The study addresses the Jerusalem Municipality and the political conflict over Palestine during the British Mandate, 1918-1948. The Municipality has been established in 1863 during the Ottoman rule in order to provide services to the local residents. The first elections for the municipal council were held in 1908, which continued duties until the advent of the British occupation, 1917. The study mentions the shift from service provision objectives to political objectives, and how it became the scene of rivalry and conflict between the various Palestinian powers. This conflict led to split of the whole Palestinian nationalist movement, and diverted the Municipality from its original purposes, so it became a political platform for the opposition. Moreover, the British exploited this conflict to their favor and canceled the municipal elections, which have not been held until 1927. The British authorities inflamed the political dispute between parties of the Palestinian nationalist movement, thus making the Municipality the cause of the political conflict.