Tag Archives: Isolation

ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT FOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS IN LEBANESE FRESH PRODUCE (Published)

Fresh produce can be a vehicle for the transmission of multi drug resistant pathogens capable of causing human illnesses and some of them can grow on fresh-cut vegetables. The present study was designed to monitor the occurrence of Esherichia coli, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, in Lebanese fresh produce with the possibility of reducing the contamination using acetic acid and sodium chloride at5°C as dressing sauce and 22°C as a washing solution. A total of about 145 samples of conventional and organic fresh produce were collected from different 10 agricultural fields, 14 grocery stores and 7 market places in Lebanon from north to south areas (during June through December 2013). Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in all the collected samples, however 26.8% of produce items were positive for non-O157:H7 E.coli, the highest contamination with fecal E. coli occurred in leafy green produce (purslane, thyme, parsley and lettuce) except peppermint items were fecal E. coli free . The transition from pre-harvest to post-harvest stage showed an increase in fecal contamination load whereas in farms the prevalence of E. coli was 25.7 % and became 52.9% in market place. However organic fresh produce showed the lowest load in coliform counts and prevalence of E. coli. A total of 23% E. coli isolates are considered to be multidrug resistant since they showed resistance to ≥ 3antibiotic classes (β-lactam, tetracycline and folate inhibitor). It was revealed that 2g of sodium chloride results in a survival of MDR E. coli. A and may limit antibacterial effect of vinegar with low acidity (2% acetic acid) resulting in the reduction of 1.5 log10 CFU/ml after 20 min at room temperature , in contrast washing treatment solution with 4% acetic acid reduces 2.42 log10 CFU/ml within 10 min. Dressing sauce showed strong inhibition of inoculated Salmonella enteritidis after 3 hours of storage at 5±°C. On the other hand a total reduction of 0.2 and 3 log10 CFU/g were noticed with MDR E. coli A at zero time and after 3hrs respectively, where the total inhibition of MDR E. coli A was achieved after 6hrs of storage at 5±1°C.

Keywords: Identification, Isolation, Lebanese fresh produce, food-borne pathogens

ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT FOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS IN LEBANESE FRESH PRODUCE (Published)

Fresh produce can be a vehicle for the transmission of multi drug resistant pathogens capable of causing human illnesses and some of them can grow on fresh-cut vegetables. The present study was designed to monitor the occurrence of Esherichia coli, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, in Lebanese fresh produce with the possibility of reducing the contamination using acetic acid and sodium chloride at5°C as dressing sauce and 22°C as a washing solution. A total of about 145 samples of conventional and organic fresh produce were collected from different 10 agricultural fields, 14 grocery stores and 7 market places in Lebanon from north to south areas (during June through December 2013). Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in all the collected samples, however 26.8% of produce items were positive for non-O157:H7 E.coli, the highest contamination with fecal E. coli occurred in leafy green produce (purslane, thyme, parsley and lettuce) except peppermint items were fecal E. coli free . The transition from pre-harvest to post-harvest stage showed an increase in fecal contamination load whereas in farms the prevalence of E. coli was 25.7 % and became 52.9% in market place. However organic fresh produce showed the lowest load in coliform counts and prevalence of E. coli. A total of 23% E. coli isolates are considered to be multidrug resistant since they showed resistance to ≥ 3antibiotic classes (β-lactam, tetracycline and folate inhibitor). It was revealed that 2g of sodium chloride results in a survival of MDR E. coli. A and may limit antibacterial effect of vinegar with low acidity (2% acetic acid) resulting in the reduction of 1.5 log10 CFU/ml after 20 min at room temperature , in contrast washing treatment solution with 4% acetic acid reduces 2.42 log10 CFU/ml within 10 min. Dressing sauce showed strong inhibition of inoculated Salmonella enteritidis after 3 hours of storage at 5±°C. On the other hand a total reduction of 0.2 and 3 log10 CFU/g were noticed with MDR E. coli A at zero time and after 3hrs respectively, where the total inhibition of MDR E. coli A was achieved after 6hrs of storage at 5±1°C.

Keywords: Identification, Isolation, Lebanese fresh produce, food-borne pathogens

THEME OF ALIENATION IN MODERN LITERATURE (Published)

Alienation is the basic form of rootlessness, which forms the subject of many psychological, sociological, literary and philosophical studies. Alienation is a major theme of human condition in the contemporary epoch. It is only natural that a pervasive phenomenon like alienation should leave such an indelible impact upon the contemporary literature. Alienation emerges as natural consequence of existential predicament both in intrinsic and extrinsic terms. The theme of alienation has been variously dealt with persistently and unflinchingly in modern literature. The alienated protagonist is a recurrent figure in much of the twentieth century American and European fiction. Alienation in its various forms, has been dealt with in the existentialistic literature. Owing to its historical and socio-cultural reasons, the Indo-English literature also, could not remain unaffected by it. Alienation is the result of loss of identity. The dispossessed personality’s search for identity is a common place theme in modern fiction. Man fails to perceive today the very purpose behind life and the relevance of his existence in a hostile world. Edmund Fuller remarks that in our age “man suffers not only from war, persecution, famine and ruin, but from inner problems ——— a conviction of isolation, randomness, meaninglessness in his way of existence “.The paper will discuss and analyze theme of alienation in modern literature in general and Indo-English literature in particular from different angles. It will be contextualized by referring profusely the works of renowned writers. Nuances of the word alienation will also be discussed thoroughly

Keywords: Alienation, Existence, Existentialism, Identity, Isolation, Predicament, Randomness, Rootlessness