Tag Archives: Issues

Activism in the Era of the Social Media: A Study of the Use of Social Media by Young People in Amuo Odufin LGA, Lagos State Nigeria (Published)

Social Media is everything in this age and time. It is no longer that “sophisticated toy” created for the pleasure of the younger generation. Institutions of learning, financial institutions, governments, and every serious organisation now has a social media presence. It has not just brought everybody together in a global village, it has equally given everybody a voice and provided a platform for a lot of vibrant young men and women who would have never had the opportunity to air their views anywhere else. But in the midst of all these is a particular concern which is if the social media translates its online impact on activism offline as well. Findings showed that it does. It doesn’t only give a voice to the voiceless, it not only mobilizes like minds online, it persuades them to act offline. Questionnaires served as primary source of data for this study while scholarly articles and books relevant to the study served as secondary source of data.

Citation: Akagu Joseph Ifeanyichukwu (2022) Activism in the Era of the Social Media: A Study of the Use of Social Media by Young People in Amuo Odufin LGA, Lagos State Nigeria, International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies, Vol.8, No.1, pp.20-31


Keywords: Era, Issues, Social media, Users, activism, global village, young people

Using Mixed Strategies and Techniques to Enrich and Enhance L2 Vocabulary Learning (Published)

Vocabulary plays an important role in any language. However, learning vocabulary is one of the challenges that learners face during the process of second language learning. This research paper aims to enrich teachers’ knowledge and improve their teaching methods in the area of vocabulary instruction. First, it discusses the issues that learners have in L2 vocabulary learning in order to help teachers understand these issues and follow the principles that will help them to develop effective vocabulary instruction. In addition, this paper reviews the current research on the most effective teaching strategies and techniques for L2 vocabulary learning and teaching. The results of the study emphasize the importance of vocabulary instruction on vocabulary learning. Therefore, teachers should evolve their vocabulary instruction to be more effective which will affect positively on their learners’ vocabulary development. In addition, this paper familiarizes teachers with various useful teaching methods and techniques to enhance vocabulary teaching and learning processes.

Citation: Asma AlRashidi  (2021) Using Mixed Strategies and Techniques to Enrich and Enhance L2 Vocabulary Learning, International Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol.9, No.4, pp.36-46

Keywords: Issues, L2 vocabulary learning, Teaching Methods, Techniques, vocabulary instruction

Population and Development in Nigeria: Contemporary Issues and Prospects (Published)

This paper x-rays contemporary legal issues and problems associated with population and development in Nigeria. A potpourri of materials namely: statutes, textbooks, journals, articles, reports, case laws, and internet materials have been consulted in the course of writing this paper. The paper states that several studies have revealed that   the growth of any nation is basically centered on its developmental strides and policies. The relationship between population and development is very dynamic in nature. A country is regarded as being developed when the institutional framework, policies and structures are functional and effective. Over population affects the environment and in turn, hampers its developmental growth. The environment experiences crisis when its economic growth skyrockets its capacity limit. Developing countries like Nigeria and some other countries in the Sub-Saharan region face an uphill task in trying to manage their ever increasing populace. The paper also examined population policies in Nigeria and reveals a critical gap between population and development and calls for legal and institutional reforms that will bring about an effective enforcement of population and development policies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Issues, Nigeria, Population, Prospects

Issues and Challenges of Urban Governance in Africa: The Nigerian Experience (Published)

The growth of urban centres has become one of the most remarkable trends of the 20th century Africa.  Mans’ inclination to agglomerate in large number in a few urban centres is quite impressive.  No wonder about 10 of the fastest growing cities in the world are found in Africa with an annual average growth rate of 3.5 percent and presently the fastest in the world. (UN World Urbanisation Prospect, 2014).  The urbanisation process is accelerate by the dynamisms of the socio-political and economic conditions of the contemporary times,  coupled with the increasing migration that takes place in Africa.  As the ever increasing urban population lead to proliferation of cities, certain environmental, legal, institutional and other problems arise resulting in ineffective urban governance.  This paper therefore examined the problem issues that have negative impacts on urban governance in Africa.  Eeffective urban governance is  to be understood from the perspective of Associative Network model.  Data was basically drawn from secondary sources.  Findings showed that effective urban governance hinges on efficient local government through synergy and collaboration of all stake holders, multi level government, public /private partnership, greater space for public participation etc.

Keywords: Challenge, Governance, Issues, Urbanization, urban governance

Growth Strategies of SME in Oman- Issues and Challenges (Published)

This research has been conducted to determine the Growth Strategies of SME in Oman-Issues and challenges. SMEs has its own importance for the economic success and economic performance of any country due to which all countries are focusing on the growth of their SMEs. After getting success in the local market, it is important for SMEs to grow their business towards international market or at large scale businesses but, in the case of SMEs, businesses face a lot of challenges and issues in the form of human resource management constraints, financial management constraints, operations management constraints, and marketing management constraints. The review of literature proved the same thing that SMEs of Oman are facing issues and challenges in developing and implementing their growth strategies. The major aim of this research is to answer the research questions by using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Questionnaires are used for the data collection of quantitative research data. The total 250 respondents are selected to answer the questionnaires. Use of quantitative research methods brings effectiveness, reliability, and validity in the research. SPSS is used for the quantitative data analysis. Descriptive tests and T-test are applied on collected data to check the issues and challenges that SMEs of Oman are facing while developing their growth strategies. Interviews are used for data collection of qualitative research data. The total 12 interviewees are selected to answer the interview questions. Use of qualitative research methods brings elaboration of issues and challenges that SME of Oman face in developing and implementing their growth strategies. This research will motivate different SMEs of Oman to develop their defensive strategies to overcome the risks of growth strategies constraints. Furthermore, research limitation, managerial implications and future indications are also discussed in the study.

Keywords: Challenges, Issues, Small & Medium Enterprise’s (SMEs), Strategies.

Issues and Challenges of Southeastern Nigerian Women in Educational Management in the 21st Century (Published)

Women in Africa generally and in Nigeria particularly, appear to be on the move in the new millennium. There is credible indication that Nigerian women have increased opportunities at work. This has resulted to the actual increase in the number of women in the academe particularly in management positions. Despite these evidences there are indications that women are not as effective as they should be. This is probably due to issues and challenges that define the process of advancement and effectiveness for women. The purpose of this study is to identify the challenges faced by these women in managerial positions of public universities and strategies for ensuring increased management effectiveness in the 21st century academe. Two research questions were formulated for the study. A 15 item questionnaire titled Women in Education Management Questionnaire (WEMQ) supplemented with oral interview sessions provided the data for the study. The study involved 180 randomly selected women of high caliber in academic and non-academics of two universities in southeast Nigeria. The data collected were analysed using percentage (mean) and standard deviation. The instrument was face validated by 2 experts from the sampled universities. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was established by using Cronbach Alpha and the reliability of 0.85 was established.   The findings of the study showed that major challenges of women in educational management include long working hours, dealing with different natures of sub-ordinates and lack of authorization. Based on these findings, recommendations were also proffered to decision makers in order to alleviate those challenges such as the limitation of female long working hours by decentralization and better distribution of work load. Training programs in management and communication skills would help women in education, manage and communicate with other staff better. Authorization should be given to female managers to exercise their abilities in decisions making for their units and departments.

Keywords: Challenges, Issues, Management and 21st Century., Women in Education

Issues of Cultural, Political and Racial Identity of Women in Rich’s Poetry: A Socio-Feministic Analysis (Published)

This paper aims to analyze the socio-feministic picture of a poet who has distinguished place in American literature for her contribution in the field of feminism. The feminist struggle against patriarchal set up has been found in Rich’s poetry with reference to the selected poems. In these poems women are not constantly under men’s power and supremacy; they want to struggle for their rights and make an improved life even when there is no man. Women revolt and escape as they are being oppressed and burdened by male oriented society. She is different from other American poets like Plath whose poetry revolves round her. This paper will helpful in understanding the background of her poems.

Keywords: Cultural, Feminism, Issues, Political, Racial, Rich, Social


The paper attempts to establish the evolutionary trend and spatial distribution of traditional marketplaces in Kano metropolis and as well evaluates organizational and operational issues that characterized the Kano business landscape on environmental perspectives. The methods used include: Analysis of Satellite Imageries of 2011; Inventory and Field Observation; Use of Official Records; In-depth Interviews; FGD; and Case Study. The results show that there are total of 43 existing markets and as well they are the strength of Kano business landscape. 22 are community markets; 7 metropolitan; 5 regional; and 9 international markets. The evolutionary trend shows that the Kano markets evolved in three main phases namely: the first generation markets; second generation; and the recent or contemporary markets, but unevenly distributed which has been found to have both negative and positive environmental repercussion. Moreover, the business landscape is characterized with the proliferation of super-stores, shopping malls and other trading avenues along major roads and streets which on their own sphere form another kind of market (the unconventional markets). Frequent conflagratory fire outbreak; absence of security and peace due to militant crusade; and operational issues such as inadequate electric power supply; noise pollution and ambient air contamination are the major challenges facing the growth and development of markets and the sustainability index of the entire Kano business landscape. Based on the scenario of Kano business landscape, a descriptive model was drawn which portrays how markets served as central controlling or coordinating unit in terms of interception of supplies and demands and discharging them accordingly. On that direction, it has been postulated that if the operational challenges inherent in the Kano business landscape are overcome and good governance has been sustained, Kano would experienced an industrial breakthrough in about 20 years and it will emerge as the first megalopolis in West Africa. It was therefore recommended that, markets should be included in the economic development plan of Kano; Environmental management system should be put in place; and Good governance should be pursued at all levels; among others.

Keywords: Distribution, Issues, Trend, and Kano, markets


The quest for Action Research is not a new phenomenon in Africa. Examination of the works and documented speeches of the founding fathers of independent Africa reveal that the desire for this type of research has always been there. These African leaders identified three main obstacles to development in Africa namely, ignorance, diseases and poverty. Although these were huge problems, education was thought to be the best means of managing them. This could only be possible when there was access, quality and equity in education. These are specific issues that must be efficiently invested in if the appropriate solutions to the stated problems are to be provided. The most appropriate solution is the action research which focuses on dealing with specific established issue that requires urgent attention. This paper discusses how Action Research can facilitate access, quality and equity in education to serve as software in development in Africa.

Keywords: Action Research, Development, Issues, Potential and Soft-ware


The purpose of the study was to investigate performance contract implementation issues and strategies in Kenya, a case study of Moi University.The objectives of study were to; investigate performance contract implementation issues in relation to staff performance review; asses performance contract issues in relation to consequences of signing performance Contract ;establish staff issues in relation to implementation of performance contract policy for lecturers.A case study was used to guide this study which utilized mixed method approach. The target population was 761 academic staff and 994 non academic staff. Purposive sampling was used to select 19 staff of high cadre. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to get 50% of the departments from each school and from departments in the administrative unit. A total of 170 academic staff and118 non academic staff participated in this study. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview shedules. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics whereby frequencies and percentages were used. The study found out that employees were not allowed to participate and contribute in setting targets at the beginning of the contract period. Furthermore, it was found out that signing of performance contract led to improved service delivery,greater job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. However, good work is not noticed, recognized and rewarded and no sanctions were made at the end of the contract period. It was recommended that the institution should ensure that staff are allowed to participate and contribute in setting the realistic and achievable targets in their departments at the beginning of the contract period. The government through universities should design a reward or sanction system as they implement the signing of Performance Contract in government institutions. It was further recommended that; for proper implementation, more training on the content of the performance contract should be done. It is hoped that the findings of this study will form a basis for formulation of policies on strategies for effective implementation of performance contract in gorvenment institutions. Furthermore, policy solutions will be provided on challenges of implementing performance contracting. .

Keywords: Implementation, Issues, Performance Contract, Service delivery, Strategies.


The objective of this paper is to discuss issues and challenges driving entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. Since entrepreneurship education remain vital in the real sector and the sustenance of economic development, it has become necessary for Nigerian Government to pay attention to this sector. This paper, therefore, argues that entrepreneurship education will equip the unemployed youths with the skills with which to be self-reliant. Also, the paper recommended that educational programmes at all levels of education should be made relevant to provide the youths the needed entrepreneurial skills. It also recommended that the Nigerian Government should give adequate attention to full blown entrepreneurial education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Education, Entrepreneurship, Issues, Strategies.

Population and Antisocial Behaviour among the People Of Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of population and anti-social behaviour in Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State. Two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted and used for the study. A well validated structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample consisted of 400 respondents. Data collected was analyzed using independent t-test statistical technique. Result of the findings revealed that; population density significantly influences antisocial behaviour and there also exist a significant difference in the antisocial behaviour of dwellers from rural and urban areas. It was recommended that Government should create an enabling environment such as provision of social amenities, employment opportunities and free education in the rural areas to guard against rural urban drift and public awareness on the need for family planning should be intensified in the country.

Keywords: Issues, Population density, Rural dwellers, Social issues, Urbanism, sexting.