River Kaduna is a major river in Nigeria, which transverses five states in the northern parts of Nigeria and various activities such as industrial, domestic and non-domestic activities channel their wastes into the river. This causes heavy pressure to the waterbody. The characteristic of the river water quality will affect pollution degradation process. This research was conducted to examine the biodegradation capacity of the River. Water quality data were collected from fifteen locations along the river channel for the period of three months. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations were used to calculate the biodegradation capacity of the river. The calculation results show that during the period the ratio ranges between 0.41 and 0.74, which indicates that the rivers have average biodegradation capability, relatively high capability in biodegradation capacity and self-purification capability.
As a result of increasing population growth and urbanization, there is a high and increasing demand for rice, this necessitates the high attention for its production. This research was conducted to determine the profitability considering the cost and returns of paddy rice production in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data for the study were collected from 60 randomly selected paddy rice farmers using a well structured questionnaire and analyzed using the descriptive statistics, the gross margin and net income model. The result showed that 97% were male, 88% married and had an average household size of 10people. It was interesting to realize that all respondents had one form of education or the other and their average farm size was 15ha producing about 3.2tonnes of paddy per hectare. The average variable cost incurred per hectare was estimated to be $866.3 (N172,400) while the total cost of production was put at $1002 (N199,400) and a gross revenue of $1768.84 ( N352,000) was generated. Paddy rice production in the study area was estimated to have a gross profit $902.51 (N179,600) and a net returns of $766.83 (N152,600). The study however concluded that paddy rice production in the study area is a profitable enterprise and it also recommended that consistent government policies that would favour increase in paddy production, market information, extension service delivery, input subsidization and credit facilities be implemented.
EFFECTS OF PIAGETIAN FORMAL OPERATIONS ON MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
Effect of formal operation abilities on mathematics performance of Senior Secondary Students (SSS) in Kaduna State, Nigeria was investigated. The population of the study was all the SSS III students in the state. Their number was 62,565. A sample of 400 students of equal numbers of males and females was drawn, from those offering arts and science subjects. Two paper and pencil tests were developed and used to generate data for analysis, namely, Formal Operations Test (FOT) and Mathematics Performance Test (MPT).The FOT was to assess students’ level of formal operations while the MPT was developed to test their performance in mathematics. The results of the study showed that mathematics performance was low. Second, the numbers of students who always use and those who never use formal operations abilities were about equal. Third, results in the FOT and MPT were significant and positively correlated. Fourth, there was significant difference between the MPT scores of those students who always use and those who never use the abilities in favour of the former. Implications deduced were that this study confirmed that not all SS students use the abilities always and some never use them. Results of the analysis also indicated that formal operations significantly affect students’ performance in mathematics. Those who always use the abilities performed better than those who never use them. This indicated that the widely experienced poor performance in mathematics, especially among senior secondary students, is partly as a result of students not always using formal operations abilities. Lastly, findings indicated that knowledge of students’ level of formal operations can be used to understand, predict and improve their performance in mathematics. It was recommended that teachers of mathematics should endeavour to diagnose and identify their students’ level of formal operations so that they help raise those students who sometimes use and those who never use the abilities to be using them always. It was also recommended that governments should be convening and sponsoring workshops that will evolve programs for accelerating students’ cognitive development for use by teachers in normal mathematics lessons