Tag Archives: Iran

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA): Interrogating the Legal Status of JCPOA and Contextualizing the Legal Implication of United States’ Withdrawal (Published)

On 9th May 2018, President Donald Trump pulled the U.S. out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) or Iran Nuclear Deal which is fruit of thirteen years of negotiations between Iran and world powers on Iran’s nuclear program. The JCPOA, since its creation, raised question whether it is a treaty or just a non-binding international instrument. This study is aimed at offering an investigation on this question. After examining all elements of a treaty, we found out that it’s rather a treaty under international law; and, we concluded that as a matter of international law; it is breach of the Article 56 of Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties (VCLT) as well as violation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 (2015); and, therefore, the withdrawal is contrary to international law.

Keywords: International law, Iran, JCPOA, United States, Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Drought on Rural Economy in Iran: A Case Study of Hir County (Published)

In recent years, in some countries, especially Iran, drought as one of the harsh climatic – natural disasters, has had severe impairment directly and indirectly on water reduction and the agricultural and economic variables. Ardabil Province as an agricultural area has not been exempted from that. The purpose of this study is to analyze the economic impact of drought on the economy of rural areas in Hir County. This study is descriptive – analytical in terms of research methods, practical in terms of nature and is a library and field kind of research in terms of the type of data collection. The statistical population consists of 35 villages in Hir County, of which eight were selected for this research using stratified sampling. The tool used in measuring the questionnaire was made by the researcher. Face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts. Pilot study in area similar to the statistical population with a total of 30 questionnaires were performed and with acquired data and use of Cronbach’s alpha formula, the reliability of the questionnaire was obtained at 0.87 in the SPSS software. For data analysis, factor analysis model was used. Also, the results obtained from factor analysis and studying farming and gardening products show that consecutive droughts have inflicted irreparable economic damages on the bodies of the villages in Hir County.

Keywords: Ardabil, Drought Management, Droughts, Iran, Rural Development, Rural Economy, Water Resources Management

The Future of Cooperation of Iran and Russia in the Field Of Security and Defense (Published)

Emergence of transformation in world system followed by the breakdown of the East and the development of the field of collective and individual competitions among the governments in universal and regional levels and development of convergence processes in the behavior of the governments have prepared the requirements of alteration in analytical field and components and geopolitics effectiveness in the 3rd millennium; consequently, Islamic Republic of Iran and Russia Federation reinforce and strengthen mutual security and defensive cooperation based on the perception of their interior and exterior potentials. In fact, these two countries have numerous reasons and motivations for cooperation in the field of security and defense considering common and strategic benefits particularly in the field of Caspian Sea, Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Syria; as a result, defensive and security cooperation between Iran and Russia, has a vital and effective role in the strategies of two international and regional powers upon current equations and future transformations of the universe and region in such a way that strategic experts consider it as “a very significant transformation”, “initiation of basic alterations” and “the beginning of a novel structure in the middle east”; consequently, the current research tends to assess pleasant, possible and probable scenarios in the relation of the mentioned countries while re-identifying defensive and security cooperation between Iran and Russia.     

Keywords: Futures Studies, Iran, Russia, Scenarios, the Defense and Security Cooperation

Iranian Lifestyle Reflection in Six adolescent’s Novels (Published)

In most novels for teens in Iran, one or more major or minor characters of the story are adolescents who each have their own speech and behavior. It seems that the authors pay attention to Iranian life style in the novels primarily to draw attention of adolescents to the text and secondary to reflect Iranian life style in their text. In this paper, lifestyle of teenage characters in the text of teenage novels during 2010– 2012 based on the pattern of Iranian lifestyles is analyzed with regard to the four indexes (traditional, leisure, cultural and managerial-care). The findings of the content analysis show that all indexes of Iranian life style are noted in young adult novels, and the most attraction was directed to the traditional index. In addition, the use of indices between girls and boys is different in the novels.


Keywords: Adolescent, Gender, Iran, Lifestyle, children’s literature, novel

An Analysis on the Effective Factors on Success Rural Production Cooperatives in Iran, The Case Study – Ardabil Province (Published)

This paper aims to investigate the factors affecting success of rural production cooperatives in the province of Ardabil. The population of this research contains all active companies in the province of Ardabil that their numbers are 1615 cases, statistic sample is 173, 521 people were selected studied. Examples of the towns to fit the volume of statistical community each of the towns to estimate the whole society. The research tool questionnaire is made by researcher achieved Face validity asked by the panel of experts. Study in the region was same to statistical community with the number of 30 questionnaire and business with data and the use of the special formula Alpha in SPSS software, reliability questionnaire 0/84 research obtained to analyze the data, and on the other hand, the measure of success of rural production cooperatives factor analysis model used and the results of the model shows the most important factors affecting success in rural areas, including four components (strengthening social capital and external environment reablation , cognitive capacities enhance of numbers , improving the management of the and health factors working environment and strengthen economic foundations) that variance and cumulative variance sums planned by these four factors is 71/19.

Keywords: Agriculture Development, Ardebil Province, Cooperatives Production Success, Iran, Rural Development


Organizational culture and organizational innovativeness are viewed as important factors for improving the organizational effectiveness in institutions of higher education. The aim of this study was to examine the correlations among organizational culture, organizational innovativeness and organizational effectiveness. Moreover, the mediating role of organizational innovativeness between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness was studied.The method used in the study was survey research. Based on the cluster sampling method, all full time faculty members from five branches of Islamic Azad University (IAU), Pars Province, Iran, were included in the sample of the study. The number of respondents was 369 participants. For measuring variables, three questionnaires were employed. The findings indicated that the adhocracy culture, market culture and clan culture were found to have significant positive correlations with organizational innovativeness and organizational effectiveness. However, hierarchy culture showed no significant relationship with either organizational innovativeness or organizational effectiveness. Additionally, organizational innovativeness partially mediated the relationships among clan, adhocracy and market cultures with organizational effectiveness.Therefore, organizational culture not only directly influences both innovativeness and effectiveness but also influences effectiveness through innovation. The university administrators should be aware of the benefits from the implementation of a culture that supports innovation in order to assure the effectiveness of universities.

Keywords: Adhocracy culture, Clan culture, Hierarchy Culture, Innovation, Iran, Market culture

The Occurrence and sting of Velvet ant, Dentilla sp (Hymeneoptera: Mutillidae) in central of Iran (Review Completed - Accepted)

Velvet ants have been considered as pests due to their sting and nuisance. This venomous arthropod is considerably important all over the world. This study conducted for better identification and medically importance of this species particularly in Kashan. The live adult velvet ant specimens were collected from Kashan city using hand catch method. After collection they were transferred to the laboratory during summer of 2010 to 2013. They were identified based on morphological characteristics using taxonomic keys and then confirmed by expert entomologist. Cases of the stung with pain and sever itching were also monitored. The results confirmed occurrence of the velvet ant from the central Iran. A total of 248 female and male specimens were collected. 84% of them were found wingless and the rest had wings. They were observed and collected in bedrooms and living rooms, under carpets, and carpet edges. The people stung were suffering from sharp pain, intense itching, and redness at the sting site.The velvet ants were observed for the first time in May 2010 in Kashan. Subsequently, they were collected from 2011 to 2013. We recommend further investigation on the biology and biodiversity of the species in the region and possible measurement to reduce their nuisance against human being and maybe animals.

Keywords: Dentilla, Emerging, Iran, Mutilidae, Velvet ants