Tag Archives: Iraq

Calculating the Wind-Chill Index for Selected Stations in Iraq (Published)

The Wind-Chill Index (Ko) is used to express a sense of human comfort depends on where the wind speed and temperature together, if considered the human body is a thermal machine liberate energy on an ongoing basis anything that affects the heat loss from the body, which in turn affects the nature of the sensation rate warming to his body and thus affect the rest, and can predict all sense of human beings too hot or cold through calculate the Wind-Chill Index. The aim of this research to clarify the relationship between air elements of each of the temperature and wind speed, can be human comfort through calculate the Wind-Chill Index, using temperature and wind speed data for the period (2005-2015) of the general body from the Iraqi meteorological organization and seismology for selected stations in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basra), by using of statistical sophisticated programs (Simple Linear Regression and Spearman Rho Test), It was found that the monthly average calculation for the period of the study Wind-Chill Index that the highest value for the index were in Baghdad station 642.47W/m2 for the month JAN, and it found that the lowest value was in Basra station -193.26W/m2 for the month JUL, and found when the seasonal average for calculate the Wind-Chill Index, the winter has high values in addition to the month MAR also has high values in the Mosul and Baghdad stations, except Basra station the month MAR is considered ideal, either for the summer months, it owns and lowest values in Basra and Baghdad stations, where he extends decline to include the month of MAY of the spring and the month SEP of autumn, either Mosul station, the decreasing values includes the month SEP of all autumn, but the rest of the months illustrates months close to human comfort, except Baghdad station the month NOV is a cool, also found through analysis the annual average for Wind-Chill Index the highest value was in Mosul station 288.53 W/m2 in 2013, the lowest value of Basra station 146.45W/m2 in 2015, and found through the statistical operations between temperature and Wind-Chill Index that there is a strong inverse relationship degree of correlation -0.99, as well as the relationship between wind speed and Wind-Chill Index, is a strong inverse relationship, Medium and low in Mosul station reverse correlation is weak the rank correlation -0.252, the station Baghdad high inverse correlation degree of correlation -0.748, while the Basra station, it is an inverse relationship to moderate correlation -0.594.

Keywords: Human comfort, Iraq, Spearman Rho Test, Temperature, Wind speed

Evaluation of The Program for Early Detection of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care Centers in wassit Governorate. (Published)

Background: Over the past decade it has been clear that the prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly. Only around one half are aware of their condition and other  of them have asymptomatic stage, presence of screening and diagnostic tools this make diseases suitable for early detection will improve the outcome of people with HTN and T2DM , aiming to control of both of them. Objective: To evaluate the program for early detection of HTN& T2DM in PHC centers, and compare between Primary Health Care Centers which applied the program? Subject and methods: This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study which represents multistage sampling of 22 PHCCs in Wassit governorate, selected randomly from 44 primary health centers distributed in 6 primary health Care Sectors according to ballot technique. Results: The results showed that only (2794) clients represent 25.1% of study samples from 11140 target population within catchment areas of study centers were covered by program for early detection. Total number of +Ve patients (HTN+T2DM) in diagnostic test was (47) from total +Ve patients in screening test (542). 54.5% of study centers have a convenient place for early detection program. Good scores regarding to standard structural staff but shows that poor to acceptable scores regarding presence of doctor. The current study showed that there are clear deficiencies of all information were recording in the file of patient that have been detected by the program, Most of important poor scores for early detection program showed in current study at rural area of PHC centers. Conclusions and Recommendation: In spite of the presence of poor indicators, the early detection program services achievement in wassit governorate was acceptable according to the guideline of Iraqi MOH indicators. There is no application for referral and feedback system regarding program’s patients. The current study showed clear deficiency in total information required in early detection records and patients file and there is clear deficiency in different testing for patients that detection by program (laboratory test, ECG, X-ray). Through effective health education, patients can learn primary and secondary prevention strategies, decrease their risk status and make better lifestyle choices in order to optimize their health and wellbeing.


Keywords: Diabetes, Hypertension, Iraq

Inflation, Unemployment and Economic Growth: Evidence from the VAR Model Approach for the Economy of Iraq. (Published)

This study investigates the impact of inflation and unemployment on the economic growth of Iraq. Considering the fact that the majority of the studies on the Phillips Curve have been done in the context of developed economies and on an aggregate level, this study focuses on Iraq, a single developing economy (a disaggregated level) and aims to empirically analyse the impact of Unemployment and inflation on economic growth in the economy of Iraq. The research results indicate that there exist an equilibrium impact between unemployment and inflation in Iraq thereby supporting the validity of the Phillips Curve hypothesis

Keywords: Inflation, Iraq, Philips Curve, Unemployment, VAR Approach, economic growth


General Budget in Iraq relied on oil revenues to finance aspects of spending accounting for a large proportion of between (9497%) of the total public revenues estimated, posing a risk to the overall Iraqi economy to link oil prices, foreign currency and its impact by making the economy of Iraq depends resource and one to get its revenue, while the amount of the contribution of other revenue ranged between percentage (6.3%) of the estimated total public revenues, and decreased tax rate in the state budget over the past years, ranging between (25%) of the total estimated revenue. Since starting the process of economic reform requires activating the role of the sovereign and in particular tax revenues, it has been highlighted on the size of tax revenue and its role in the financing of the budget for the period 2011 until 2013 statement continued reliance on oil revenues, up to the present day.Through this study also measured the tax performance indicators for the period 2004- 2012, which are available data, to measure the effectiveness of the tax system through tax power indicator, the tax burden, tax effort, the income elasticity of taxes, has been shown that there is an untapped tax energy in the Iraqi tax system helps on the possibility of introducing new vessels within the tax structure and the imposition of new taxes

Keywords: Budget, Budget Deficit, Iraq, Taxes


This research is an attempt to link different theoretical concepts about the economic intervention of the state in Iraq, with the support of the historical experience from different countries around the world; focused on selected groups, which serve the considered research objectives. This thesis aims to observe and evaluate: the historical experience of the world in the field of state intervention in the economy, the type of this intervention, the intervention borders, damages or benefits obtained from each historical type of intervention. This research ends with a sound conclusion about the critical need for government intervention, but where and when is subject to discussion. Ergo, it is necessary for the state in Iraq to intervene in economic activities under certain conditions and limits reached by the researcher

Keywords: Economic Intervention, Iraq, Role Of State

The Economic Costs and Consequences of Desertification in Iraq (Published)

This paper focuses on the problem of desertification which Iraq is facing, and which is threatening its food security and affecting its social and economic development. The degrees of desertification have increased to the point where it affects %75 of the total land space of Iraq, and particularly the arable areas. This is due to several causes; some of it is caused by natural circumstances, while others are due to human activities which led to the salinization of the soil, deterioration of the plant cover and formation of sand dunes. This intensified the economic consequences in Iraq, and led to reduce of productivity. The state is burdened with large amounts of money in the reclamation of the deteriorated lands. The immigration from rural areas to cities has increased, poverty has spread and unemployment is rife. It also caused the extinction of many plant and animal species in the period 1990 – 2010. This paper indicates that the cost of combating desertification is around 10.3 – 20.5 billion dollars. This is a huge cost which affects the present and future economic situation that leads to decreases the generations in development and progress

Keywords: Desertification, Economic Costs, Iraq, Salinization