enables companies to establish strong performance that lead to long-term profits and increased competitive edge as result of stable partnerships. Evidently, organizations are confronted with complaining customers and despite the precautionary measures taken by an organization to avoid conflict with customers; problems are bound to occur in the relationship. Therefore, the study recommends that companies should focus effective communication and proper complaints handling in order to keep the customers delighted. One implication of this study is that companies like ABL need to have in place proper mechanisms for registering and addressing customer complaints.

Keywords: Almasi beverages, Customer loyalty, Effect, Kenya, Strategies., communication, complaints-handling

Student Council Members’ Management of Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

In Kenya, there has been increasing concern that acts of student indiscipline are on the rise in schools. In light of this view, this paper explores the extent to which student council members manage of students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by the Social Systems Theory, which states that an organization is a system that comprises of different units which are interrelated in carrying out activities. The study’s main research question was to what extent do student councils to meaningfully participate in management of students’ discipline in secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County? The study employed ex post facto research design. The target population was student councillors, deputy, head teachers and principals in public secondary schools in Wareng Sub-County. Stratified simple random sampling techniques were used to select the sample to participate in the study. Data collection was through use of a questionnaire and interview. Descriptive statistics such as means, percentages, frequencies, means and standard deviations were used to analyse and present the research data. To test hypotheses independent samples t-test and ANOVA were used. From the findings of the study, the research concluded that student council members were aware of the mission and vision of their schools. Majority of the participants were trained to follow rules and regulations. Problem solving strategies were also covered during training. Moreover, student council members were taught the importance of skills public speaking. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the Kenya Ministry of Education should come up with a proper school governance system that enables student councillors to participate in decision-making process and especially in matters that concern students through active involvement in various meetings. The Ministry should adopt a proper school governance system that enables student councillors to participate in decision-making process especially in matters that concern students through active involvement in various meetings.

Keywords: Discipline, Kenya, Management, Public Secondary Schools, Student Council Members, Wareng

Influence of Teaching Methods on Students’ Performance in Kiswahili Poetry in Secondary Schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

The 2002 revised curriculum for Kiswahili for secondary school education in Kenya incorporated content on poetry. Students have continually performed poor in Kiswahili paper 102/3 in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) with the poetry section being the most failed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of instructional methodology on students’ performance in poetry in Kiswahili in Kenyan secondary schools, taking a case of Lugari Sub-County. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the research findings on the methods and teaching resources used by teachers of Kiswahili in teaching poetry. The study was based on Dale’s cone of experience theory which states that learners retain more information by what they ‘’do’’ as opposed to what they ‘’hear’’, ‘’read’’ or ‘’observe.’’ The study adopted a survey research design. It targeted secondary schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kakamega County in Kenya. The researcher used stratified sampling to place schools into three strata; four schools per strata were sampled making a total of twelve schools with twelve teachers of Kiswahili from the sampled schools. Purposive sampling was used to sample Form Three students. Data were collected using two sets of questionnaires, observation checklist, and document analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the obtained data and findings placed under themes. It was found that oral questioning and lecture methods dominated poetry in Kiswahili lessons. Therefore, the research recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should explore a variety of interactive teaching methods to enhance students’ mastery of content.

Keywords: Influence, Kenya, Kiswahili Poetry, Lugari, Performance, Secondary Schools, Students, Teaching Methods

Extent of Students’ Involvement in Sports Betting In Public Secondary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Effective curriculum implementation can be challenging in an environment where other factors are competing for the learners’ attention. One such factor in Kenya is sports betting. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students’ involvement in betting on learning process among secondary schools in Mumias-East Sub-County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the findings on the extent of students’ involvement in betting. A causal-comparative design was used in the study. Respondents included 369 students, 206 parents and 21 class teachers obtained by stratified random sampling. Data was obtained by use of questionnaires, and analysed using frequencies, means and percentages. The study found that 30.9% (n=369) of students were involved in sports betting. Therefore, there is high student involvement in betting, with more male students involved than female students. Most parents are not aware of whether or not their children engage in betting. Majority of students who bet own personal phones. Those who bet lose their bets more times than they win. Based on the results of the study, the Kenya government should review gambling regulations and legislation to include laws that prohibit school-going students from betting, since most students who bet are aged 18 years and above, meaning that they enjoy legal protection albeit being school students.

Keywords: Extent, Kenya, Mumias, Secondary Schools, Students, involvement, sports betting

Influence of Customer Emotions on Customer Loyalty among Star-Rated Hotels in North Rift, Kenya (Published)

With business competition becoming more intense, the most important issues that sellers face are on providing excellent quality products or services and keeping loyal customers to ensure long-term profit to their organizations. As such, the development and sustainability of customer loyalty is important in creating and maintaining competitive advantage. One way that organizations can enhance customer loyalty is by cultivating positive emotional connection through enhanced service experiences. The study sought to determine the relationship between customer emotions and consumer loyalty among star-rated hotels in North Rift, Kenya. The research adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population for the study was made of 1416 loyal customers from the fifteen (15) star-rated hotels in North Rift region of Kenya. The sample size was 455 guests obtained using a stratified random sampling method. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was applied with R-value being estimated to analyse and test hypotheses. The results of the study showed that customer emotions played a significant role in achieving customer loyalty among star-rated hotels in the study area (p < 0.05). Specifically, variables like felt comfortable, welcomed, contented, secure, important, entertained, relaxed, elegant, cool, excited, sophisticated and respected among others were found to enhance the loyalty of customers. On the other hand, negative emotions such as my request were nullified, felt displeased, ignored, angry, anxious, discontent, worried, sad, and ashamed among others were found to discourage customer loyalty. Therefore, the study recommends that hotels should pursue positive customer emotions in order to enhance the loyalty of their customers.

Keywords: Customer Emotions, Kenya, Loyalty, North Rift, star-rated hotels

Psychological Effects of Rape: Experiences from Survivors Attending Selected Post-Rape Care Centres in Kenya (Published)

Rape leads to long lasting physical, psychological, sexual and reproductive health effects on rape survivors which need to be addressed at post-rape care centres. Although there are studies conducted on the prevalence of rape in Kenya, there is limited information on the effectiveness of psychological interventions provided to rape survivors in the existing post-rape care centres. Therefore, the study sought to ascertain the psychological effect of rape on survivors in selected post-rape care centres in Nairobi and Uasin-Gishu Counties in Kenya. The study was guided by the Crisis theory by Caplan. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design. The target population were rape survivors aged between 10-45 years who had attended at least three psychological interventions while the key informants were the counsellors in these centres. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a sample of 44 rape survivors and 9 key informants from the two selected post-rape care centres. Consent forms were issued to the adult participants (18 years and above) to sign. The participants (10-17 years) were given assent forms after they were made to understand about the purpose of the research in the presence of their parents or guardians. The data was collected by use of structured questionnaires developed by the researcher. The researcher assisted the primary school children and illiterate participants through Swahili translation of items in the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed using simple descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of participants, 73%, were female while 27% were male. Moreover, 72.7% of the participants were aged between 10 and 17 years while 27.3% were above 18 years. The psychological effects experienced by all (100%) rape survivors were: sadness, anxiety, revengeful feelings, difficulty in sleeping, experiencing terrifying dreams, avoiding people, experiencing feelings of being re-raped, feelings of intense fear, feelings of stigma and bitterness. This study recommends that implementers should put emphasis on: adequate provision of legal services, follow-up, family counselling, outreach services, community sensitization, adequate financial support to create more post-rape care centres, expansion of the existing centres, hiring more skilled counsellors and enhancing continuous professional development.

Keywords: Kenya, Rape, post-rape care centres, psychological effects, survivors

Impact of Tuition on Students’ Performance in National Examinations: Views of Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Eldoret North, Kenya (Published)

In Kenya, the demand for good results and the ever-pressing need to complete the syllabus continues to drive schools to introduce holiday and private tuition. This is despite the government ban on tuition programmes. The aim of the study was to document the views of teachers and head teachers on the impact of holiday and private tuition on the performance of students in Eldoret Sub-County, Kenya. The study targeted 300 students, 60 teachers and 30 head teachers from a total of 30 secondary schools. Teachers and head teachers’ perceptions on holiday and private tuition were described, interpreted and analysed by use of descriptive statistics. The study used the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examination results for 2011 as a basis for analysis of students’ performance. The results were obtained from District Education Office and candidates mean grades from KNEC website. Purposive sampling was used to select schools that offered holiday tuition and Form Four students who had undergone holiday or private tuitions. Data was collected using document analysis and a questionnaire. The data was then analysed using descriptive statistics. Based on the results, the head teachers and teachers expressed support for holiday and private tuition in and out of schools. It was recommended that the Teachers’ Service Commission should introduce stringent work performance contracts for teachers every term to complete the termly syllabus within the time frame scheduled. All head teachers in both public and private schools should be compelled to sign a memorandum of understanding with the TSC/Ministry of Education guaranteeing that school facilities under their jurisdiction will never be used for the purposes of holiday and private tuition during holidays

Keywords: Effect, Eldoret North Constituency, Head Teachers, Kenya, National Examinations, Performance, Teachers, Tuition Secondary School Students

Effect of Academic-Related Stress on Student Indiscipline in Secondary Schools In Eldoret East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Many factors contribute to student indiscipline in schools. Some of these factors emanate from the school environment. In light of this fact, the study was designed to establish the key school environment contributors and solutions to rowdiness among secondary school students in Eldoret East Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper discusses the findings on the effect of academic stress on indiscipline practices among secondary schools students in Eldoret East Sub-County. The study was led by Social Control Theory. Ex-post facto research design was used in the study. The target populace of the research included 3480 form three students and 54 deputy principals in public secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub County. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to pick a sample of 346 students to take part in the study. Census approach method was considered in which all the 54 deputy principals took part in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedule were used as data collection instruments. Data collected was analysed in both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated in form of frequencies, percentages, average and standard variation. Analysis of Variance was used to examine the hypotheses. The study also established that academic stress (F [47, 273] = 2.001, p = .000) had an effect on indiscipline’s cases among secondary school students. The study concluded that academic stress had an effect on indiscipline cases among secondary school students. The study, therefore, recommended that the schools should reduce academic stress by providing adequate time for relaxation to help reduce cases of indiscipline cases in secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub-County.

Keywords: Academic Stress, Effect, Eldoret East, Indiscipline, Kenya, Secondary Schools, Students

Influence of Leadership as Strategy Implementation Practice on Performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County, Kenya (Published)

Organizations across the world have recognized the importance of strategy formulation in improving service delivery. Good practices in strategy formulation and implementation are among the key pillars of competitive advantage and organizational sustainability. Studies indicate that most managers rightly make effort to formulate strategies, but little investment is made to implement those strategies properly. Therefore, the study explored the effects of strategy implementation practices on performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County (Kenya). Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the research findings on leadership as one of the strategy implementation practices on organizational performance. The researcher anchored the study on cross sectional survey research design which emphasized on collection of data at a particular point in time rather than over a period of time. The target population of the study was one hundred and thirty two (132) top and middle-level management staff of Postal Corporation drawn from Kakamega, Lugari, Khwisero and Khayega branches. Stratified sampling method was used to sample ninety-nine (99) respondents. Structured questionnaires were then used to collect the data from the sampled managers to which only seventy-six (76) responded. The received questionnaires were sorted, classified; data was then coded and analysed by descriptive statistics (percentages, mean and standard deviation). Inferential analysis was done by multi regression analysis where the result of R square was 0.476 indicating that 47.6% of the performance could be predicted from the study variables. The study found that leadership significantly affected the performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County as indicated by a p value of 0.043, which was within p<0.05 level of significance. In light of the findings, the researchers recommended that a related study be conducted in a wider spectrum of both public and private institutions to determine the consistency of the results.

Keywords: Kakamega, Kenya, Leadership, Performance, Postal Corporation, Strategy Implementation