Tag Archives: : Irrigation

Groundwater Quality Assessment of some Poultry Farms in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria, for Irrigation and Household Uses (Published)

The development of enormous irrigation systems has been a major instrumental to worldwide food security, especially in arid zones, but it has also been associated with land and water salinity issues. The shallow hand-dug wells of some poultry farms in Osun State were sampled on seasonal basis and evaluated for their quality and suitableness for agricultural uses. Twenty-four water samples taken from wells were evaluated for physicochemical variables, applying standard methods. The main constituents that determine the water quality for irrigation like electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium bicarbonate, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly’s ratio and Permeability index were evaluated and in comparison with safe limits. Quality assurance procedures included blank test, recovery analysis and calibration of standards. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data interpretations.  The mean values of EC (<600.00 µS/cm), TDS (<400.00 mg/L), SAR (˂1.00 meq/L), SSP (˂25.00%), RSBC (˂0.50 meq/L), MAR (˂ 50.00%), KR (˂0.50 meq/L) and PI (˂2.00 meq/L) were found to be in the safe limits of the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency and Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization. Thereby, the groundwater would not cause detrimental effects on the soil properties of the assessment area.

Keywords: : Irrigation, Assessment, Groundwater, Water Quality, physicochemical variables, poultry farms

Irrigation Water Quality Assessment of Industrial Effluents Used for Irrigating Crops in Semi-arid Ecological Zone of Nigeria (Published)

Provision of quality treated wastewater effluents in form of irrigation water will potentially be an option to augment the water needs in agricultural irrigation. However, if the effluents did not meet the irrigation quality standards, their application will be detrimental to the receiving soils, consequently leading to soil and crop quality deterioration.  The aim of this study is to assess if Sharada industrial effluents are fit for irrigation application. The irrigation water quality assessment was carried out in three phases (Phases I, II and III) of the industrial locations. Findings indicated that the concentration of the major key irrigation water quality parameters; Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, Exchangeable sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Total dissolved solids (TDS) were of good quality and suitable for irrigation regardless of phases.  However, the concentration of bicarbonate (HCO3), Chlorides (Cl), Potassium (K) and Nitrate (NO3-N) values detected in the samples were 488, 305, 305meq/l, 177.50, 159.75, 124.25meq/l, 18.99, 17.72, 13.50mg/l, and 119.09, 59.54, 31.53mg/l respectively. These values were high and of poor quality, thus, unfit for irrigation. Moreover, NO3-N and HCO3 in all irrigation effluents recorded high significant difference (P<0.05) in phase I compared to other phases while, Cl and K were highly significant (P<0.05) in phases I and II in comparison to phase III. Overall, the result when tested for irrigation quality compliance using International Standards revealed that compliance was achieved with reference to pH, EC, Na, Ca, Mg and TDS, while noncompliance was recorded for other irrigation water quality indices indicating that the effluents will be suitable for irrigation under careful, adequate and very effective proper management including improved irrigation system and schedule, soil with good permeability, infiltration and internal drainage, and use of good salt tolerant crops. The importance of this research lies in the fact that the effluents could not be a reliable and effective potential source of irrigation water rich in nutrients capable of increasing soil fertility and crop quality as is the practice of the farmers in the area.

Keywords: : Irrigation, Effluents, Soil Quality, Water Quality, crop quality

Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Quality of Sudan Savanna Alfisols in Semi-arid Tropical Zone of Nigeria (Published)

With increase in industrialization, threat of industrial pollution has been troubling the human world for many years causing environmental pollution including agricultural soils, which are adversely affected when untreated or partially treated industrial effluents are applied on them as irrigation amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on the quality of soils irrigated with the effluents in Sharada industrial area by measuring different physico-chemical quality parameters. The soil samples were collected from three different phases of the industrial area and analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Findings indicated that application of industrial effluents on soil caused changes in the physico-chemical profile of the soil with parameters like pH, organic carbon (OC) , nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), exchangeable sodium (Na) and potassium (K) recording mean values ranging from 6.6-7.2, 1.0-2.2%, 0.1-0.2%, 9.0- 14.0mg/Kg, 0.1-0.5Cmol/Kg and 0.6-0.7Cmol/Kg respectively. These values were different from the normal range of fertile and qualitative soil according to standards, and no significant differences were recorded among the sampling sites (P>0.05). Furthermore, the study revealed that the soil texture was sandy loam and loamy sand, while the cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) recorded mean values in the range of 4.6-6.8Cmol/Kg, 0.3-1.0dS/m, 1.6-3.7Cmol/Kg and 1.0-2.0Cmol/Kg in that order with significant variation among the sampling sites (P<0.05) indicating the moderate impact of industrial effluents on the soil quality. Overall, the research findings indicated that Sharada industrial effluents have impacted relatively on the soil quality of the surrounding soils in the area and their application should be discontinued for irrigation unless with careful monitoring and guarded improvement in the quality of the industrial wastewater as well as application of inorganic and organic amendments that will improve the fertility and quality of the soils of the study area.

Keywords: : Irrigation, Environment, Industrial Effluent, Pollution, Soil Quality

River Water Quality Assessment and Suitability for Irrigation in Northern Sudan Savanna, Ecological Zone of Nigeria (Published)

Good river water quality management and reusing the water appropriately in irrigation agriculture can decrease complete soil and crops toxicity, and serve as a potential feasible options to potable water as well as improvement of natural water resources shortages. This study was carried out between May and July, 2019 to investigate the discharge and irrigation reuse quality of Wudil River effluents in Kano State, Nigeria. The research was conducted in three locations of the river; locations A, B and C respectively. Water quality parameters; pH, COD, BOD5, nutrients (NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P), EC and SS were determined in different water samples obtained from the different locations. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses of variance (ANOVA). No significant variations (P>0.05) existed in all the chemical variables among the sampled locations. Comparison of the investigated parameters at the various locations of the river with the standard limit of discharge and irrigation reuse revealed that all the locations achieved compliance except for NH4-N and PO4-P variables that polluted the river using Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and other related international standards. Hence, the need for a drastic move towards both discharge and irrigation water quality improvement of the river as well as environmental conservation through sustainable development and cleaner technology approach within the research area is highlighted.

Keywords: : Irrigation, River effluents, Soil Quality, Water Quality, wastewater

Automation of Irrigation Systems and Design of Automated Irrigation Systems (Published)

Canada is a world leader in the production of many agricultural crops, especially wheat and other cereal grains and irrigation necessary to compensate for insufficient precipitation during the critical portions of the growing season in order to avoid a decrease in productivity. Current irrigation systems are unable to determine when the crops have received sufficient water during and even after irrigation, are not easy to use, require user input, manual connection to the water supply and some level of technical expertise before they can be used successfully, and they are not automated. This paper presents a novel automated irrigation system that does not have any of these limitations. The automated irrigation system works by continuously monitoring the soil moisture content and wirelessly activating the pipeline valves to open when the moisture level drops below the minimum threshold for the cultivated crop, causing the land to be irrigated. When the moisture level rises above the maximum threshold, the system deactivates the irrigation pipeline valves, causing them to close and ceasing land irrigation. This automated irrigation system is customizable and can also be used to upgrade existing drip irrigation systems, surface irrigation systems, and sprinkler irrigation systems to overcome their existing limitations.

Keywords: : Irrigation, automated irrigation system, crop moisture requirement

Impact of Small-scale Irrigation on Farm Households’ Technical Efficiency: The Case of Girawa District, East Hararghe, Oromia, Ethiopia (Review Completed - Accepted)

This study evaluated the impact of small-scale irrigation on farm households’ technical efficiency of production in Girawa district, East Hararghe, Oromia, Ethiopia. Both primary and secondary data were collected for the study. Primary data were collected from 200 sample respondents drawn from both participant and non-participant households. Econometric models were employed for data analysis. Stochastic production frontier model was used for technical efficiency estimation and Propensity score matching method was applied to analyze the impact of small-scale irrigation on the technical efficiency. The logistic regression was employed to estimate propensity scores. In matching processes, kernel matching with band width of 0.5 was found to be the best matching algorism. This method was also checked for covariate balancing with a standardized bias, t-test, and joint significance level tests. The results revealed that households that participate in irrigation practice have got an improvement of 8.92% in technical efficiency than those households that were not participating in irrigation practice. Results showed that participation in irrigation has a significant, positive and robust impact on the outcome variables. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the impact estimates are insensitive to unobserved selection bias. All results obtained from different models revealed the positive impact of irrigation on farm household technical efficiency. Therefore, policy makers should give due emphasis to the aforementioned variables to increase participation in irrigation farming and improve the livelihood of rural households

Keywords: : Irrigation, Propensity Score Matching And Stochastic Frontier, Technical Efficiency

Impact of Small-scale Irrigation on Farm Households’ Technical Efficiency: The Case of Girawa District, East Hararghe, Oromia, Ethiopia (Review Completed - Accepted)

This study evaluated the impact of small-scale irrigation on farm households’ technical efficiency of production in Girawa district, East Hararghe, Oromia, Ethiopia. Both primary and secondary data were collected for the study. Primary data were collected from 200 sample respondents drawn from both participant and non-participant households. Econometric models were employed for data analysis. Stochastic production frontier model was used for technical efficiency estimation and Propensity score matching method was applied to analyze the impact of small-scale irrigation on the technical efficiency. The logistic regression was employed to estimate propensity scores. In matching processes, kernel matching with band width of 0.5 was found to be the best matching algorism. This method was also checked for covariate balancing with a standardized bias, t-test, and joint significance level tests. The results revealed that households that participate in irrigation practice have got an improvement of 8.92% in technical efficiency than those households that were not participating in irrigation practice. Results showed that participation in irrigation has a significant, positive and robust impact on the outcome variables. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the impact estimates are insensitive to unobserved selection bias. All results obtained from different models revealed the positive impact of irrigation on farm household technical efficiency. Therefore, policy makers should give due emphasis to the aforementioned variables to increase participation in irrigation farming and improve the livelihood of rural households.

Keywords: : Irrigation, Propensity Score Matching And Stochastic Frontier, Technical Efficiency