The chain of influence between government, retail, and consumers is immense and takes different forms. The growth of the internet, specifically social media, has amplified the chain of influence. Governments influence on social media retail businesses, which influences the manner in which retailers influence their consumers. The chain of influence may come from either way and may begin with consumers or retailers to influence the government. However, the government`s engagement in social media has been in different forms, including governments as participants, governments as a regulator and government as an investor. Either of these approaches influence the manner in which the retail sector engages its consumers. This paper explores government policies that impact social media in the retail business. First, it will explore the influence of social media on retailers. It is then that government policies can be built on these influences to determine the chain of influence. The paper will consider issues of taxation, consumer rights, laws of quality, and government`s infrastructure policies.
This paper evaluate and compare the performance of different categories of Pakistani mutual funds, during seven year from 2004 to 2011.Mutual funds’ performance were analyzed using various evaluation techniques; Sharpe, Treyno, Jensen’s alpha, Sortino, Information/Appraisal ratio, Fama overall performance and performance attribution analysis. The findings suggest that performance of the mutual funds measured with first five methods, does not satisfy investors’ expectations based on the risk and return, mutual funds significantly under-perform the market. Those mutual funds analyzed with the last two methods, are not offering complete diversification thus managers fell short of matching expectations consistent with the actual risk level of portfolio, they have also not made active decision involving both in allocation of assets and in selection of individual security. This study facilitates the managers and investors in taking effective investment decisions by measuring the performance of funds they can allocate resources more efficiently in future.