Interest in collaboration between state and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) has grown dramatically in recent years in Kazakhstan. This article explores the history of NGOs, and NGO–state cooperation in Kazakhstan, in terms of the mechanisms and forms, the benefits and achievements, and the constraints and success factors. It highlights the positive dimensions in the NGO–state relationship in terms of the legal environment, in the different forms of public participation, and in the financial support provided by government. At the same time, there is a need to provide a real collaboration of NGOs with government. The NGO–state relationship in Kazakhstan is, still, in the early stage of development and is neither confrontational nor complementary. Currently, state social contracts are the most significant source of NGO funding. There is, however, a need to improve mechanisms for state contracting, in order to reflect the needs and priorities of NGOs’ constituents, to provide transparency of social contracts, to build institutional capacity of public sector agencies, and to strengthen long-term collaboration between NGOs and the state.
PRICE TRANSMISSION ANALYSIS ALONG THE FOOD CHAIN (Published)
Vertical price transmission between wheat and flour markets in Kazakhstan has been analyzed using monthly data during the period 2000-2010. Officials applied a wide variety of policies in response to global wheat price increases, often causing adverse and unintended effects on regional domestic wheat and flour prices. Overall, short-run policies aimed especially at mitigating wheat and flour prices were unsuccessful, causing greater instability and uncertainty in domestic market. The results confirm that price transmission between wheat and flour switched over the period. The PMG model was performed separately with the two regimes, and indicated that price transmission significantly altered under regime changes. Although overall coefficient differences in the two regimes are modest, the results across regions have different patterns in depicting huge differences in coefficients and magnitude. Moreover, The Granger causality test implies that the global wheat price is a good determinant of price differences across oblasts (regions)